Aṅguttara Nikāya – Book of Gradual Sayings

10. Dasakanipāta – 10. Book of Tens

All statements in these suttas, unless otherwise noted, are made by the Buddha addressing the monks at Jetavana in Sāvatthi. These are included within quotation marks: "Monks, ...". Sections within curly brackets {...} are comments notes and further explanations by the author of these abstracts. Other statements give general information usually within square brackets [...]. Each sutta in this Book deals with ten items. They are sometimes numbered here (1 ... 10) though not in the original Pali text. In a few it is not possible to assign numbers.]

1. Paṭhamapaññāsaka – 1. The first Fifty

1. Ānisaṃsavagga – 1. Rewards

[1] 1. The object.. (Kimattiyasutta) Once venerable Ananda asked the Buddha: "What is the object and the reward for good conduct ?" The Buddha answered: "It leads to remorse which leads to joy, which leads to rapture, which leads to calm, which leads to happiness, which leads to concentration, which leads to seeing things as they are, which leads to revulsion, which leads to release by knowing which is the final profit [of good conduct]."

[2] 2. Volition. (Cetaākaraṇīyasutta) "Monks, for a virtuous person remorse arises with no deliberate volition. So also arises the other states mentioned in the previous sutta arise succesively until release by knowing."

[3] 3. Without cause 1. (Paṭhamaupanisasutta) "Monks, for an immoral man remorse does not exist. So also do not exist the other states mentioned in suttas 1 and 2."

[4] 4. Without cause 2. (Dutiyaupanisasutta) Same as sutta 3 this time given by Sariputta. br>
[5] 5. Without cause 3. (Tatiyaupanisasutta) Same as sutta 3 this time given by Ananda.

[6] 6. Concentration. (Samādhisutta) Once venerable Sāriputta came to the Buddha and said that a bhikkhu who has won concentations may feel that in earth he is unaware of earth. So also when in the following states he will be unaware of them: water, fire, air, infinity of space, infinity of consciousness, nothingness, neither perception nor non-perception; this world, and other world. The Buddha agreed with this and said: "Such a bhikkhu knows these: what is real and best, the calming activity, the rejection of substrates, the ending of craving, and nibbāna."

[7] 7. Sāriputta. (Sāriputtasutta) Here venerable Sariputta relates to venerable Ananda what he had told the Buddha in the previous sutta.

[8] 8. The jhānas. (Jhānasutta) "Monks, if a bhikkhu is endowed with these ten qualities he is altogether charming and complete in every attribute: (1 - 10) faith; learning; a speaker of Dhammma; frequenter of assemblies; teaches Dhamma to assemblies; disciplined; resorts to remote lodgings; gains at will the four jhānas; a destroyer of the intoxicants; achieves liberation of the mind."

[9] 9. Bliss (Santavimokkhasutta) Same as last sutta replacing the last three qualities with: experiences the formless deliverances; pass beyond objective forms; destroy the intoxicants.

[10] 10. Knowledge. (Vijjāsutta) Same as last two suttas replaoing the last four qualities with: recall his former dwelling in divers ways; aquire deva-sight; see beings going according to their deeds; destroys the intoxicants."

2. Nāthavagga – 2. Protection.

[11] 1. Lodging. (Senāsanasutta) "Monks, to realize true knowledge a bhikkhu should: (1 - 5) have faith in the Tathāgata; be seldom ill or afflicted; be honest and open; be endowed with energy; be wise. His lodging should be: (6 - 10) not too far from or too close to whence alms could be obtained; not disturbed by people in the day and calm at night; have little contact with flies and mosquitoes; can easily obtain alms and requsites; a co-dwelling with elder bhkkhus."

[12] 2. Five factors. (Pañchaṅgasutta) "Monks, to be the highest person in Dhamma and discipline a bhikkhu should give uo (1 - 5) sensual desire; ill-will; sloth and torpor; worry; doubt. He should be masterful in: (6 - 10) virtue; concentration; insight, release, wisdom; knowledge of liberation."

[13] 3. Fetters. (Saṃyojanasutta) "Monks, the five fetters pertaining to this world are: (1 - 5) individuality view; doubt; rite-and-ritual; sensual desire; malevolence. the five pertaining to the higher world are: (6 - 10) Lust of form; lust of the formless; conceit; ignorance."

[14] 4. Mental barrenness. (Cetokhilasutta) "Monks, a bhikkhu will decline if these five kinds of mental barrenness are having doubts about (1 - 5) the teacher; the Dhamma; the Order of monks; the training; fellow monks. To avert decline he should do the opposite of these five mental hindrances."

[15] 5. Heedlessness. (Appamādasutta) "Monks, of all beings whether with no feet or having two, four, or many feet the Tathāgata is the chief of all. Similarly of all states heedlessness is the foremost just as: the elephant's footprint contains that of all other creatures; in a peaked house the roof peak unites all rafters; the scent of black gum is considered the sweetest root scent; sandalwood is considered the best wood scent; jasmine is sweetest of all flowers; the universal monarch is the chief of all princes; the radiance of the moon is greater than that of the stars; the sun overshines everything else; the River Ganga is the chief of all rivers."

[16] 6. Worthy of gifts. (Āhuneyysutta) "Monks, the ten persons worthy of gifts and salutation are: (1 - 10) a Tathāgata; an Arahant; a fullly enlightened one; a Pacceka Buddha; one released both ways; one released by insight; one liberated by faith; the Dhamma follower; truly testifying in oneself; one 23 who has won view; rhe clan leader."

[17] 7. Protector 1. (Pṭhamanāthasutta) "Monks, without protection one lives in suffering. These are worthy protectors: (1 - 10) a virtuous bhikkhu; a learned bhikkhu; a good friend; a bhikkhu easy to correct; a skilful and diligent bhikkhu; a Dhama lover; a bhikkhu content with whatever requisites he gets; a bhikkhu with great mindfulness; a wise bhikkhu."

[18] 8. Protector 2. (Dutiyanāthasutta) Same as the previous sutta worded differently.

[19] 9. Ariyan living 1. (Paṭhamaariyāvāsasutta) "Monks, a bhikkhu has lived the Ariyan life if he: (1 - 10) has abandoned five factors; possessed the six factors; has a single guard; observes the four supports; gives up individuality belief; givs up longings; has unclouded thoughts; has a tranquil body; has a mind well released; has insight well released."

[20] 10. Ariyan living 2. (Dutiyaariyāvāsasutta) This is a detailed explanation of the ten factors given in the previous sutta.

3. Mahāvagga 3. The Great Chapter

[21] 1. The Lion's Roar. (Sīhanādasutta) In this sutta the Buddha begins with the roar of the lion which he says signifies that he will not harm small creatures. He then says: "The lion is a term for the Tathāgata. The Tathāgata has these ten powers because of which he sets in motioon the wheel fo Brahma: (1 - 10) He understands what is possible and what is impossible; he understands the working of kamma; he understands the destination of every way; he understands the world with its many ways; he understands the diversity of the disposition of beings; he understans the superiority or inferiority of the faculties of beings; he understands the effect of jhānas and other meditative states; he recollects previous births in detail; with hhis devine eye he sees the karmic destiny of beings; with the destructon of the intoxications he has achieved supreme knowledge and liberation of mind."

[22] 2. Doctrines. (Adhivuttapadasutta) Once the Buddha tolds venerable Ananda: "I can understand the truth or otherwise of any doctrine after considering it carefully. That is why I teach Dhamma which will enable anyone to realise what is real." He then repeated the ten powers of a Tathāgata given in the previous sutta."

[23] 3. Body. (Kāyasutta) "When a bhikkhu has committed something with the body but not with speech his fellow bhokkhus will point this out to him and he sould correct the bodily wrong. Similarly if e were to do something wrong with speech but not body this too will be pointed out by the fellow monks and he should corect it. There are other faults not connected with body or speech, These are due to greed, hatred, delusion, anger, hostility, denigration, insolence, miserliness, and envy. These have to be corrected by developing wisdom."

[24] 4. Cunda. (Mahācunda) Once at Suhajāti the venerable Mahācunda addressed the monks thus: "If a bhikkhu claims to know the Dhamma but is overcome by lust, malice, delusion, wrath, grudge, depreciation, spite, selfishness, and wrongful longing then he has not understood the dhamma he preaches. Or if the monk boasts that he has made great development (bhāvanā in virtue and other attributes it would be vain talk. This is like a poor man boasting about wealth he does not have, or one who boasts about possessions with no property of his own. But a richMahākaccana said some recluses using the water and other devicess man may boast about his wealth and possenstions as he can produce them when it is required. This is not the case with the monk who makes boasful claims about dhamma and virtue."

[25] 5. Kasinas. (Kasiṇasutta) "Monks, there are ten kasinas (or devices) that could be used in meditation above, below, across, undivided, immeasurable. These are the kasinas relating to: (1 - 10) earth; water; fire; air; colour blue-green; colour yellow; colour red; color white; space; consciousness."

[26] 6. Kāli. (Kāḷisutta) Once when venerable Mahākaccana was living among the Avantis the female lay follower Kāli of Kuraraghara asked him: "The Buddha in The Maiden's Questions has said that while meditating alone he had reached his goal and friendship with anyone is not for him. What is the full meaning of this ?" Mahākaccana said that some recluses using the earth, water and other devices have gained much benefit. But the Buddha using the insight device to the utmost found the right Way. This is what he meant in the sermon you refer to."

[27] 7. The Great Questions 1. (Paṭhamamahāpañhāsutta) Once in Sāvatthi some bhikkhus on the alms round met a group of other recluses who asked them "The recluse Gotama tells his disciples that he preaches dhamma; we also tell our disciples that we preach dhamma. What is the difference between Gotama and us ?" The bhhhkkhus made no reply and later related the incident to the Buddha. The Buddha said: "If the other recluses are asked about ten things that they teach they would be out of ther depth. But I preach ten specific things for a bhikkhu to obtainj relief from suffering, namely: (1 - 10) Revulsion about the view that all beings persist only by food; revulsion at Name and Form; the three knowings by sensation; knowledge of the four truths; knowledge about the five grasping groups; knowledge of the six spheres of the self; knowledge of the seven limbs of wisdom; the pursuit of the eightfold way; knowledge of the nine abodes of beings; the Arahant's ten qualities."

[28] 8. The Great Questions 2. (Dutiyamahāpañhāsutta) Inn this sutta the 10 questions raised by the Buddha in the previous sutta are related by the bhikkhuni of Kajangala to here decisples with some changes.

[29] 9. Kosala 1. (Paṭhamakosalasutta) In this sutta the Buddha deals with a ten topics with all of which the Ariyan disciple is disenchanted and feels repulsion. These are: (1) The Kingdom of Kosala ruled by King Pasanedi. But his kingdom will change and the noble disciple will feel revulsion because of this. (2) This deals the Buddha's cosmology of the thousand-fold world system with thousands of moons, suns, continents, rulers, heavens, and gods with Maha-Brahmā as their chief. But the Ariyan deciple feels revulsion at all this. (3) The world-system dissolves and new order comes into being with new beings, the Radiant Devas becoming the chief. The noble disciple feels again revulsion. (4) This deals with the 10 kasinas given in Sutta 25. But change continues and with it revulsion for the Ariyan disciple. (5) This deal with the eight bases of mastery with individuals using one or the other of the different kasinas. But they are incapable of stopping change and the ariyan disciple remains revolted. (6) This deals with the four modes of progress. These are painful and swift, painful and slow, pleasant and swift, and pleasant and slow. But neither is satisfactory. (7) The four moldes of perception: limited, extensive, immesurable and nothing. But the noble disciple is still disenchanged. (8) Ascetic and Brahmins who hold speculative views. But these views too do not lead to anything definite. (9) Ascetics ande brahmins who procalim supreme purification but cannot go beyond the sphere of neither-peception-nor-non-perception. (10) Ascetics and Brahmins who proclaim nibbāna in this very life but unlike Gotama they do ot base it on non-clinging. So even this too does not please the Ariyan disciple.

[30] 10. Kosala 2. (Dutiyakosalasutta) Once King Pasanedi of Kosala went in search of the Buddha and was directed to thr place where the Buddha was staying. When he got there he fell at the feet of the Buddha and and worshipped him. Then the Buddha asked: "Why do you though a maharāja pay this much reverance to me ?". Then Pasanedi gave these reasons: (1 - 10) "Preaching the Dhamma for the welfare of the many; practicing virtue, mature behaviour, and wholesome conduct ; being a forest dweller; being content with basicd needs; being worthy of gifts and hospitality; talking about the austere life; easily achieving the four jhānas; recollecting pat lives; seeing the working of kamma with the divine eye; achieving liberation of mind by destroying the intoxicants and gaining the liberating knowledge."

4. Upālivagga -- 4.On Upāli

[31] 1. Upāli. (Upālisutta) Once venerable Upali approached the Buddha and asked: "Why was the Pātimokka (Obligatory rules) imposed on bhikkus ?" The Buddha said: "For these reasons: (1 - 10) ) For the well-being of the Order; for the ease of the bhikkhus; for keeping recalcitrant monks in check; for well-behaved bhikkhus can dwell at ease; for for protection against the intoxicants in the future life; to gain confidence for those without it; to increase in the confidence of those with some of it; for the continuation of the good Dhamma; for promoting discipline."

[32] 2. Fitness to judge. (Pātimokkhaṭṭhapanāsutta) Then venerable Upali asked the Buddha: "What qualities should a bhikkhu have to pass judgement on the Pātimokkha ?" The Buddha replied: "These should not sit in the assembly are: (1 - 10) a Pārājika offender; one who pārājika offence is under consideration; one not fully ordained; one whose full ordination is under way; one who has given up the training; one whose training is discussed; an eunuch; one being discussed as an eunuch; a seducer of a bhikkhuni; one suspected of seducing a bhikkhuni."

[33] 3. Full Ordination. (Ubbāhikāsutta) Then venerable Upali asked the Buddha: "What are the qualifications to give full ordination ?" The Buddha replied: "The bhikkhu should be: (1 - 10) virtuous restrained by the Pātimokkha; be learned; be a master of the rules; be a firm disciplinarian; consider both sides of the issue; be skilled in settlement; knows well the issue involved; knows the origin of the issue; knows the cessation of a disciplinary issue; knows the way leding to the cessation of the disciplinary issue."

[34] 4. Full ordination. (Upasampadā) The ten requirements for this are the same as those given in the previous sutta.

[35] 5. Association. (Nissayasuttasutta) Then venerable Upali asked "How many qualities should an associate of a bhikkhu have ?" The Buddha gave the same qualities as in sutta 33.

[36] 6. Novice. (Sāmaṇerasutta) Then venerable Upali asked "How many qualities should a bhikkhu have to be attended by a novice ?" The Buddha gave the same qualities as in sutta 33.

[37] 7. Schism. (Saṅghabhedasutta) Then venerable Upali asked "Is there schism in the Sangha ?" The Buddha said "It occurs when bhikkhus explain: (1 - 10) non-Dhamma as Dhamma; Dhamma as non-Dhamma; non-discipline as discipline; discipline as non-discipline; what has not been stated by the Buddha as having been stated by him; ; what has been stated by the Buddha as not having been stated by him; what has not been practiced by the Buddha as having been practiced by him; what has been practiced by the Buddha as not having been practiced by him; what has not been prescribed by the Buddha as having been prescribed by him; what has been prescribed by the Buddha as not having been prescribed by him."

[38] 8. Concord (Saṅghasāmaggīsutta) Concord in the Sangha occurs when bhikkhus do the opposite of what has been stated in the previous sutta as schismatic.

[39] 9. (Paṭhamaānandasutta) Here venerable Ananda asks the Buddha the same question as asked by venerable Upali in sutta 36 and gets the same answer.

[40] 9. (Dutiyaānandasutta) Here venerable Ananda asks the Buddha the same question as asked by venerable Upali in sutta 37 and gets the same answer.

5. Akkosavagga -- 5. Reviling

[41] 1. Quarrels (Vivādasutta) Once Venerable Upali asked the Buddha: "What is the reason why there are disputes among monks ?". The Buddha gave the same answer as in sutta 37.

[42] 2. Roots 1.(Paṭhamavivādamūlasutta) Venerable Upali asks the Buddha: "How many roots of quarrels are there? " The Buddha says : They arise when bhikkhus: (1 -10) point to a non-offence as offence; offence as a non-offence; call a trivial offence as a grave one; call as grave offence as trivial; call an offence against chastity as no offence; call a non-offence against chastity as an offence; call a partial offence as a complete one; call a complete offence as a partial one; call a pardonable offence as unpardonable; an unpardonable offence as a pardonableon."

[43] 3. Roots 2. (Dutiyavivādamūlasutta) Same as previous sutta.

[44] 4. Kusināra. (Kusinārasutta) Once at Kusināra the Buddha addressed the monks: "A bhikkhu reproving another should first see if he posseses: (1 - 5) flawless bodily behaviour; pure verbal behaviour; established a mind of loving kindness; much learning; followed the Pātimokka. And then he should resolve to speak ( 6 - 10) at the propertie; truthfully; gently; in a beneficial way; with a mind of loving -kindness."

[45] 5. Entering a royal court. (Rājantepurappavesanasutta) "A bhikkhu entering a royal court has these disadvantages: (1 - 10) being mistaken for flirting wih the Queen; be accused of impregnating some woman; be accused of stealing the royal jewels; mistaken for pretending to be a royal; advising the king to promote someone; advising the king to demote someone; advising the king to despatch the army; advising the king to recall the army; making a disturbance with the royal elephants. horses and chariots."

[46] 6. Sākyans (Sakkasutta) Once in the Sakyan territory the Buddha asked a group his followers if they kept the uposata (Sabbath) with all its eight requirements. The replied that sometimes they did and sometimes did not. The Buddha said: "This is a loss and misfortune for you." He then through a dialectical conversation made the Sakyans admit that if a man earns a little money a day, or a great deal of money a day, or amasses a great amount of wealth over a long period he will not have happiness if he indulges in lust or things impermanent. Then the Buddha said : "If a follower of mine lives as I have advised for some period of time, months or years, he could become a once returner, non-returner, a stream winner, or winner of security. But if he follow the uposata sometimes and sometimes not it would be ill-gotton of him." Then the Sakyans agreed to keep the Uposatha In all its eight requirements.

[48] 7. Mahāli. Mahāli, (Mahālisutta) In Sāvatthi the Licchavi Mahāli asked the Buddha: "What is the cause of evil action and good action ?" The Buddha answered: "The causes of bad kamma are: greed, hate, delusion, not paying proper attention, and wrong direction of mind. Their opposites are the causes of good action. It is because of these ten that there is bad and good action in the world."

[48] 8. Monk's concerns. (Pabbajitaabhiṇhasutta) "Monks, a bhilkkh who has gone forth must constantly remember that: (1 - 10) he is classless; his living depends on others; his deportment should be diferent; he must reproach himself regarding his virture; his my fellows should reproach him regarding virtue; he must be separated from everyone dear to him; he is the owner of his kamma; how he spends his nights and days; question if he has any superhuman distinctions."

[49] 9. Inherent in bodt.#7789;ṭhadhammasutta) "Monks, these are inherent in the body: cold, heat, hunger, thirst, evacuation, urination, The Budhha restraint of body, restraint of speech, restraint of living, re-becoming. "

[50] 10. Strife (Bhaṇḍanasutta) Once in Savatthi the bhikkhus after the arms-round and their meal begain quarrelling arguing. The Buddha came to visit them and was told what was going on. The Buddha then admonished them giving these principles of cordiality. Bhikkhus should: (1 - 10) be of good conduct governed by the Pātimokkha; be learned mentally investigating what they have learnt; have good friends and comrades; be easy to correct; be skilful and deligent; love the Dhamma; be energetic in cultivating wholesome qualities; be contented with robes and othe requisites; be mindful; be wise. "

2. Dutiyapaññāsaka – 2. The second Fifty

6. Sacittavagga -- 6. One's own mind

[51] 1. One's own mind. (Sacittasutta) s, those who are not skilled on the minds of others should know their won mind. In a self examination of one's mind one must consider one is: ( 1 - 10) with or without longing; with or without ill will; often not overcome by dullness and drowsiness; restless or calm; plagued by doubt or not; often angry or not; with or without defiled mind; with or without bodily agitation; lazy or energetic; unconcentrated or concentrated."

[52] 2. Sāriputta.(Sāriputtasutta) In this sutta venerable Sāriputta gives the same discourse as is given by the Buddha in the previous sutta.

[53] 3. Standing still.(Ṭhitisutta) "Monks, I praise neither decline nor stand still in wholesome qualities but only their growth. For their to be growth there should be faith, virtuous behaviour, learning, renunciation, wisdom, and discernment." He then repeated the qualities given in sutta 51.

[54] 4. Serenity (Samathasutta) This sutta repeats the qualities given in sutta 51 on self-examination one's mind more positively.

[55] 5. Decline. (Parihānasutta) Venerable Sāriputta addressed the bhikkhus thus: "The Buddha has said that a bhikkhu is in decline if he does not listen to new teachings or does not understand previous teachings, if he does not understand his own mind [as in sutta 51], he does not delight in the Dhamm, does not win peace of mind." He then repeated much of what the Buddha saidj sutta 53.

[56] 6. Perceptions 1. (Paṭhamasaññ#257;sutta) "Monks, the perceptions that when developed will lead to the Deathless are the perception of: (1 - 10) the foul; death; the repulsiveness in food; distaste for the world; impermanence; ill in impermanence; not-self; abndoning; fading; ending."

[57] 7. Perceptions 2. (Dutiyasaññāsutta) the same as previous sutta with some perceptions replaced by those of worms, of discoloured, fissured and swollen corpse.

[58] 8. Roots. (Mūlakasutta) "Monks, wanderers of other sects may ask you these regarding the roots of things: (1 - 10) what they are; how they come into being; from what they originate; upon what they converge; by what are they headed; what exercises authority over them; what is their supervisor; what is their core; where do they culminate; what is their consummation. Then you should answer that all things (1 - 10) are rooted in desire; they come into being through attention; they originate from contact; they converge upon feeling; they are headed by concentration; mindfulness exercises authority over them; wisdom is their supervisor; liberation is their core; they culminate in the deathless; their consummation is nibbana."

[59] 9. Going forth. (Pabbajjāsutta) "Monks, you should train yourself according to the spirit of your going forth. Your minds will know: (1 -10) impermanence; non-self; unattractiveness; danger; the ways of the world; the arising and extermination of the world; the origin and passing away of of things; abandoning; dispassion; cessation. Then one of two fruits is can be expected, either full liberation in this life or if some remnants remain the fruit of non-returning."

[60] 10. Girimānanda. (Girimānandasutta) Once the venerable Girimānanda was sick and aioling from a sore discease. They venerable Ananda conveyed this to the Buddha.Then the Buddha toasld Ananda if he were to visit the sick Girimananda and recite to him ten ideas he may recover. These were: (1 - 10) the perception of impermanence; the perception of non-self; the perception of unattractiveness; the perception of danger; the perception of abandoning; the perception of dispassion; the perception of cessation; the perception of non-delight in the world; the perception of impermanence in all conditioned phenomena; mindfulness of breathing. The Buddha explaind each of these ideas and Ananda went to Girimānanada and recited them as instructed. Then Girimānanada recovered from his illness.

7. Yamakavagga -- 7. The Pairs

[61]. Ignorance. (Avijjāsutta) "Monks, ignorance is conditioned by other factors. Initially it is conditioned by the five hindrances. This is conditioned by the three wrong practices, this by non-restraint of sense faculties, this by lack of mindfulness, this by lack of mind work, this by lack of faith, this by not listening to true Dhamma and this by not following the correct person (asappuriso)". The Buddha then gives a comparison of rain falling on a mountain flowing through various intermediaries until it reaches the open ocean."

[62] 2. Craving. (Ḍtaṇhāsutta) In this suttta the Buddha says that craving is due to ignorance which in turn is due to the factors given in the previous sutta.

[63] 3. Certain. (Niṭṭhaṅgatasutta) "Monks, all who come to me are endowed with right view. Of these five gain the goad in this word itses. These are: (1 - 5) the one who attains in less than seven times; the family to family goer; the one-seed attainer; the once-returner; Arahant. These five attain after they have left this life: (6 - 10) mid-way attainer; the attainer of Nibbana upon landing; the attainer of nibbana without exertion; the attainer of Nibbana through exertion; the one bound to the Akanittha realm."

[64] 4. Unwavering. (Aveccappasannasutta) "Monks, all who have faith in me are stream-winners. Ten of these are divided into two groups of each as in the previous sutta.

[65] 5. Samandakani 1. (Paṭhamasukhasutta) Once at Nakalagamaka the wanderer Samanadani came to Sāriputta and asked: "What is suffering; what is happiness ?" Sariputta answ4ered: "Rebirth is suffering; non-rebirth is happiness."

[66] 6. Samandakani 2. (Dutiyasukhasutta) Here Samandakani asks venerable Sāriputta the same question as in the previous sutta. This time Sariputta said that where there is discontent there is suffering, while the monk who contemplates alone in the forest finds happiness.

[67] 7. Nalakapana 1. (Paṭhamanasakapānasutta) Once at Nakalapana among the Kosalans the Buddha in the evening addressed the monks well into the night. Then being tired he lay down to sleep asking venerable Sāriputta to continue the discourse. Sāriputta said: "Whosoever does not have faith in wholesome qualities, moral shame, moral dread, energy , and wisdom will decline like the moon in its declining phase. But whosoever has faith in good friendship, moral shame, moral dread, energy, wisdom, no anger, no hostility, no evil desires and holds right view will grow as the moon inn the bright phase." Then the Buddha spoke again endorsing all that Sāriputta had said.

[68] 8. Nalakapana 2. (Dutiyanaḷakapānasutta) This is similar to the previous sutta with the Buddha addressing the bhikkhus at Nakalapana and after some time calling on Sāriputta to continue. Sāriputta continues in the same way as in the previous sutta and is endorsed by the Buddha.

[69] 9. Discussion topics 1. (Paṭhamakathāvatthusutta) Here the monks after the alms round and their meal sat around talking aimless talk about kings, food and similar matters. The Buddha head of this and gossip. The Buddha heard of this and advised the bhikkhus to desist from such useless and frivolous matters, and speak on ten subjects, which are: (1 - 10) fewness of desires; contentment; solitude; not being tied up with others; arousing energy; virtuous behaviour; concentration; wisdom; liberation, knowledge and vision of liberation.

[70] 10. Discussion topics 2. (Dutiyakathāvatthusutta) This is s detailed exposition of the ten topics of conversation given in the previous suttta.

8. Ākaṅkhavagga -- 8. Wishes

[71]. 1. Wishing. (Ākaṅkhasutta) "Monks, bhikkhus should live proficient in virtue, restrained by the Pātimokka, practicing good conduct, seeing even the most minute fault, and undertaking the precepts, and resorting to lonely huts. If he has any wish the bhikkhu should first see if he has been living virtuously as stated. In particular if he has the following wishes 'May that: (1 - 10) I be agreeable to my fellow monks; I gain alms and other requisites; those whose requisites I use be of great fruit and benefit; my deceased relatives remember me with confidence; I be content with the requisites I get; I patiently endure cold, heat, hunger, flies, serpents and similar; I vanquish discomfort and delight; I vanquish fear and terror; I gain at will the jhānas and the higher mind; I destroy the intoxicants and gain full liberation in this very life'."

[72] 2. Thorns. (Kaṇṭakasutta) Once in Vesali at the in the Great Wood the Buddha was staying with a group of bhikkhus which included many senior monks like venerable Cala, Upacala, Kakkata, Katimbha, Nikata, and Katissaha. Then a group of Liccavi youths came to the Wood making a great noise. Then the notable monks went to the Gosinga Wood because of the noise. When the Buddha came looking for the senior monks he was told what had happened. The Buddha approved their action saying; "Noise is a thorn to one delighting in guarding the sense faculties and engaging in the jhanas.  Consorting with womenfolk, lust, malice and delusion also are thorns".

[73] 3. Desirable. (Iṭṭhadhammasutta) "Monks, these are desirable and charming things: (1 - 10) Wealth; beauty; health; virtues; the Brahma-life; friends; much knowledge; wisdom; teachings; the heavens."

[74] 4. Growth. (Vaḍḍhisutta) "Monks, An Aryan disciple grows nobly absorbing the essence and best of life by growing in (1 - 10) (1) fields and land; wealth and grain; wives and children; slaves, workers, and servants; livestock; faith; virtue; learning; generosity; wisdom. "

[75] 5. Migasālā. (Migasālāsutta) Once in Sāvatthi venerable Ananda went to the house of the (female) lay disciple Migasālā after being invited for alms. After the meal Migasālā asked: "How is it that the Buddha had said that both my father Purana who led the Brahma life and my uncle Isidatta who did not both were once returners and were reborn in the Tusita heaven ?" Ananda told her that what the Buddha said had to be accepted and he then left. Later when he saw the Buddha he related this incident. The Buddha said: "Migasālā is a foolish woman with a woman's wit who cannot say who is superior and who is inferior. I or someone like me only can pass judgement on the ate of peope. There are these ten kinds of people: (1) The immoral person with no knowledge of liberation who after death declines. (2) The immoral person with some knowledge of liberation who achieves temporary liberation and after death improves. (3) The virtuous person but who does not have any knowledge of liberation who after death does not improve but decline. (4) The virtuous person who understands liberation and achieves temporary liberations and improves after death. (5) The person who is strongly inclined to lust and does not understand libration and after death deteriorates. (6) The person who is strongly inclined to lust but understands liberation and thereby ceases lusting. He improves after death. (7) The person who is angry and does not really understand liberation and who heads for deterioration after death. (8) The person who is prone to anger but understands liberation which causes him to give up anger. He improves after death, (9) The person who is restless and does not understand liberation who deteriorates after death. (10) The person who is restless but as a result of some knowledge of liberation is able to overcome his restlessness. He improves after death. In the case of Purana and Isidatta they both were endowed with virtue. But the difference is in their insight into liberation and this explains their destinies after death."

[76] 6. Three states. (Tayodhammasutta) "Monks, in each of these ten situations three things or states are involved: (1) Without birth, old age and death a Tathāgata will not appear. (2) The goal of eliminating birth, old age and death cannot happen without abandoning lust, hatred and delusion. (3) The previous goal cannot be achieved without abandoning personality view, greed and wrong grasp of things. (4) The previous goal cannot be achieved without abandoning careless attention, following a wrong path, and mental sluggishness. (5) The previous goal cannot be achieved without the elimination of muddle-mindedness, lack of clear comprehension, and mental distraction (6) The previous goal cannot be achieved without no desire to see the noble ones, no desire to hear the Dhamma, and a critical mindset. (7) The previous goal cannot be achieved without abandoning restlessness, non-restraint, and immorality, (8) The previous goal cannot be achieved without abandoning lack of faith, uncharitableness, and laziness (9) The previous goal cannot be achieved without abandoning disrespect, being difficult to correct, and bad friendship. (10) The previous goal cannot be achieved without abandoning moral shamelessness, moral recklessness, and heedlessness". Then the Buddha restated these in reverse order.

[77] 7. The crow. (Kākasutta) "Monks, the crow has these qualities which are against the Dhamma: (1 - 10) Destruction; impudence; ravenousness; voraciousness; cruelty; pitilessness; weakness; raucousness; muddle-mindedness; acquisitiveness."

[78] 8. The Nigantas. (Nigaṇṭhasutta) "Monks, the Nigantas have these qualities which are against the Dhamma: (1 - 10) unbelief; immorality; shamelessness; recklessness; having no good friends; exalting themselves and deprecating others; wrongly handling non-religious things; clinging to things; being rogues; having evil desires; having perverse views."

[79] 9. Generating Ill will. (Āghātavatthusutta) "Monks, one can generate ill will he thinks that someone is doing me wrong, has done me wrong, will do me wrong, is doing these things to people dear to me. He can check ill will by thinking of doing good in these situations."

[80] 10. Correcting ill-will (Āghātapaṭivinayasutta) In this sutta the person instead of thinking the things given in the previous sutta actually does these things.

9. Theravagga -- 9. Elder monks

[81]. 1. Bahuna. (Vāhanasutta) ôncde when the Buddha was at Gaggara venerable Bahuna asked him: "With how many states is the Tathāgata detahed that he lives with a mind with no barriers ?" The Buddha replied: "The Tathāgata is released from: (1 - 10) The body (form); feeling; perception; volitional activities; consciousness; birth; old age; death; suffering; defilements. His mind is free like the lotus rising above the water."

[82] 2. Ananda. (Ānandasutta) Once venerable Ananda came to the Buddha and said: "There is no possibility that a bhikkhu with these states can grow and prosper in the Dhamma: (1 - 10) no faith; immorality; little learning; difficult to correct; bad friends; lazy; muddle-minded; not contented; evil desires; wrong view." The Buddha agreed and added that one with opposite states to these will grow in the Dhamma.

[83] 3. Punniya. (Puṇṇiyasutta) Venerable Punniya came to the Buddha and asked: "Why is it that sometimes the Buddha preaches Dhamma to a bhikkhu and sometimes not ?" The Buddha replied that he will not preach to a believing bhikkhu if the bhikkhu: (1 - 10) does not approach him; has little faith; does not attend on him; does not ask questions; does not listen when answered; does not retain the Dhamma in mind; does not examine its meaning; does not understand it; does not practice it correctly; is not a good speaker; does not instruct, encourage, inspire, and gladden his fellow monks, In the opposite situation the Tathāgata will teach Dhamma."

[84] 4. Declaration. (Byākaraṇasutta) Once Mahāmogallāna addressed the bhikkhus thus: "A bhikkhu who has acquired final knowledge declares it thus: 'Destroyed is rebirth, lived is the Brahma-life, done is what should be done, there is no more of life in these conditions.' Then the Tathagata or a disciple who easily attains the jhānas examines the mind of this bhikkhu by his psychic powers and if he find that the bhikkhu is prone to anger, or is hostile, or is prone to denigration, or is insolent, or is envious, or is miserly, or is crafty, or is deceitful, or has evil desires, then he knows that he is on the decline and has something further to be done. Unless he gets rid of these defects his declaration cannot he accepted".

[85] 5. The boaster. (Katthīsutta) Once at Sahajati the venerable Mahācunda addressed the bhikkhus thus: "Suppose a talkative monk claims that he has achieved the four jhānas, the infinity of space, the infinity of consiousness,and the super-normal powers. He is examined by the Tathāgata or his disciple who is an accompliched meditator and jhāna achiever. The boastful monk fails the examination. Then the Tathāgata or his disciple using their own super-normal powers encompass the boaster's mind. They find tha this monk: (1-10) is of flawed conduct; is without faith; is of little learning; is difficuot to correct; has bad friends; is lazy; is muddle-headed; is a deceiver; is difficuot to support; is unwise. He is like a common lier and will decline. But if a monk can avoid these ten defects he can grow and mature in the Dhamma."

[86] 6. Final knowledge. (Adhimānasutta) In this sutta venerable Mahakassapa addressing the monks at Rajagaha gave an example of a bhikkhu who claimed to have achieved final higher knowledge. But when examined by the Tathāgata or his disciple he showed he had the same ten wrong qualities and the monk in the previous sutta. His claim ws rejected.

[87] 7. (Nappiyasutta) "Monks, take the case of the disputacious monk Kalandaka. He promotes disputation not settlement of disputes. He: (1 - 10) makes his own disciplinary rules; does not desire training; has evil desires; is prone to anger; he denigrates fellow monks; is crafy; is deceitful; does not pay attention to tachings; is not inclined to seclusion; does not show hospitality to fellow monks. Even though he may wish 'Let my fellow monks honour, respect and venerate me' he does not get them. But if a monk does the opposite of these qualities he will receive the the honour, respect and veneration of his fellow monks."

[88] 8. Insults. (Akkosakasutta) "Monks, a monk who insults his fellow monk faces at least one of these disasters. He: (1 - 10) does not achieve what he has not yet achieved; falls further away; he has no polished good qualities; overestimates his good qualities; is dissatisfied in his spiritual life; commits defiled offenses; contracts a severe illness; goes mad; dies confused; after death he is reborn in the bad lower plane." br>
[89] 9. The Kolikan. (Kokālikasutta) In this sutta the Kolikan monk accuses venerable Sāriputta and Mahāmoggallāna of being subject to wicked desires. Despite the Buddha's denial of this he continues ot repeat it. Soon postules amdf boils appear on his body which incease in size until he dies and he rises in the Paduma hell. This leads to a discussion with other monks about the length of life in various hells like Abbuda, Nirabbuda, Ababa, Ahaha, Atata, Kumuda, Sogandhika, Uppalaka, and Purldarika, In each of these the torment is for twemty times longer than in the previous. But the Paduma hell has the longest period of torment which is really incalculable. The sutta concludes with the Buddha saying: "Every man that is born has a hatchet within his mouth."

[90] 10. Powers of the liberated monk. (Khīṇāsavabalasutta) In this sutta the Buddha asks venerable Sāriputta what the powers of a monks who had destroyed the intoxicants are. Sāriputta replied; "There are ten powers: (1 - 10) he sees that all conditioned things are impermanent; he sees correctly sensual pleasures as they really are; his mind inclines to seclusion; he develops the four bases of mindfulness; the four right strivings; the four bases for psychic power; the five spiritual faculties; the five powers; the seven factors of enlightenment; the noble eightfold path."

10. Upālivagga -- 10. Upāli

[91]. 1. Sense pleasures. (Kāmabhogīsutta) Once in Sāvatthi the Buddha addressed the householder Anāthapiṇḍika thus: "People who enjoy sensual pleasures can be classified into ten groups as follows: (1) wealth gained unrighteously, are not happy and do not share and do meritorious work. (2) wealth gained unrighteously, are happy and do not share or not do meritorious work. (3) wealth gained unrighteously, are happy and share and do meritorious work. (4) wealth gained unrighteously and righteously, are not happy and do share and do meritorious work. (5) wealth gained unrighteously and righteously, are happy and do not share and not do meritorious work. (6) wealth gained unrighteously and righteously, are happy and do share and do meritorious work. (7) wealth gained righteously, are not happy and share and do meritorious work. (8) wealth gained righteously, are happy and do not share and not do meritorious work. (9) wealth gained righteously, are happy and do share and do meritorious work. (10) Same as group 8. Of these ten groups the one who while enjoying sense pleasures gets his wealth righteously, is happy, shares his wealth with others and does meritorious work is the best,"

[92] 2. Fear. (Bhayasutta) ṭhen the Buddha told the housefather Anāthapiṇḍika: "When the Aryan disciple allays the Five-fold Dread and possesses the Four Limbs of Stream-winning, and penetrates the Aryann Method he can claims that her has cut off rebirth in hell, as an animal or ghost and finished with the lower world." The rest of the sutta describes these three requirements, The Five-fold Dread is the fear of violating the five basic precepts of killing, stealing, carnal wrong-doing, lying, and consuming liquor and the like. The four Limbs of Stream-winning are havin full confidence in the Buddha, in the Dhamma, in the Sangha, and developing the Aryan ethics. The Aryan Method is understanding the the law of causality as given in the doctrine of Dependent Origination from ignorance, to activities, to conscious being, to name-and-form, ti the six senses, to contact, to feeling, to craving, to grasping, to birth and its consequenceViews. s, .

[93] 3. (Kiṃdiṭṭhikasutta) Once on the way to see the Buddha first went to the park of wanderers of other sects. There Anāthapiṇḍika engaged in a discussion with the wanderers. When asked what his views were Anāthapiṇḍika fist asked the wanderers about their views. The wanderers stated their views on the world, the self or soul, the post-death destiny of persons and so on. Anāthapiṇḍika responded that these dogmatic views arise from lack of close thinking. He then explained to the wanderers the law of causality, the law of impermanence, and similar. At this the wanderers fell silent, Anāthapiṇḍika then left them and came to the Buddha and related what had happened. The Buddha congratulated Anāthapiṇḍika on the stand he had taken and said that people like the wanderers should be confuted. He then gave a Dhamma talk to Anāthapiṇḍika.

[94] 4.Vajjiyamahita. (Vajjiyamāhitasutta) Once in Campa the housefather Vajjiyamahita coming to see the Buddha at first went a gathering of wanderers. There a discussion occurred similar to that in the previous sutta between Anāthapiṇḍika and the wanderers. The wanderers claimed that Gotama blames the ascetics. Later Vajjiyamahita related all this to the Buddha. The Buddha then explained his attitude to ascetics: "I say not that all ascetic ways are to be pursued nor the opposite, that every renunciation or release should be or should not be made. I say that unprofitable states decline and profitable states increase."

[95] 5. Uttiya. (Uttiysutta) Once the wanderer Uttiya came to the Buddha and asked: "Is the world eternal, is it not eternal, is it limited, is it unlimited, is the soul the body, is it one thing body another thing, does the Tathagata exist beyond death or not exist, does the whole world escape or only part of it ?" To all these the Buddha said: "I have not said so. I teach dhamma to disciples for the purification of beings, for the ending of sorrow, despair, grief and dejection, for the realization of Nibbāna." Then venerable Ananda thinking that the Uttiya would think Buddha evaded his question on escape gave an analogy. He said if a king so fortifies his kingdom then none can come or go except through a well guarded gate no one can escape. Similarly the Buddha had said that to escape one must abandon the five hindrances, the defilements of the mind, and establish mindfulness and develop the seven limbs of wisdom,"

[96] 6. Koknuda. (Kokanudasutta) Once venerable Ananda was at Rajagaha having gone for a bath at the Tapoda spring when he encountered the wanderer Kokanuda who asked him questions about the world, the soul and destiny of persons after death (as in the three previous suttas), Ananda answered: "The views you have expressed about the world and whether a person exists after death or not are mere dogmatic views and an infatuation, I am one who knows about going to view, fixing on view, relying on view, obsession by view, rising up from view and rooting up view, so why should I profess to such views". Koknuda then asked who Ananda was and when he told him who he was Kokunada apologised for raising such questions with him.

[97] 7. Worshipful. (Āhuneyyasutta) "Monks, a bhikkhu is worshipful, and to whom meritorious gifts can be made should: (1 - 10) be virtuous living by the Patimokkha; be much learned; have good friends; hold right view; wield the various kinds of psychic power; have the divine ear; understand the minds of others; recollect past lives; see how kamma operates; have destroyed the intoxicants and obtained purification of mind."

[98] 8. Elder Bhikkhu. (Therasutta) "Monks, an Elder monk should be (1 - 10) many years senior; virtuous and trained; be learned; be well transmitted in the two Pātimokkhas; be skilled in disciplinary matters; love the Dhamma; be content with robes and other requisites; be gracious; gain easily the four jhānas; be free of the intoxicants and thereby obtained liberation of mind."

[99] 9. (Upālisutta) This long sutta starts with venerable Upali coming to the Buddha and saying that he wants to become a solitary forest monk. The Buddha cautions him and gives the example of a large bull elephant sporting himself in a large lake while a small animal like a hare seeing this jumps into the lake and gets into difficulties. A seeker of solitary forest dwelling can be compared to the small animals. The sutta then describes how a small boy develops into an adult and gets enmeshed in the sensual pleasures of a householder. The sutta then describes how a Tathāgata arises when a householder goes forth into the homeless life. He cultivates the virtues and disciplines needed and finally reaches his goal of being of a Tathāgata. Then under him a bhikkhu order is established and the sutta describes the progress of a bhikkhu within the Sangha. The bhikkhu begins by cultivating the basic precepts of non-killing, taking what is not given, stealing, celibacy, abandons false speech, harsh speech, divisive speech and gossip. He eats once a day, is  content with robes, alms food and other requisites. Then he dwells in the four jhānas. Then he cultivates the bases of the infinity of space and consciousness, Then comes the bases of nothingness and neither-perception-nor-non-perception. Next comes the cessation of perception and feeling, Finally wisdom arises and he destroys the intoxicats and with it achieves full liberation. The Buddha's final instruction to Upali is: "Come, Upali, dwell within the Sangha. While you dwell within the Sangha you will be at ease."

[100] 10. Incapable. (Abhabbasutta) "Monks, these have to be abandoned to become an Arahant: (1 - 10) Lust; hatred; delusion; anger; hostility; denigration; insolence; envy; miserliness; conceit." ten-fold

11. SamaṇasaññBojjhaṅgaāāvagga -- 11. A recluse's ideas

[101]. (Samaṇasaññāsutta) "Monks, An ascetic has these perceptions, the first three leading to the following seven: (1 - 10) I do not belong to a caste; my living depends on others; my deportment is different; virtue govers actions and behaviour; I am without longing; I am without ill will; I am without arrogance; I desire training; use o maintain life; I am energetic."

[102] 2. (Bojjhaṅgasutta) "Monks, the following are the limbs of enlightenment : (1 - 10) mindfulness; discrimination of phenomena; energy; rapture; ranquility; concentration; equanimity; knowledge of past births; the working of kamma; the divine eye; the , which is purified and surpasses tht human . .. he understands how beings fare in accordance witl their kamma; the destruction of the intoxicants. "

[103] 3. Being wrong. (Micchattasutta) "Monks, being wrong leads to failure not success. This comes about by acting wrongly on the eight factors of the Noble Eightfold Path to which have to be added wrong knowledge as the ninth and wrong liberation as the tenth factor." [These 10 items (view, thinking, speech, action, living, effort, mindfulness, concentration, knowledge and release) will be called the Ten-fold, either positively (as right view etc.) or negatively (as wrong view etc.) or as a Path to be pursued or avoided.]

[104] 4. The seed. (Bījasutta) "Monks, wrong view leads to wrong intention, wrong speech, wrong action, wrong livelihood, wrong effort, wrong mindfulness, wrong concentration, wrong knowledge, and wrong liberation," The Buddha then gave the parable of planting a seed from a bitter fruit will lead to a tree that yields bitter fruit.

[105] 5. Knowledge. (Vijjāsutta) Herer thje Buddha tells the bhikkhus that ignorance leds to wrong view and the other factors given in sutta 103 making ten in all..

[106] 6. Wearing away. (Nijjarasutta) Here the Buudha tells the monks that right view wears away wrong view. This happens to the ten facors given in Sutta

[107] 7. Washing away. (Dhovanasutta) This is the same as the previous sutta with 'wearing away' replaced by 'washing away.

[108] 8. Purge. (Tikicchakasutta) "Monks, physicians use a purge in certain sickenssed bu I will teach the Ariyan purge." The Ariyan purge is to get rid of birth and suffering by the use of the ten factors from right view to right liberation given in the sutta 104.

[109] 9. Vomit. (Vamanasutta) This is the same as the previous sutta withe the physician using an emetic instead of a purge and the Ariyan disciple uses the same methd to get rif of suffering .

[110] 10. Ejection (Niddhamanīyasutta) This sutta gives ten things to be ejected. These are the same things that are worn away in sutta 106.

[111] 11. Adept. (Paṭhamaasekhasutta) In this sutta a bhikkhu approaches the Buddha and askes who an adept is. The Buddha says that he is a bhikkhu wh has ejected the ten things given in the previous suta.

[112] 12. (Dutiyasekhasutta) Same as previous sutta.

12. Paccorohaṇivagga -- 12. The Descent

[113] 1. Not-Dhamma 1. (Paṭhamaadhammasutta) "Monks, not dhamma and not aim (anattho) is Wrong view, thinking, speech, action, living, effort, mindfulness, concentration, wrong knowledge and release. Dhamma and aim are the right counterpart of these (right view and so on)."

[114] 2. Not-Dhamma 2. (Dutiyaadhammasutta) The same as the previous with the terms juxtaposed, such as wrong view is not Dhamma etc.

[115] 3. Not-Dhamma 3. (TatiyaAjoitaadhammasutta) Once the Buddha addressed the assembled bhikkhus thus: "Not-Dhamma and not-aim should be understod." Then suddenly the Buddha left the assembly. The Bhikkhus searched for someone to explain the Buddha's brief remark and decided on venerable Ananda. After saying that the bhikkhus should have asked for the detailed meaning from the Buddha himself Ananda gave what the Buddha had said in sutta 113. Later the Bhikkhus went to the Buddha and related what Ananda had said. The Buddha confirmed what Ananda had said adding that Ananda ws a wise person.

[116] 4. Ajita. (Ajitasutta) Once wanderer Ajita came to the Buddha and said: "There is a learned Brahma-farer called a Pandit (paṇḍito) a who knows many ways how to refute those holding different views." The Buddha then called the bhikkhus and described how a person can be called a Pandit. He mentions three situations where a person is considered a Pandit: (1) a person who refutes a not-Dhamma view with a not-Dhamma view; (2) a person who refutes a Dhamma view with a Dhamma view; (3) a person who refutes a not-Dhamma view with a view that is both Dhamma and not-Dhanna; (4) a person who refutes a not-Dhamma view with a Dhamma view. But the real Pandit is the person described by the Buddha in Sutta 113 where right Dhamma is exdplained.

[117] 5. (Saṅgāravasutta) Once the brahmin Sangarava asked the Buddha what is near shore and what is the far shore. The Buddha explained the near shorre is the holding of wrong not-Dhamma and not-aim as explained in sutta 113 and the far shore is the conrary right dhamma and right aim.

[118] 6. Near and far shore. (Orimatīrasutta) "This is the same as the previous sutta which was an answer to the question of Sangarava.

[119] 7. The descent 1. (Paṭhamapaccorohaṇīsutta) On a certain uposata day the brahmin Janussoni was near the Buddha observing some brahmin rituals of purification. He explained them to the Buddha and the Buddha explained the method of the Aryan descip-le. When asked what this was he said: "The Ariyan disciple abandons wrong view, he descends from it and from wrong intent, wrong speech, wrong action, wrong living, wrong effort, and develops mindfulness. concentration. Then he descends from wrong knowledge and wrong release whichleads to evil both in the prsen and in the future." Janussaone agees tha the Ariyan descent is the supeior one and asks to be a lay follower of the Buddha.

[120] 8. The descent 2. (Dutiyapaccorohaṇīsutta) Here the Budddha explains the Ariyan descent is the abanment of the ten-fold path (i.e. the eight fold parth to which are added right knowled and right liberation."

[121] 9. The harbinger. (Pubbaṅgamasutta) "Monks, just as the dawn is the harbinger of the sunrise, so right view is the forerunner of the ten-fold path."

[122] 10. Intoxicants. (Āsavakkhayasutta) "Monks, If the ten-fold path is developed then the intoxicants can be desroyed."

13. Parisuddhavagga -- 13. Purity

[Of the eleven suttas (Nos. 123 - 133) in this Chapter the first ten describe each of the 10 factors in what is called here the ten-fold path, i.e. right view, right intention, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration, right knowledge, and right liberation. The last sutta (133) is a restatement of the names of the ten factors. As they have been explained elsewhere in this Nikāya the brief descriptions given in these suttas are omitted.]

14. Sādhuvagga -- 14. The praiseworthy

[134]. The praiseworthy. (Sādhusutta) "Monks, The praisworthy is the Ten-fold it ems considreed positively (as right view and the rest) and the not-praiseworthy is the ten-fold list consiered negatively (as wrong view and the rest)."

[135] 2. Aryan and unAryan. (Ariyadhammasutta) Same as sutta 134 substituting 'Aryan' for 'praiseworthy' and 'un-Aryan' for 'not-praiseworthy'.

[136] 3. Good and bad.(Akusalasutta) Same as sutta 134 substituting 'good' for 'praiseworthy' and 'bad' for 'not-praiseworthy'.

[137] 4. Aim and not-aim. (Atthasutta) Same as sutta 134 substituting 'aim' for 'praiseworthy' and 'not-aim' for 'not-praiseworthy'.

[138] 5. Dhamma and not-Dhamma. (Adhammasutta) Same as sutta 134 substituting 'Dhamma' for 'praiseworthy' and 'not-Dhamma' for 'not-praiseworthy'.

[139] 6. With intoxication and not. (Sāsavasutta) Same as sutta 134 substituting 'non-inxication' for 'praiseworthy' and 'intoxicatin.' for 'not-praiseworthy'.

[140] 7. Blameworthy and blameless. (Sāvajjasutta) Same as sutta 134 substituting 'blameless' for 'praiseworthy' and 'blameworthy' for 'not-praiseworthy'.

[141] 8. Remorse and non-remorse. (Tapanīyasutta) Same as sutta 134 substituting 'not-remorse' for 'praiseworthy' and 'remorse' for 'not-praiseworthy'.

[142] 9. Growing and declining. (Ācayagāmisutta) Same as sutta 134 substituting 'growing' for 'praiseworthy' and 'declining' for 'not-praiseworthy'.

[143] 10. Suffering and happiness. (Dukkhudrayasutta) Same as sutta 134 substituting 'happiness' for 'praiseworthy' and 'suffering' for 'not-praiseworthy'.

[144] 11. Pain and pleasure. (Dukkhudrayasutta) Same as sutta 134 substituting 'pleasure' for 'praiseworthy' and 'pain' for 'not-praiseworthy'.

15. Ariyavagga -- 15. Noble

[As in the previous Chapter the 10 suttas in this Chapter give pairs of opposite states relating to Dhamma with the good one corresponding to the right Dhamma (the right ten-fold) and the bad one to the wrong Dhamma (wrong ten-fold),] [145] Ariyan and unariyan
[146] Bright way and dark way
[147] True Dhamma and False Dhamma
[148] True man and his opposite
[149] The Dhamma to be aroused and the one not to be aroused
[150] The Dhamma to be followed and the one not to be followed
[151] The Dhamma to be developed and the one not to be developed
[152] The Dhamma to be made much of and the one to be abandoned
[153] The Dhamma to be remembered and the one to be forgotten
[154] The Dhamma to be realized and the one not to be realized

16. Puggalavagga -- 16. Persons

[As in the previous Chapter the 12 suttas in this Chapter give pairs of opposite states relating to individuals with the good one corresponding to the person to be cultivated and the bad one to the person to be avoided,] [155] To be followed and not to be followed
[156] To be resorted and not to be resorted
[157] To be attended on and not to be attended on
[158] To be venerated and not to be venerated
[159] To be praised and not to be praised
[160] To be revered and not to be revered
[161] To be shown deference and not to be shown defference
[162] To be successfuol and to be a failure.
[163] To be purifed and not to be purified
[164] Overcomes conceit and does not do so
[165] Grows in wisdom and does not do so
[166] Generates merit and generates demerit

17. Jāṇussoṇvagga -- 16. Janussoni

[167]. 1. Brahma descent.(Brāhmaṇapaccorohaṇīsutta) The same as sutta 119 in which Janussone having described the brahmins cleansing ceremony asked the Buddha about the Ariyan disciple's cleansing. . The Buddha said: "Becuse they are bad both for the present and future life the Ariyan disciple abandons: (1 - 10) the destruction of life; taking what is not given; sexual misconduct; false speech; divisive speech; harsh speech; idle gossip; longing for things; ill-will; wrong view." He then saus that the opposites of these has to be cleansed.

[168] 2. The Ariyan descent. (Ariyapaccorohaṇīsutta) Same as the cleansing of the Ariyan disciple given in the previous sutta.

[169] 3. Sangarava. (Saṅgāravasutta) Same as sutta 117.

[170] 4. The near shoe (Orimasutta) Tbhe Buddha tells the monks what he had told Sangarava in the previous sutta.

[171] 5. Not Dhamma 1. (Paṭhamaadhammasutta) "Monks, not-Dhamma and not-aim should be understood. Not Dhamma is the taking of life, and the rest."

[172] 6. Not-Dhamma 2. (Dutiyaadhammasutta) This is the same as sutta 115.

[173] 7. Not-Dhamma 3. (Tatiyaadhammasutta) This is the same as the previous sutta.

[174] 8. Cause of Kamma.. (Kammanidānasutta) "Monks, kamma is due to lust, malice and delusion, all three of which start a chain of causation." [This chain is not given in this sutta].

[175] 9. Going all round. (Parikkamanasutta) "Monks, the Dhamma can be approached from all directions."

[176] 10. Cunda. (Cundasutta) Once Cunda the smith approached the Buddha when he was in Pava. The Buddha asked Cunda whose purificaion rites he observes. Cunda answered that it was the brahmin's purification rights that he practiced.. The Buddha then relatd to him the Ariyan disciples purification rites that he had told Janussoni in sutta 167. Cunda was converted and asked to be a lay follower of the Buddha.

[177] 10. Janussoni (Jāṇussoṇisutta) Once Janussoni approached the Buddha and asked him if an offereing made to a dead relative by a brahmin will yield that dead person some profit. The Buddha said that it will not be of profit if the dead person had taken life, done sexual wrong doing, engaged in wrong speech. had wrong view and the rest he will go to hell or be reborn as a (wild) animal or hungry ghost, and will have to subssit on foood of these beings. If he had abstained for them he will be reborn as a human. Asked if there were exception to this the Buddha said that if the wrong doer had also given to recluses and brahmins then he might be born as elephant, horse, cattle, poultry and the like where he would be given food and care by someone.

18. Sādhuvagga -- 18. The good

[This Chapter is similar to Chapter 13 the 10 suttas in this Chapter give pairs of opposite Dhammas with the appropriate consequences for each of them.] [179] Noble and ignoble Dhamma
[180] Wholesome and unwholesome Dhamma
[181] Beneficial and harmful Dhamma
[182] Dhamma and non-Dhamma
[183] Tainted and un-tainted Dhamma
[184] Blameorth and Blameless Dhamma
[185] Tormenting and not-tormenting Dhamma
[186] Dhamma which builds up and that which destroys
[187] Dhamma with suffering and that with happiness
[188] Dhamma leading to suffering and that leadin to happiness

19. Ariyamaggavagga -- 19. The noble way

[This Chapter is the same as Chapter 14 and its 10 suttas (Nos. 189 - 198) are the same as the suttas in that Chapter.]

20. Puggalavagga -- 20. Persons

[188- 198] These suttas are the same as those in Chapter 15. [199]. Not to be assoociated, (Nasevitabbasutta) "Monks, the following should not be associated with: those induging in (1 - 10) taking life; taking what is not given, sexual misconduct, false speech; divisive speech; harsh speech; idle gossip; longing for property; ill-will; wrong view."

21. Aparapuggalavagga -- 21. Other persons

[NOTE] The Pali text does not give individual titles to these suttas.]

[200] 1. Hell or heaven 1. "Monks, a person goes to hell if he: (1 - 10) takes life; takes what is not given; engages in sexual misconductspeaks falsehood; speaks divisively; speaks harshly; indulges in gossip; longs for wealth or property; is of ill-will; holds wrong view. If he dos the opposite of these he goes to heven.

[201] 2. Hell or heaven 2. This sutta repeats what is stated in the previous sutta and in addition gives some wrong views lead to hell such as that good or bad actions (kamma) have no fruit. that there are no gods, and so on.

[202] 3. Womenfolk. This sutta states that women will go to hell or heaven for the same reasons given for men in suttta 200.

[203] 4. Female lay followers. The previous sutt also applies to female lay followers.

[204] 5. Confidence This sutta says that the 10 things for whiich female lay followers go to heaven after death also enable them to live with confidence in this life.

[205] 6. Crookedness. "Monks, beings are the owners of their kamma, the heirs of their kamma, they originate in kamma, they are kin to kamma, they resort to kamma, inherit whatever good or bad they do". Then he detailed the consequences of the ten things listed in sutta 200,

[206] 7. Ruin and prosperity 1. "Monks, Volitional acts cannot be cancelled without experiencing this result. There are three kinds of bodily wrong doing, four kinds of verbal wrong doing, and three kinds of mental wrong doing, making ten kinds of wrong doing. These 10 are: (1 - 10) taking life; taking that which is not given; improper sexual conduct with girls; speeking falsehood; speaking divisively; speaking harshly; engaging in gossip; longing for wealt and property of others; having a mind of illwill; holding wrong view. Indulging in hese leads a person to rebrith in a bad destinaton, even in hell, But if a person does the opposite of these he is reborn in heaven."

[207] 8. Ruin and prosperity 2. This sutta is a repetition of the previous sutta.

[208] 9. Brahma. "Monks, the Ariyan disciple freed from coveting, malevolence and bewilderment and set in self-control and concentration with a mind of loving kindness radiates loving kindness in all diections. Then he does the same for compassion, sumpathy and equanimity, This leads to him not returning (to this world) after death."

[209] 10. After death. Once a certain brahmin asked the Buddha: What is the reason why some beings after death are born in hell while others are born in heaven ?" The Buddha answered by repeating what he had said in sutta 206 above.

In certain versions of the Pali text several extra Chapters are included here which repeat or mirror the earlier Chapters abstracted in this compilation. These are ommitted here.

19. Sāmaññavagga -- 19. Similarities

[These suttas are not given individual names in the Pāli text. The titles used here are from the Pali Text Society translation]

[210]. 1. Ten qualities. "Monks, ten qualities which lead to hell are: (1 - 10) killing; stealing; wrong sensual desires; telling lies; slandering; bitter speech; gossip; covetousness; ill-will; wrong view. The opposite to these lead to heaven."

[211] 2. Twenty qualities. This is the same as sutta 210, but for each quality encouraging another to do so is also considered a quality.

[212] 3. Thirty qualities. This is the same as sutta 211, but for each quality approving another for doing so is also considered a quality.

[213] 4. Forty qualities, This is the same as sutta 212, but for each quality praising the quality is also considered a quality.

[214] 5. Uprooted. Here it is said that a person adopting the qualities listed in suttas 210 - 213 makes him rootless.

[215] 6. After death. Here it is said that a person adopting the qualities listed in suttas 210 - 213 goes to hell. In the opposite case goes to heaven.

[216] 7. Foolish and wise. Here it is said that a person adopting the qualities listed in suttas 210 - 213 is foolish. In the opposite case he is wise,

[217] 8. Lust 1. To fully understand lust one should develop the idea of: (1 - 10) the foul; death; repulsiveness in food; non-delight in the world; impermanence; suffering; non-self; abandoning; fading interest; ending.

[218] 9. Lust 2. To fully understand lust one should develop the elements of the eightfold path, right knowledge and right.

[219] 10. Lust and the rest. This is the sameas the previous sutta.