Aṅguttara Nikāya– Book of Gradual Sayings

1. Dukanipāta – 1. Book of Twos

[NOTE: All statements in these suttas, unless otherwise noted, are made by the Buddha addressing the monks at Jetavana in Sāvatthi. These are included within quoation marks: "...". Sections within curly brackets {...} are comments notes and further explanations by the author of these abstracts. Other statements give general information.]

1. Kammakaraṇavagga – 1. Chapter on Actions


       [1] Faults (Vajjasutta). "There are two kinds of faults, one pertaining to the present life and the other pertaining to the future life. Present life faults and their consequences is illustrated by a robber being apprehended by the king. He is then subject to gruesome tortures {which are graphically illustrated}".
       [2] Strivings (Padhānasutta). "There are two kinds of strivings. For householders it is the striving of giving necessities for monks; for those who have gon forth it is to abandon all acquisitions."
       [3] Torments (Tapanīyasutta). "A person engaged in bad conduct in body speech or mind suffers from two torments: he is tormented by the wrong done and by the failure to do what is good."
       [4] No Torments (Atapanīyasutta). {These two are the opposite of the previous sutta.}
       \ [5] Things known (Upaññatasutta). The Buddha said: "I personally knew two things: Not being contented with unwholesome states, and striving undefeated to defeat them. You monks too should do the same."
       [6] Fetter (Saṃyojanasutta). "Two wrong things are: being contented with things that can be a fetter, and not being so contented."
       [7] Dark things (Kaṇhasutta). "Moral shamelessness and moral recklessness are two dark qualities.
       [8] Bright things (Sukkasutta). "Moral shame and moral dread are two bright qualities."
       [9] Behaviour (Cariyasutta). "Moral shame and moral dread save the world."
       [10]Commencing the Rains retreat (Vassūpaāyikasutta). "The rains retreat can be commenced (one fortnight) earlier or later."

2. Adhikaraṇavagga – 2. Chapter on judgements


      [11] Powers. "There are these two powers: inference and development. By inference is meant a person sees that bad conduct in body, speech and thought leads to bad results and good conduct leads to good results. This leads him to do good. By development is meant a person gives up lust, hatred and delusion."
       [12] Powers. On the power of inference it is the same as that given in sutta (i) above. But on the power of development it is stated that a monk "develops the enlightenment factor of mindfulness, discrimination of phenomena, energy, rapture, tranquillity, concentration and equanimity. This leads to release."
       [13]Powers. On the power of inference it is the same as that given in sutta (i) above. But on the power of development it is stated the monk "enters and dwells in the first jhāna (rapture and pleasure), then the second jhāna (internal placidity and unification of mind). then the third jhāna (equanimous mindfulness), and finally in the fourth jhāna (which is neither painful nor pleasant with a pure equanimous mindfulness".
       [14] Dhamma teaching.. "The Tathāgata employs two methods of Dhamma teaching: one in brief and the other in detail."
       [15] Dispute.. "In a dispute the offending party and the reproving party can either practice strict self examination or not. If the offender practices self examination he realises the offence that he has committed. If the reprover practices self examination he does not get annoyed at the offender, If both exercise self examination the dispute is ended, otherwise it gets prolonged."
       [16] A brahmin.. A Brahmin asked the Buddha: "Why are some beings reborn in a bad destination even hell while others are reborn in a good destination even heaven." The Buddha said: "Beings go to a bad destination for conduct not in conformity with Dhamma, while they go to a good destination because of conduct in conformity with Dhaaa."
       [17] Janussoni.. "The Brahmin Janussoni asked the Buddha a question similar to that asked by the unnamed Brahmin in the previous sutta. The Buddha gave a similar answer. Janussoni became a lay follower of the Buddha."
       [18] Sāriputta. . Venerable Sāriputta once asked the Buddha: "The Tathāgata has said that deeds of bodily, verbal and mental misconduct should not be done, What is the reason for this ?" The Buddha replied: "One does not blame oneself; the wise praise one; one acquires a good reputation; one dies without confusion and is reborn in a good destination.
       [19] Advise.. "Monks, abandon what is unwholesome and develop what is good. I say this because it leads to welfare and happiness. "
       [20] Disappearance of Dhamma.. "Monks there are two causes for the Dhamma to disappear. One is when the words are badly set down and the other when they are wrongly interpreted."
       [21] Establishment of Dhamma.. The two causes for the establkshment of the Dhamma as the4 opposite of those gien in the previous sutta for the disappearance of Dhamma.

3. Bālavagga –3. Fools

      [22] "Monks, there are two kinds of fools: the one who does not see his fault and the other the one who does not forgive a fault confessed by another. There are two wise ones: the one who sees his fault and the other who pardons those who confess their faults."
       [23] "Monks, the two who two misrepresent the Tathāgata are the one with malice and the one who has wrong view."
       [24] "Monks, the two who misrepresent the Tathāgata are the one who says that a sutta has to be said by the Tathāgatawhen he has not done so, and on who says that a sutta has not been said byy the Buddha when he had actually proclaimed it."
      [25] "Monks, the two who not misrepresent the Tathāgata are the one who proclaims as an utterances of the Tathāgata what he actually has said and the one who does not proclaims an utterances of the Tathāgata as something he did say."
      [26] Monks, the two who misrepresent the Tathagata are the one who says that a sutta requres explanation when it has already been explained by the Tathāgata, and the one who says that a sutta does not require explanation when in fact it does require explanation."
     [27] "Monks, one who is of covert deeds will be reborn in hell or as an animal, and the one whose deeds are open will be reborn as a deva or as a human being."
     [28] "Monks, one who is not of right view will be reborn in hell or as an animal. ."
      [29] "Monks, one who is of right view will be reborn as a deva or as a human."
      [30] "Monks, an immoral person goes to hell or the animal realm. A virtuous person goes to the deva or the human realm.
      [31] "Monks, I resort to remote lodgings in forests and jungles because of two reasons: one I see for myself a pleasant dwelling in this very life and I have compassion for generations to come."
       [32] "Monks, Calm and insight pertain to true knowledge. Through calmness mind is developed. This leads to the abandonment of Lust. Through the development of insight Wisdom is developed and Ignorance is abandoned. Lust and Ignorance defile the mind. Liberation comes through the fading away of Lust and Ignorance. "

4. Samacittavagga –4. Same-minded

        [33] "Monks, I will teach you the condition of the false person and that of the true person. The false person is a mean ungrateful person who forgets any benefit he gets. But a true person is grateful and mindful of benefits done to him."
       [34] "Monks, two persons who can never be repaid are the mother and father, even though they are carried on one's shoulder for a hundred years. But if the parents do not believe in the Dhamma then establishing them in morality, in non-stinginess, in liberality and in wisdom is the best way of repaying them.
       [35] A certain brahmin once asked the Buddha what view does he hold and preach. The Buddha answered: "I hold the view of action and inaction. I uphold action in divers good, profitable and moral things. I uphold inaction in divers wicked, unprofitable and immoral things in deed, word and thought." This pleased the brahmin who took refuge in the Buddha.
       [36] The housefather Anāthapṇḍika asked the Buddha : "Who in the world are worthy of offerings, and where should they be made ?" The Buddha answered: "The learner {of the Dhamma} and the one who has gone beyond learning are worthy of offerings. They sacrifice and walk upright in body, speech and mind. They are a field of merit unto them that give."
       [37] Once venerable Sāriputta was dwelling at the Pubbārāma in Sāvatthi. He addressed the monks: "I will teach you about the person who is fettered internally (to the self) and the one who is fettered externally. A monk is fettered internally and is subject to the rules of the Patimokka {the monk's rules}. If he practices them correctly after death he is reborn in the deva world, after which he returns to this world. A monk who is fettered externally also practices the monk's rules but he reaches a certain (higher) state of mind and goes to the deva world but is a non-returner."
       Then a number of like-minded devas came to the Buddha and adverted him of what Sāriputta was preaching to the monks. Then the Buddha went to the Pubbārāma magically and addressed Sāriputta thus: "Sāriputta, a great number of devas of tranquil mind came to me and asked me to come to this gathering. Even though there was a great number of deities they occupied only a tiny space. Their mind was trained to this attainment. You must train yourself for this thus: 'We will become tranquil in senses and tranquil in mind'. That is how you must train yourself to be tranquil in sense, mind, bodily action, speech, and thought. Wanderers of other views who have not heard this Dhamma-teaching, are utterly lost."
       [38] Once when venerable Mahākaccāna was at Varaṇa on the Kaddama lake the brahmin Ārāmadanḍa asked him: "why do nobles quarrel with nobles, brahmins with brahmins, and householders with householders ?". Mahākaccāna replied: "It is because of their adherence to lust and sensual pleassures." Then the brahmin asked: "Why do recluses quarrel with recluses ?". Mahākaccāna replied: "It is because of bondage to the lust of opinion.". Then the brahmin asked if there was anyone who has gone beyond this bondage. Mahākaccāna replied that it was the Buddha who lives in Sāvtthi. Ther brahmin then paid homage in the diection of Sāvatthi and sahid that he would become a lay follower4 of the Buddha.
       [39] Once when venerable Mahākaccāna was in Madura the brahmin Kaṇḍarāyana asked him why he did not pay respect to elderly brahmins. Mahākaccāna replied: "In this matter the Buddha has said that age does not count. Even though a brahmin be eighty to a hundred years old, yet, if he takes pleasure in sense-desires and dwells amid them, if he burns with sense-desires, then he is a fool. On the other hand a young man who takes no pleasure in sense desires is indeed a wise man, and reckoned an elder." These words pleased the brahmin who said that he would take refuge in the Buddha, the Dhamma and the Sangha.
       [40] "Monks, when robbers are strong and rulers are weak it is difficult for rulers as well as householders to go outside and supervise work being done. Similarly when depraved monks are strong and well-conducted monks weak the latter become silent or leave for remote areas. The reverse happens when rulers are strong and well-conducted monks are strong. This leads to the good, welfare, and happiness of devas and human beings.
       [41] "Monks, I do not praise the wrong conduct of householders or those who have gone forth from the house-hold life. They will not reach their goal. I do praise right conduct of householders or those who have gone forth from the house-hold life using the true way and the true Dhamma. They attain their respective goals.
       [42] "Monks, those monks who exclude the letter and the spirit of the Dhamma, by taking the suttas wrongly and not interpreting according to the letter are responsible for the loss of many folk, for the discomfort and sorrow of devas and mankind. Such monks beget demerit and cause the disappearance of this true Dhamma. Those monks who do the contrary taking the suttas rightly and interpret them rightly, conforming to both letter and spirit, are responsible for the profit, for the welfare and for the happiness of devas and humans. Moreover such monks beget merit and establish this true Dhamma.

5. Parisavagga – 5. Companies (of monks)

        [43] "Monks, there are these two companies, the shallow and the deep. In the shallow company the monks frivolous, empty-headed, harsh-spoken, loose-talking, lacking concentration, unsteady, not composed, and of uncontrolled senses." [The monks in deep companies have opposite characteristics.]
       [44] "Monks, there are these two companies, the discordant and the harmonious. In the harmonious company the monks dwell quarrelsome, wrangling, disputatious, and wounding each other verbally." [The monks in harmonious compnies have opposite characteristics.]
       [45]"Monks, there are these two companies, the ignoble and the noble. In the ignoble companies the monks are luxurious, lax, backsliding, shirking secluded life, and making no effort to reach the goal." [The monks in the noble companies have opposite characteristics.]
       [46] "Monks, there are these two companies, Ariyan and the un-Ariyan. In the un-Ariyan company the monks understand not the meaning of 'This is suffering, this is the arising of suffering, this is the ending of suffering, this is the practice leading to the ending of suffering' " [The monks in the Ariyan companies have opposite characteristics.]
        [47]  "Monks, there are these two companies, that engaging in bluster not inquiry, and that engaged in inuiry not bluster. In the company devoted to bluster the discourses of the Tathāgata are not studies and understood; instead attention is paid to material external to the Dhamma." [The monks in the other company devoted to inquiry to the opposite to what those in the bluster company do.]
       [48] "Monks, there are these two companies, one devoted to vain talk and the other devoted to interrogation. Those in the vain talk company do not want to understand the deep discourses of the Tathāgata. Instead they like to listen to poetry composed by outsiders not related to the Dhamma and other kinds of vain talk." [Those in the other group do the opposite of this. They like to study and interrogate the Dhamma.]
       [49] "Monks, there are these two companies, one which values worldly goods and the other which values the Dhamma. The fomer group like to praise worldly possessions especially in the presence of of lay disciples from whom they gain material benefits. . They also like to praise monks who claim that they are freed by faith, or by bodily testimony, or by reaching views and so on." [The other group sticks strictly to the Dhamma and follow strictly the discipline laid down by the Buddha.].
       [50] "Monks, there are these two companies, the unrighteous and the righteous. In the unreighteous companies lawless deeds prevail over lawful deeds, unrestrained deeds over restrained deeds." [The other grroup resorts only to lawful deeds as given in the monk's code of discipline.]
       [51] [This is the same as the previous sutta.]
       [52] "Monks, there are these two companies, one where disciplinary acts contrary to that laid down in the Vinaya are enacted and the other which enforcess strictly the monks disciplinary code."

6. Puggalavagga – 6. On Persons

[53] "Monks, these two persons born into the world are born to the profit and happiness of many, to the profit, happiness and welfare of many folk: a Tathāgata and a world-ruling monarch.".
       [54] Same as sutta 52 but in relation to "persons born as extraordinary men".
       [55] "Same as sutta 52 but in relation to "persons whose death is regretted by many".
       [56] Same as sutta 52 but in relation to "persons worthy of a stupa".
       [57] Same as sutta 52 but in relation to "persons who are enlightened".
       [58] "Monks, these two do not tremble duing a thunder-clap: a monk who has destroyed the asavas, and an elephant of noble breed."
       [59] "Monks, these two do not tremble duing a thunder-clap: a monk who has destroyed the asavas, and s throughbred horse."
       [60] "Monks, these two do not tremble duing a thunder-clap: a monk who has destroyed the asavas, and the lion, king of beasts."
       [61] "Monks, for these two reasons non-humans do not utter human speech, thinking that they shgouyld no speak falsel and thinking that they do not misrepreent others.
       [62] "Monks, womenfolk end their life unsated and unreplete with two things: sexual intercourse and child-birth.
       [63] "Monks, I will teach you about the discourse of the unworthy and that of the worthy. The unworthy thinks that an elder monk should not reply to one who is inferior to him (like a middle-order monk or a novice) and acts acordingly. The worthy will not think in that manner and will respond to one lower than him.
       [64] "Monks, when in a dispute there is wordy warfarea on both sides, with tenacity of view,$ malice of heart, Bulkiness and discontent, one's personality is ruffled. Therefore, monks, it may be expected that this will conduce to protracted, bitter, contentious strife,4 and the monks will be unable to live at ease. But when in a dispute there is wordy warfare on both sides ... if one's personality is unruffled, then (the opposite may be expected).'

7. Sukhavagga – 7. On Pleasures

        [65] "Monks, there are these two pleasures, that of the home-life, and that of home-leaving. Of these two home-leaving is the pre-eminent.
       [66-76] In these 11 suttas the option of home-life and home-leaving given in sutta [65] is replaced successively by the following pairs of pleasure, in all cases the second is considered the pre-eminent: Sensuality and renunciation; Rebirth clinging and non-rebirth clinging; āsava and freedom from the āsava; Carnal and non-carnal ; Ariyan and non-Ariyan; Bodily and mental; zest and zest-free; delight and indifference; concentration and concentration-free; object-meditation and object-free meditation; and object pleasure and pleasure without an object.
       [77] "Monks, there are these two pleasures: the pleasure of having a visible object for meditation and the pleasure of having the formless object for meditation. These these the latter has the pre-eminence.

8. Sanimittavagga – 8. With basis

        [78] "Monks, with a basis evil, unprofitable states arise. By abandoning this basis they do not arise."
       [79] "Monks, conditioned is the arising of evil, unprofitable states. Abandoning the conditions abandons the effects."
       [80] "Monks, caused is the arising of evil states. By abandoning just that cause those evil states do not exist."
       [81] "Monks, with reason do evil states arise. Without this reason they will not exist."
       [82] "Monks, with constituent parts evil states arise, not without."
       [83] "Monks, along with objects arise evil states, not without"
       [84] "Monks, along with feeling arise evil states, not without"
       [85] "Monks, along with perception arise evil states, not without"
       [86] "Monks, along with conciousness arise evil states, not without"
       [87] "Monks, it is by making some compounded thing one's objects that evil, unprofitable states arise, not without doing so."

9. Dhammavagga – 9. On Dhamma

        [88] "Monks, there are these two conditions: liberation of mind and liberation of insight."
       [89-98] In these 10 sutta the 'liberation of mind and liberation of insight' in sutta [88] is replaced successively by the following pairs of things: energy and one-pointedness; name and form; knowledge and release; becoming and non-becoming; shamelessness and disregard of sin; shame and fear of sin; stubbornness and friendship with the bad; suavity and friendship with the lovely; skill in knowledge of the elements4 and skill in paying attention: and skill in knowing offences; and rehabilitation from them.'

10. Bālavagga – 10. On Fools

        [99] "Monks, there are these two fools, he who carry a burden that is not his and he who shirks his own burden."
       [100] "Monks, there are these two wise ones, he who shoulders his burden and does not carry another's."
       [101] "Monks, there are these two fools, he who deems unlawful what is lawful, and he who does the reverse."
       [102] Wise ones are those who the opposite of sutta [101].
       [103] "Monks, there are these two fools. He who deems an offence what is not, and the reverse. ."
       [104] "Monks, there are these two wise ones." The reverse of [103].
       [105] "Monks, there are these two fools. He who deems lawful what is not, and the reverse. ."
       [106] "Monks, there are these two wise ones. " The reverse of [105].
       [107] "Monks, there are these two fools. He who includes in the Discipline what is not, and the reverse."
       [108] "Monks, there are these two fools. He who includes in the Discipline what is not included, and the reverse. "
       [109] "Monks, there are these two wise ones. (The reverse of [108].) ."
       [110] "Monks, for two persons the āsavas increase. For him who is worried at what should not be and the reverse."
       [111] "Monks, the āsavas increase for two persons. One who sees the unallowable as allowable and the one who sees the allowble as unallowable. "
       [112] "Monks, the āsavas do not increase for two persons. One who sees the unallowable as unallowable and one who sees what is allowable as allowable."
       [113] "Monks, the āsavas increase for two persons. For him who sees what is not an offense as an offense and the person who sees an offense as no offense and the reverse,"
       [114] "Monks, the āsavas do not increase for one who sees what is not as no offence and the reverse. "
       [115] "Monks, the āsasas increase for two persons. To him who sees what is non-Dhamma as Dhamma and the reverse."
       [116] "Monks, the āsavas do not increase for two persons. For him who sees non-Dhamma as non-Dhamma and one who perceives Dhamma as Dhamma."
       [117] "Monks, the āsavas increase for two persons. For him who perceives what is non-discipline as discipline and for him who sees discipline as non-discipline." 
       [118] "Monks, the āsavas do not increase for two persons. For him who sees what is non-discipline as non-discipline and one who perceives what is discipline as discipline. "

11. Āsāduppajahavagga – 11. On Desires

       [119] "Monks, these two desires are hard to abandon. The desire for gain and the desire for life."
        [120] "Monks, these two persons are rare in the world. One who takes the initiative in helping others and one who is grateful and thankful."
        [121] "Monks, these two persons are rare in the world. One who is satisfied and one who provides satisfaction."
        [122] "Monks, these two persons are hard to satisfy. One who amasses what he gains and one who squanders what he gains."
        [123] "Monks, these two persons are easy to satisfy. One who does not amass what he gains and one who does not squander what he gains.."
        [124] "Monks, there are these two conditions for the arising of greed. The condition of the attractive and that of careless attention"
        [125] "Monks, there are these two conditions for the arising of hatred. The condition of the repulsive and that of careless attention.."
        [126] "Monks, there are these two conditions for the arising of hatred. The condition of the repulsive and that of careless attention."
        [127] "Monks, there are these two conditions for the arising of right view. The utterance of another and careful attention."
        [128] "Monks, there are these two offences. A light offence and a grave offence.."
        [129] "Monks, there are these two kinds of offences. A coarse offence and one that is not coarse."
        [130] "Monks, there are these two kinds of offences. What two? A remediable offence and an irremediable offence."

12. Āyācanavagga – 12. On Aspiring

       [131] "Monks, the aspiration for a bhikkhu endowed with faith shoul be: 'May I become like Sāriputta and Mogllāna!'."
        [132] "Monks, the aspiration for a bhikkhuni endowed with faith shoul be: 'May I become like śhema and Uppalavanna!'."
        [133] "Monks, the aspiration for a male lay follower endowed with faith shoul be: 'May I become like Citta andHataka of Alavi!'."
        [134] "Monks, the aspiration for a female lay follower endowed with faith shoul be: 'May I become like Khujjuttara and Velukantaki!'."
        [135] "Monks, two conditions that enable a bad person to maintain his condition are to speak praise of unworthy people and to dispraise of worthy people." The wise are maintained ny observation and penetration.
        [136] "Monks, two qualities that allow a foolish bad person maintains himself in a maimed condition are: he is blameworthy and reproached by the wise, and he generates much demerit." the wise e maintained by doing the opposite.
        [137] "Monks, two qualities that allow a foolish bad person maintains himself in a maimed condition are: bad behaviour towrds his father and mother." The wise do so through good behaviour towards their parents.
        [138] As in suttas [135 -137] two more things that a bad person does is to reproach the Tathāgata and his decisple. The wise do the opposite.
        [139] "Monks, two things that should be done are: cleanse one's mind and not cling to anything."
        [140] "Monks, two things that should be done are: control anger and hostility."
        [141] Same as sutta [140].

13. Dānavagga – 13. On Gifts

        [142] "Monks, there are these two kinds of gifts: the gift of material goods and the gift of the Dhamma."
        [143-151] In these 9 suttas the two kinds of gifts mentioned in sutta [142] are replaced by two each of the following 9 things: sacrifices; liberalities; offerings; possessions; enjoyments in common; sharing together; giving of favours; acts of kindness; and acts of compassion.

14. Santahāravagga – 14. On Munificence etc.

       [152] "Monks, there are these two kinds of munificence: the munificence of material goods and that of the Dhamma. Of these the latter is the best."
      ;  [153] "Monks, there are these two kinds of hosspitality: in material goods and in Dhamma. Of these the latter is best."
        [154] "Monks, there are these two kinds of search: for material goods and for Dhamma. Of these the latter is best."
        [155] "Monks, there are these two kinds of quests: for material goods and of Dhamma. Of these the latter is best."
        [156] "Monks, there are these two kinds of seeking: for material goods and for Dhamma. Of these the latter is best."
        [157] "Monks, there are these two kinds of veneration: of material goods and of Dhamma. Of these the latter is best."
        [158] "Monks, there are these two kinds of gifts: of material goods and Dhamma. Of these the latter is best."
        [159] "Monks, there are these two kinds of success: in material goods and in Dhamma. Of these the latter is best."
        [160] "Monks, there are these two kinds of growth: in material goods and in Dhamma. Of these the latter is best."
        [161] "Monks,there are these two kinds of gems: material goods and Dhamma gem. Of these the latter is best."
        [162] "Monks, there are these two kinds of accumulation: of material goods and of Dhamma gem. Of these the latter is best."
        [163] "Monks, there are these two kinds of expansion: of material goods and of Dhamma. Of these the latter is best."

15. Samāpattivagga – 15. On Meditaion goals

        [164] "Monks,there are these two qualities. Skillfulness in entering a meditative attainment and skillfulness in emerging from it."
        [165-180] These 16 suttas employ the pattern of sutta [164] applying it to the following qualities of meditative attainments: Rectitude and gentleness; Patience and mildness; Softness of speech and hospitality; Harmlessness and purity; Not guarding the sense doors and immoderate eating; Guarding the sense doors and moderation in eating; Reflection power and development power; Mindfulness power and concentation power; Serenity and insight; Failure in virtue and failure in view; Accomplishment of virtue and accomplishment of view; Purity of virtue and purity of view; Purity of view and striving in accordance with view; Non-contentment of wholesome qualities and indefatigability in striving; Poor m-mindedness and lack of clear comprehension; Mindfulness and clear comprehension.

[The remainder of the Book of Twos consists of an enumeration of the various qualities dealt with in the Dhamma. They are organized in long repetitions (peyyāḷa) to serve as guides to those memorizing the suttas and are not abstracted in the present series.]