Aṅguttara Nikāya – Book of Gradual Sayings

10. Dasakanipāta – 9. Book of Tens

NOTE: All statements in these suttas, unless otherwise noted, are made by the Buddha addressing the monks at Jetavana in Sāvatthi. These are included within quotation marks: "...". Sections within curly brackets {...} are comments notes and further explanations by the author of these abstracts. Other statements give general information usually within square brackets [...]. Each sutta in this Book deals with ten items. They are usually numbered here (1 ... 10) though not in the original Pali text.]

1. Paṭhamapaññāsaka – 1. The first Fifty

1. Ānisaṃsavagga – 1. Rewards

[1] 1. The object.. (Kimattiyasutta) Once venerable Ananda asked the Buddha: "What is the object and the reward for good conduct ?" The Buddha answered: "It leads to remorse which leads to joy, which leads to rapture, which leads to calm, which leads to happiness, which leads to concentration, which leads to seeing things as they are, which leads to revulsion, which leads to release by knowing which is the final profit [of good conduct]."

[2] 2. Volition. (Cetaākaraṇīyasutta) "Monks, for a virtuous person remorse arises with no deliberate volition. So also arises the other states mentioned in the previous sutta arise succesively until release by knowing."

[3] 3. Without cause 1. (Paṭhamaupanisasutta) "Monks, for an immoral man remorse does not exist. So also do not exist the other states mentioned in suttas 1 and 2."

[4] 4. Without cause 2. (Dutiyaupanisasutta) Same as sutta 3 this time given by Sariputta. br>
[5] 5. Without cause 3. (Tatiyaupanisasutta) Same as sutta 3 this time given by Ananda.

[6] 6. Concentration. (Samādhisutta) Once venerable Sāriputta came to the Buddha and said that a bhikkhu who has won concentations may feel that in earth he is unaware of earth. So also when in the following states he will be unaware of them: water, fire, air, infinity of space, infinity of consciousness, nothingness, neither perception nor non-perception; this world, and other world. The Buddha agreed with this and said: "Such a bhikkhu knows these: what is real and best, the calming activity, the rejection of substrates, the ending of craving, and nibbāna."

[7] 7. Sāriputta. (Sāriputtasutta) Here venerable Sariputta relates to venerable Ananda what he had told the Buddha in the previous sutta.

[8] 8. The jhānas. (Jhānasutta) "Monks, if a bhikkhu is endowed with these ten qualities he is altogether charming and complete in every attribute: (1 - 10) faith; learning; a speaker of Dhammma; frequenter of assemblies; teaches Dhamma to assemblies; disciplined; resorts to remote lodgings; gains at will the four jhānas; a destroyer of the intoxicants; achieves liberation of the mind."

[9] 9. Bliss (Santavimokkhasutta) Same as last sutta replacing the last three qualities with: experiences the formless deliverances; pass beyond objective forms; destroy the intoxicants.

[10] 10. Knowledge. (Vijjāsutta) Same as last two suttas replaoing the last four qualities with: recall his former dwelling in divers ways; aquire deva-sight; see beings going according to their deeds; destroys the intoxicants."

2. Nāthavagga – 2. Protection.

[11] 1. Lodging. (Senāsanasutta) "Monks, to realize true knowledge a bhikkhu should: (1 - 5) have faith in the Tathāgata; be seldom ill or afflicted; be honest and open; be endowed with energy; be wise. His lodging should be: (6 - 10) not too far from or too close to whence alms could be obtained; not disturbed by people in the day and calm at night; have little contact with flies and mosquitoes; can easily obtain alms and requsites; a co-dwelling with elder bhkkhus."

[12] 2. Five factors. (Pañchaṅgasutta) "Monks, to be the highest person in Dhamma and discipline a bhikkhu should give uo (1 - 5) sensual desire; ill-will; sloth and torpor; worry; doubt. He should be masterful in: (6 - 10) virtue; concentration; insight, release, wisdom; knowledge of liberation."

[13] 3. Fetters. (Saṃyojanasutta) "Monks, the five fetters pertaining to this world are: (1 - 5) individuality view; doubt; rite-and-ritual; sensual desire; malevolence. the five pertaining to the higher world are: (6 - 10) Lust of form; lust of the formless; conceit; ignorance."

[14] 4. Mental barrenness. (Cetokhilasutta) "Monks, a bhikkhu will decline if these five kinds of mental barrenness are having doubts about (1 - 5) the teacher; the Dhamma; the Order of monks; the training; fellow monks. To avert decline he should do the opposite of these five mental hindrances."

[15] 5. Heedlessness. (Appamādasutta) "Monks, of all beings whether with no feet or having two, four, or many feet the Tathāgata is the chief of all. Similarly of all states heedlessness is the foremost just as: the elephant's footprint contains that of all other creatures; in a peaked house the roof peak unites all rafters; the scent of black gum is considered the sweetest root scent; sandalwood is considered the best wood scent; jasmine is sweetest of all flowers; the universal monarch is the chief of all princes; the radiance of the moon is greater than that of the stars; the sun overshines everything else; the River Ganga is the chief of all rivers."

[16] 6. Worthy of gifts. (Āhuneyysutta) "Monks, the ten persons worthy of gifts and salutation are: (1 - 10) a Tathāgata; an Arahant; a fullly enlightened one; a Pacceka Buddha; one released both ways; one released by insight; one liberated by faith; the Dhamma follower; truly testifying in oneself; one 23 who has won view; rhe clan leader."

[17] 7. Protector 1. (Pṭhamanāthasutta) "Monks, without protection one lives in suffering. These are worthy protectors: (1 - 10) a virtuous bhikkhu; a learned bhikkhu; a good friend; a bhikkhu easy to correct; a skilful and diligent bhikkhu; a Dhama lover; a bhikkhu content with whatever requisites he gets; a bhikkhu with great mindfulness; a wise bhikkhu."

[18] 8. Protector 2. (Dutiyanāthasutta) Same as the previous sutta worded differently.

[19] 9. Ariyan living 1. (Paṭhamaariyāvāsasutta) "Monks, a bhikkhu has lived the Ariyan life if he: (1 - 10) has abandoned five factors; possessed the six factors; has a single guard; observes the four supports; gives up individuality belief; givs up longings; has unclouded thoughts; has a tranquil body; has a mind well released; has insight well released."

[20] 10. Ariyan living 2. (Dutiyaariyāvāsasutta) This is a detailed explanation of the ten factors given in the previous sutta.

3. Mahāvagga 3. The Great Chapter

[21] 1. The Lion's Roar. (Sīhanādasutta) In this sutta the Buddha begins with the roar of the lion which he says signifies that he will not harm small creatures. He then says: "The lion is a term for the Tathāgata. The Tathāgata has these ten powers because of which he sets in motioon the wheel fo Brahma: (1 - 10) He understands what is possible and what is impossible; he understands the working of kamma; he understands the destination of every way; he understands the world with its many ways; he understands the diversity of the disposition of beings; he understans the superiority or inferiority of the faculties of beings; he understands the effect of jhānas and other meditative states; he recollects previous births in detail; with hhis devine eye he sees the karmic destiny of beings; with the destructon of the intoxications he has achieved supreme knowledge and liberation of mind."

[22] 2. Doctrines. (Adhivuttapadasutta) Once the Buddha tolds venerable Ananda: "I can understand the truth or otherwise of any doctrine after considering it carefully. That is why I teach Dhamma which will enable anyone to realise what is real." He then repeated the ten powers of a Tathāgata given in the previous sutta."

[23] 3. Body. (Kāyasutta) "When a bhikkhu has committed something with the body but not with speech his fellow bhokkhus will point this out to him and he sould correct the bodily wrong. Similarly if e were to do something wrong with speech but not body this too will be pointed out by the fellow monks and he should corect it. There are other faults not connected with body or speech, These are due to greed, hatred, delusion, anger, hostility, denigration, insolence, miserliness, and envy. These have to be corrected by developing wisdom."

[24] 4. Cunda. (Mahācunda) Once at Suhajāti the venerable Mahācunda addressed the monks thus: "If a bhikkhu claims to know the Dhamma but is overcome by lust, malice, delusion, wrath, grudge, depreciation, spite, selfishness, and wrongful longing then he has not understood the dhamma he preaches. Or if the monk boasts that he has made great development (bhāvanā in virtue and other attributes it would be vain talk. This is like a poor man boasting about wealth he does not have, or one who boasts about possessions with no property of his own. But a richMahākaccana said some recluses using the water and other devicess man may boast about his wealth and possenstions as he can produce them when it is required. This is not the case with the monk who makes boasful claims about dhamma and virtue."

[25] 5. Kasinas. (Kasiṇasutta) "Monks, there are ten kasinas (or devices) that could be used in meditation above, below, across, undivided, immeasurable. These are the kasinas relating to: (1 - 10) earth; water; fire; air; colour blue-green; colour yellow; colour red; color white; space; consciousness."

[26] 6. Kāli. (Kāḷisutta) Once when venerable Mahākaccana was living among the Avantis the female lay follower Kāli of Kuraraghara asked him: "The Buddha in The Maiden's Questions has said that while meditating alone he had reached his goal and friendship with anyone is not for him. What is the full meaning of this ?" Mahākaccana said that some recluses using the earth, water and other devices have gained much benefit. But the Buddha using the insight device to the utmost found the right Way. This is what he meant in the sermon you refer to."

[27] 7. The Great Questions 1. (Paṭhamamahāpañhāsutta) Once in Sāvatthi some bhikkhus on the alms round met a group of other recluses who asked them "The recluse Gotama tells his disciples that he preaches dhamma; we also tell our disciples that we preach dhamma. What is the difference between Gotama and us ?" The bhhhkkhus made no reply and later related the incident to the Buddha. The Buddha said: "If the other recluses are asked about ten things that they teach they would be out of ther depth. But I preach ten specific things for a bhikkhu to obtainj relief from suffering, namely: (1 - 10) Revulsion about the view that all beings persist only by food; revulsion at Name and Form; the three knowings by sensation; knowledge of the four truths; knowledge about the five grasping groups; knowledge of the six spheres of the self; knowledge of the seven limbs of wisdom; the pursuit of the eightfold way; knowledge of the nine abodes of beings; the Arahant's ten qualities."

[28] 8. The Great Questions 2. (Dutiyamahāpañhāsutta) Inn this sutta the 10 questions raised by the Buddha in the previous sutta are related by the bhikkhuni of Kajangala to here decisples with some changes.

[29] 9. Kosala 1. (Paṭhamakosalasutta) In this sutta the Buddha deals with a ten topics with all of which the Ariyan disciple is disenchanted and feels repulsion. These are: (1) The Kingdom of Kosala ruled by King Pasanedi. But his kingdom will change and the noble disciple will feel revulsion because of this. (2) This deals the Buddha's cosmology of the thousand-fold world system with thousands of moons, suns, continents, rulers, heavens, and gods with Maha-Brahmā as their chief. But the Ariyan deciple feels revulsion at all this. (3) The world-system dissolves and new order comes into being with new beings, the Radiant Devas becoming the chief. The noble disciple feels again revulsion. (4) This deals with the 10 kasinas given in Sutta 25. But change continues and with it revulsion for the Ariyan disciple. (5) This deal with the eight bases of mastery with individuals using one or the other of the different kasinas. But they are incapable of stopping change and the ariyan disciple remains revolted. (6) This deals with the four modes of progress. These are painful and swift, painful and slow, pleasant and swift, and pleasant and slow. But neither is satisfactory. (7) The four moldes of perception: limited, extensive, immesurable and nothing. But the noble disciple is still disenchanged. (8) Ascetic and Brahmins who hold speculative views. But these views too do not lead to anything definite. (9) Ascetics ande brahmins who procalim supreme purification but cannot go beyond the sphere of neither-peception-nor-non-perception. (10) Ascetics and Brahmins who proclaim nibbāna in this very life but unlike Gotama they do ot base it on non-clinging. So even this too does not please the Ariyan disciple.

[30] 10. Kosala 2. (Dutiyakosalasutta) Once King Pasanedi of Kosala went in search of the Buddha and was directed to thr place where the Buddha was staying. When he got there he fell at the feet of the Buddha and and worshipped him. Then the Buddha asked: "Why do you though a maharāja pay this much reverance to me ?". Then Pasanedi gave these reasons: (1 - 10) "Preaching the Dhamma for the welfare of the many; practicing virtue, mature behaviour, and wholesome conduct ; being a forest dweller; being content with basicd needs; being worthy of gifts and hospitality; talking about the austere life; easily achieving the four jhānas; recollecting pat lives; seeing the working of kamma with the divine eye; achieving liberation of mind by destroying the intoxicants and gaining the liberating knowledge."

4. Upālivagga 4.On Upāli

[31] 1. Upāli. (Upālisutta) Once venerable Upali approacvhed the Buddha and asked: "Why was the Patimokka (Obligatory rules) imposed on bhikkus ?" The Buddha said: "For these reasons: (1 - 10) ) For the well-being of the Order; for the ease of the bhikkhus; for keeping recalcitrant nonks in check; so that well-behaved bhikkhus can dwell at ease; for for protetion against the intoxicants j the future life; to gain confidence for those without it; for increasin the cnfidence of those with some of it; for the continuation of the good Dhamma; for promoting discipline."

[32] 2. (Pātimokkhaṭṭhapanāsutta)

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