Aṅguttara Nikāya– Book of Gradual Sayings

3. Tikanipāta – 1. Book of Threes

[NOTE: All statements in these suttas, unless otherwise noted, are made by the Buddha addressing the monks at Jetavana in Sāvatthi. These are included within quotation marks: "...". Sections within curly brackets {...} are comments notes and further explanations by the of these abstracts. Other statements give general information. Each sutta in this Book deals with three items. They are numbered here though not in the original Pali]

1. Paṇṇāsaka – 1. The first Fifty

1. Fear. (Bālavagga). – 1. The Fool

[1] 1. Fears. (Bhayasutta). "Monks, It is the fool, not the wise, who have fears. The fool brings (1) peril, (2) misfortune, (3) calamity. These are the three. "

[2] 2. Signs. (Lakkhaṇasutta). "Monks, The characteristics of the fools are: (1)bodily misconduct, (2) verbal misconduct, (3) mental misconduct. These are the three. The wise does the opposite."

[3] 3. Thoughts. (Cintāsutta). "Monks, The fool (1) thinks, (2) speaks, (3) acts badly. These are the three. The wise thinks in an opposite manner."

[4] 4. Offence. (Accyasutta). "Monks, The foool (1) does not see his offence, (2) does not make amends for his offense, (3) does not accept an apology from another who has committed an offence. These are the three."

[5] 5. Careless. (Ayoniosasutta). "Monks, a fool (1) asks his question carelessly, (2) replies careflessly, (34) does not approve of a carefully formuloated qauesion by another.These are the three. "

[6] 6. Unskilful. (Akusalasutta). "Monks, a fool exercises unskilful actions by (1) body, (2) speech, (3) thought. These are the three."

[7] 7. Blamewothy. (Sāvajjasutta). "Monks, a fool exercises blameworthy actions by (1) body, (2) speech, (3) thought. These are the three."

[8] 8. Malicious. (Sabyābajjasutta). "Monks, a fool exercises malicious actions by (1) body, (2) speech (3) thought. These are the three."

[9] 9. Injured. (Khatasutta). . "Monks, an evil fool (1) is blameworthy, (2) reproached by the wise, (3)gets much demeit. These are the three."

[10] 10. Stain (Malasutta). "Monks, with these three stains a person goes to hell: (1) immorality, (2) envy, (3) miserliness. These are the three."

2. Rathakāravagga – 2. The Chariot Maker

[11] 1. Well known (Ñātasutta). "Monks, a well-known monk harms devas and people if he acts contrary to the Dhamma in (1) body, (2) speech and (3) thought. These are the three. If he acts in accordance with Dhamma in these things he benefits gods and humans."

[12] 2. Remembrance. (Sāraṇīyasutta). "Monks, A khattiya king should remember the places (1) where he was born, (2) where he was annointed, and (3) where he won his greatest victory. A monk should remember the places where he went forth, where he understood the noble truths adn where he destoryed the intoxicants and beame enlightened. "

[13] 3. Expectation. (Ñsaṃsasutta). "Monks, there are three kinds of persons: (1) with no expectation regarding rebirth, (2) full of expectation, (3) who has overcome expectation. These are the three."

[14] 4. Cakkavatti king. (Cakkavattisutta). "Monks, a just Cakkavatti king (1) rules by the Dhamma, (2) protects his subjects, (3) unfurls the banner of the Dhamma. A Tathāgata using the Dhamma proclaims right bodily action, right verbal action and right mental action."

[15] 5. Pacetana. (Pacetanasutta). "Monks, once a king named Pacetana asked his chariot maker to make two wheels for his chariot to be ready for a battle in six months time. Six days before that deadline one wheel was produced. The king asked about the other wheel and was told that it will be produced in six days time, which was done. When asked why one wheel took six months and the other six days the chariot maker showed that the latter wheel was defective. He did not have sufficient time to get the right material and the wood he could get for that wheel was crooked."
       The Buddha then said that he himself had been the chariot maker (in that birth) and that at that time he was skilled in telling crookedness in wood. But now as the perfect Arahant he could tell defects and crookedness in (1-3) body, speech, and mind. Bhikkhus and bhikkhunis should train themselves to avoid such crookedness.

[16] 6. The certain. (Apaṇṇakasutta). "Monks, a monk seeking to rid himself of the Āasvas should practice three things: (1) guard the sense door, (2) be moderate in eating and (3) be wakeful. Guarding the sense door means that the details of the things revealed by the sense organs should not be embraced. Moderation in eating means that no pleasure should be got by eating and it should be only for the purpose of keeping the body functioning. Wakefulness means concentration on activities like sitting, walking, etc. which he may be engaged in, and cleansing the mind."

[17] 7. By oneself. (Attabyāpādasutta). "Monks, (1-3) bodily, verbal and mental misconduct leads to the hurt of oneself, others or both. Good conduct in these will lead to the opposite."

[18] 8. Deva world. (Devalokasutta). "Monks, If wanderers of other sects ask if you follow the teaching of Gotama for rebirth in the deva world you should be repelled and disgusted. If the deva world is so repelling how much more will be the disgust at misconduct in (1-3) body, speech and mind? ".

[19] 9. Shopkeeper 1. (Paṭ). "Monks, a shopkeeper will not work diligently if he does apply himself to his work (1-3) in the morning, at noon, and in the evening. For the same resaon a monk will not attain a wholesome state."

[20] 10. Shopkeeper 2. (Dutiyapāpaṇikasuttasutta). "Monks, a shopkeeper will attain great wealth if he is sharp eyed (knows his goods), is calpable (is good at buying and selling), and has benefactors (clients). Similarly a monk should know what suffering is, should be capable of dwelling ardently, and keep the company of knowledgeable monks. Then he too will reach greatness and achieve profiable states."

3. Puggalavagga – 3. Persons.

[21] 1. Saviṭṭha. (Saviṭṭhasutta). Once venerables Sāriputta, Mahākoṭṭhika and Saviṭṭha were togeth3--er. Sāriputta asked Saviṭṭha: "There are three kinds of persons. (1) one who has seen the truth bodily, (2) one who has done so through view (diṭṭhi) and (3) one through faith. Who is the best?" Saviṭṭha said that it was the one liberated though faith. The same question was asked of Mahākoṭṭhika who said it was the body witness. Finally Sāriputta said it was the one who has won through view. Since there was no agreement they went to see the Buddha. The Buddha said that all three kinds of persons would either be a once returner, a non-returner or an arahant. All three are thus good but it is not possible to say which is the best.

[22] 2. The sick man. (Gilānasutta). "Monks, there are three kinds of sick person, (1) one who will never recover even with medicine and treatment, (2) one who will recover only with with proper care and treatment, and (3) one who will recover even without treatment or medicine. Correspondingly there are three classes of person, one who will recover only with treatment and medicine. Similarly there are three kinds of monks: one who will not do wholesome things even if he sees the Tathāgata or hear the Dhamma, one who will do wholesome things even if he doe not see the Tathāgata or hear the Dhamma, and one who will do wholesome things only if he sees the Tathāgata or hear the Dhamma."

[23] 3. Karmic accumulations. (Saṅkhārasutta). "Monks, there are three kinds of person: (1) one who does acts of body, speech and thought that are sorrowful, as a result he is born in a sorrowful world like hell. (2) One who does acts that are pleasant, as a result he is born in a pleasant world like heaven. (3) One who does acts that are both pleasant and sorrowful, as a result he is born in the human, deva or hellish realms (according to what he does)."

[24] 4. Great helpers. (Bahukārakasutta). "Monks, these three kinds of persons are helpful to others. (1) One who persuades another to take refuge in the Buddha, the Dhamma and the Sangha. (2) One who understands the four noble truths. (3) One who has destroyed the intoxicants and become an arahant. They are worthy of reverence and gifts."

[25] 5. Diamond parable. (Vajirūpamautta). "Monks, there are the three kinds of person, (1) one with anger whose mind like an open wound, (2) one who understands the four noble truths whose mind is like lightning, and (3) the arahant with the intoxicants destroyed whose mind is like a diamond."

[26] 6. Association. (sutta). "Monks, there are three kinds of person, (1) one who is without virtue who is not to be associated with, (2) one with virtues who is to be associated with, and (3) one with virtues who has developed concentration and wisdom who is to be associated with honour and respect."

[27] 7. Disgust. (Jigucchitabbasutta). "Monks, there are three kinds of person, (1) one who is immoral to be looked down with disgust and not followed, (2) one who is with anger who is to be looked with equanimity and not followed, (3) one who is virtuous who is to be followed and served. These are the three."

[28] 8. The dung parable. (Gūthabhāṇisutta). "Monks, there are three kinds of person, (1) one who denies what he knows and sees and whose speech is like dung, (2) one who speaks falsely for his own benefit and whose speech is like flowers, and (3) one who avoids harsh speech and whose speech is like honey. These are the three."

[29] 9. Blind. (Andhasutta). "Monks, There are three kinds of persons, (1) one who is blind, (2) one who is one-eyed, and (3) one who is two-eyed. The blind person cannot acquire wealth and does not see what is wholesome. The one eyed can acquire wealth but he too does not see what is wholesome. The two-eyed can both acquire wealth and also see what is wholesome."

[30] 10. Flipped wisdom. (Avkujjasutta). "Monks, when listening to a Dhamma talk there are three kinds of persons, (1) one with a flipped wisdom, (2) one with scattered wisdom, and (3) one with full wisdom. The flipped person listens to the Dhamma but does not pay attention to what is said, the scattered one pays attention but soon scatters away what he has heard, and the one with full attention who attends to what has been said both during and after the dhamma talk."

4. Devadūtavagga – 4. Devine Messengers

[31] 1. Equal to Brahmā. (sutta). "Monks, families where the children honour and revere their parents (1) are like unto Brahmā, (2) similar to the ancient teachers, (3) are worthy of gifts."

[32] 2. Ananda . (Ananda sutta). Once venerable Ananda asked the Buddha: "Can a monk reach a state of concentration such that (1) he would have no notion of 'I' with reference to his body; (2) the same with reference to external things; (3) achieve liberation of mind without the 'I' notion ?". The Buddha replied: "He can by the cessation of all activities and destroying craving."

[33] 3. Sāriputta. (Sāriputta sutta). The Buddha instructed Sāriputta thus: "You should train yourself (1) not to have the notion of 'I' with reference to the body; (2) the same with reference to external things; (3) achieve liberation of mind without the 'I' notion. Abandoning sensual perceptions, dejection, remorse and developing equanimity and mindfulness is emancipation by final knowledge."

[34] 4. Causes. (Nidānasutta). "Monks, kamma is caused by (1-3) greed, hatred and delusion. Such kamma can ripen either in this life or in the next one. "

[35] 5. Hatthaka. (Hatthakasutta). Once when the Buddha was seated in the open in Alavi the youngster Hatthaka asked him how he was and was told that he was well. Hatthaka then asked how he could fare well in the cold of winter in the open. The Buddha said: "I sleep well. Does a householder living in a comfortable mansion not feel the fevers of (1-3) lust, hatred and delusion?". Hatthaka agreed that he would. Then the Buddha said that the Tathāgatas were free of these fevers and always slept well.

[36] 6. Divine messengers. (Devadūtasutta). "Monks, a man who had engaged in misconduct of body, speech and thought after death was born in hell. There King Yama questioned him thus: "(1) Did you see the first divine messenger (a frail old man), (2) the second divine messenger (a gravely ill person), (3) the third divine messenger (a dead cotpse)?". To all these he said that he had not seen them. Then King Yama said 'You have been heedless; you have committed bad kamma in body, speech and mind. Now you will suffer the consequences.' He then ordered the warders of hell to subject to the most severe tortures.". These tortures are described in graphic detail.

[37] 7. The Four Great Kings (Catunamahārājasutta). "Monks, the Four Great heavenly kings wander the world to see if people behave properly towards their parents, elders, ascetics and brahmins, and do meritorious things.. They do this three tmies every fortnight on (1) the tenth, (2) the fourteenth, (3) the fifteenth day. They report their findings to the Council of the Tāvasiṃsa gods. If only a few people do these things the gods feel that their number will decline and that of the Asuras will increse. The reverse will happan if many people do these things. will decline and thier opponents the Asuras will increase. The reverse will occur in the opposite case."

[38] 8. Sakka. (Sakkasutta). "Monks, Sakka the king of the gods of the Tāvasiṃsa sa heaven used to utter a verse to the effect that he observes the holy days every fortnight and that people too should do likewise. But it is wrong for Sakka to utter this becuse he was not free of greed, hatred and delusion, and not free from suffering. It is only arhants who have destroyed the intoxicants who can say this."

[39] 9. Delicate upbringing. (Sukhumālasutta). "Monks, I was extremely delicately nurtured in my youth. Despite this it occurred to me that an ordinary wordling is repelled at the sight of: (1) an old person; (2) a gravely ill person; (3) a corpse. An uninstructed worldling who is intoxicated with youth, health, and life engages in misconduct of body, speech and thought. After death he is reborn in hell. A monk so inclined gives up the training and reverts to the lower life."

[40] 10. Authority. (Ādhipateyyasutta). "Monks, there are three authorities: (1) One's own self as the authority. Here a person on his own gives up the household life and goes forth as an ascetic. He abandons evil, does what is good and keeps himself in utter purity. (2) World as authority. Here the monk is attracted to the psychic powers that an ascetic can develop. (3) Dhamma as authority. Here the monk is inspired by the teaching of the Tathāgata."

5. Cūlavagga – 5. Minor Chapter

[41] 1. Causal presence. (Sammukībhāvasutta). "Monks, a householder gets much merit when he has faith, (2) he gives gifts (3) there are worthy recipients."

[42] 2. Reasons. (Thithānasutta). "Monks, the three reasons that lead to faith and confidence are: (1) desire to see virtuous ones; (2) wish to hear good Dhamma; (3) generosity and non-miserliness." These are the three."

[43] 3. Benefits. (sutta). "Monks, teaching Dhamma is beneficial when (1) the teacher knows the meaning; (2) the listener knows the meaning; (3) both undersand the meaning. "

[44] 4. Smooth talk. (Kathāpavattisutta). This is the same as the previous sutta with the benefits of discussing the Dhamma replaced by the profitability of doing the same.

[45] 5. The wise. (Paṇḍtasutta). "Monks, the wise and good people recommend three things: (1-3) generosity, going forth from the household life, and serviceto mother and father. "

[46] 6. Virtuous. (Sīlavantasutta). "Monks, when virtuous ascetics live near a village the people benefit in three ways: (1-3) by body, speech and mind."

[47] 7. Conditioned. (Saṅkhatalakkhaṇasutta). "Monks, three conditions define conditionality: (1-3) the arising, vanishing and alteration are seen. "

[48] 8. Marks of Nibbāna.(Asṅkhatalakkhanakksutta). "Monks, these are the three signs of nibbāna: There is no birth, no death and no othee stage. "

[49] 9. Mountain. (Pabbatasutta). "Monks, the Sal trees in the Himalayas grow in three ways: (1-3) through foliage, bark and hardwood. Similarly when the head of the household is endowed with faith its members grow in faith, virtue and widom."

[50] 10. Ardour. (Ātappakaraṇīyasutta). "Monks, These are three situations when ardour has to be exercised: (1) for the non-arising of unskilful qualities; (2) for the arising of skilful qualities; (3) for enduring painful bodily feelings."

[51] 11. Chief robber. (Mahācorasutta). "Monks, a chief robber relies on three things for his activity like highway robbery: (1) obstacles (like rivers and mountains) (2) thickets (like forests); powerful people (like kings). Similarly an evil monk relies on wrong bodily, verbal and mental actions (obstacles), on wrong views (thickets), and on the powerful people (like kings for patronage_."

6. Brāhmaṇavagga – 6. Brahmins

[52] 1. Two Brahmins 1. (Pṭhmadvebrāhmaṇasutta). Two aged brahmins who had done no meritorious things came t the Buddha for advice. The Buddha said: "You are carried away by old age without doing anything good. Seeing the peril of death you should do meritorious deeds that bring happiness even after death."

[53] 2. Two Brahmins 3. (Dutiyadvebrāhmaṇasutta). Same as the previous sutta except that the advised them to exercise self restrain.

[54] 3. A certain Brahmin. (Aññatarabrāhmaṇasutta). A certain brahmin came to the Buddha and asked how the Dhamma is visible. The Buddha said: "A man besotted by lust, overcome by hatred and confused by delusion experiences dejection which vanishes when he has abandoned lust, greed and delusion. By this the Dhamma is seen in this very life." The brahmin was convinced and became a lay follower of the Buddha.

[55] 4. A wanderer. (Paribbajakasutta). A wandering brahmin came to the Buddha and asked the same question as the brahmin in the previous sutta. He got the same answer. He too became a lay follower of the Buddha.

[56] 5. Nibbāna. (Nibbutasutta). The brahmin Jaṇussoṇi asked the Buddha the same question as in sutta [54]. The same answer was given but now the conclusion read: 'By this Nibbana is seen in this very life'."

[57] 6. Depopulation. (Palokasutta). A rich brahmin came to the Buddha and said: "I have been told that formerly there was a very great number of people in the world. But now there are few. What is the cause for this." The Buddha said: "Now people are obsessed by lust, greed and false doctrines. As a result (1) they draw knives and kill each other; (2) the gods do not provide rain; (3) yakkas release wild spirits. As a result the population declines."

[58] 7. Vaccagotta. (Vaccagottasutta). The brahmin Vaccagotta came to the Buddha and said: "It is said that the recluse Gotama says that alms should be given to himself and his followers (which bear great fruit) and not to others (which do not bear fruit). Is this so ?". The Buddha said: "Those who say so misrepresent me. Giving alms to anyone acquires merit, but giving it to those with virtuous behaviour acquires more merit than gifts to others."

[59] 8. Tikaṇṇa. (Tikaṇṇasutta). The Brahmin Tikaṇṇa came to the Buddha and began praising those brahmins who had mastered the (Brahmin) threefold knowledge. Such a brahmin, he said, was well-born of pure descent, had mastered the three Vedas and could recite the hymns. He wanted to know what the Buddha's threefold knowledge was. The Buddha said: "An Ariyan disciple well established in virtue and in seclusion goes through the four jhānas obtaining mindfulness through equanimity. (1) Then he acquires the knowledge of previous births; (2) he then sees persons being reborn according to their kamma; (3) then he acquires the knowledge of the destruction of the intoxications. This is the triple knowledge of the Ariyan disciple not one who can merely utter the incantations. Tikaṇṇa asked to be considered a lay follower of the Buddha.

[60] 9. Jaṇussoṇ. (Jaṇussoṇ sutta). In this sutta the brahmin Jānussoṇi came to the Buddha and spoke about the Brahmin threefold knowledge and asked about the Buddha's teaching. The Buddha gave him the same discourse he gave Tikaṇṇa in the previous sutta. He too becomes a lay follower of the Buddha.

[61] 10. Saṅgārava. (Saṅgāravasutta). The brahman Saṅgārava came to the Buddha and said: "When we brahmins give scrifice we seek benefit not only to those who give the sacrifice but also all other brahmins. In the Buddha's dispensation it is only the one who profits the one who goes to Nibbana." The Buddha said: "It is rare for a Tathāgata to appear. But when he does and preaches the Dhamma hundreds of thousands benefit." Then Saṅgārava acknowledged that in the Buddh's system too many benefit. Then Ananda asked Saṅgārava which of the two systems was more beneficial, but Saṅgārava dodged the question. The Buddha changed the topic by asking Saṅgārava what the King's council was discussing. Saṅgārava said that they were discussing why formerly there were few bhikkhus but many could do supernormal wonders, now there were many bhikkhus but few could do the psychic wonders. The Buddha said that there were three kings of wonders: personal wonders (like levitation), the wonder of mind-reading, and the wonder of teaching Dhamma. He could do all three kinds of wonder but most could only do the third kind.

7. Mahāvagga – Great Chapter

[62] 1. Sects. (Titthāytanādisutta). "Monks, there are three kinds of sects when it comes to actions done by a person: (1) those who say that everything that happens is due to past kamma; (2) everything is due to an act of God; (3) there is no cause for whatever that happens. Thus when it comes to an immoral act like killing all three do not admit the responsibiity of the doer, the first saying that it is due to some past kamma, the second that it is due to God, and the third that it is not due anything that the doer had done. The Tathāgata says that there are six elements: earth, water, etc., six sense organs: eye, ear, etc., eighteen mental examinations (manopavicārā): each organ leading to contact, feeling and action, and four noble truths. It is these that explain the actions done by a person."

[63] 2. Fears. (Bhayānisutta). "Monks, There are three fears that the uninitiated think may separate a mother and son: (1) a great fire; (2) a great flood; (3) an upheaval in the countryside. But the real fears that lead to the separation of mother and son are: old age, illness and death. The way of abandoning these fears is the Noble Eightfold path (right view, right intention, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, and right concentration)."

[64] 3. Venāgapura. (Venāgapurasutta). Once during a tour of Kosala the Buddha came to the brahmin village of Venāgapura. The brahims came to see him and one of them Vaccagotta told the Buddha: "It is astonished how tranquil Master Gotama is how clear and shining his skin is. What kind of high and luxurious bed does he sleep in ?" The Buddha said "Those who have gone forth are forbidden to use high and luxurious beds. But I use three kinds of beds the celestial, the divine, and the noble. (1) For the celestial bed after the alms round I collect a heap of grass and leaves and sit on them cross-legged. Then I meditate going through the four jhānas. (2) For the divine bed after the seated jhānic meditation I walk up and down calmly. (3) For the noble bed I lie down." This satisfied Vacca who became a lay disciple of the Buddha.

[65] 4. Sarabha. (Sarabhasutta). Once at Rajagaha the wanderer Sarabha who had been a bhikkhu but had left the Dhamma and disciple was proclaiming: "I have learned the Dhamma of the followers of the Sakyan (Gotama) but I left this Dhamma and discipline because I understood it.". Some monks during their alms round heard this statement of Sarabha and afterwards reported it to the Buddha who was living at the Vulture Peak. They asked the Buddha to reproach Sarabha. The Buddha visited Sarabha and told him that if he had not fully understood the Dhamma he would explain it again. But Sarabha was silent and remained dejected. The Buddha then addressed the wanderers: "If anyone criticises the Dhamma and I question them about this they could react in three ways: (1) They would be evasive and try to divert the conversation to other matters; (2) they would display anger, hatred and bitterness; (3) they would be downcast, silent, disconcerted and speechless like the wanderer Sarabha." Then the Buddha rose into the air and departed. The remaining wanderers then abused, ridiculed and poked fun at Sarabha.

[66] 5. The Kesaputtiyas. (Kesaputtiyasutta). Once while on a tour of Kosala the Buddha came to the town of the Kālāmas in the Kesaputta region. There the Kālāmas told the Buddha that many teachers visited them bearing rival doctrines and they were confused by whom or what to believe. The Buddha told the Kālāmas: "Do not go by what is traditionally believed, by its lineage, by hearsay, by scripture, by mere logic, by inference, by reflection, by accepting a view, by the speaker's competence, or by his holiness. When you know for yourselves that things are unwholesome, blameworthy, censured by the wise; that they lead to harm and suffering then you should abandon them." Then using a dialectical method he persuaded the Kālāmas that greed, hatred and delusion were unsatisfactory. He said: "The Ariyan disciple cultivates a mind of loving kindness, compassion, sympathetic joy and equanimity. From this he gets four comforts. The first is that if there is a world beyond he will be born in a happy situation. The second is that if there is no rebirth he will have spent a happy life here and now. The third is that if he had done any wrong it would have been done without intention on his part. The fourth is that an Ariyan disciple will attain these four comforts." The Kālāmas were pleased by this discourse and became lay followers of the Buddha.

[67] 6. Sāḷha. (Sāḷhasutta). This is substantially the same as the previous discourse given by the Buddha to the Kālāmas but now given by venerable Nandaka at the mansion of Migāramātā in Sāvatthi to Sāḷha and some others relatives of Migāra.

68[] 7. Talking. (Kathāvatthusutta). "Monks, three topics of talk are: (1) on matters relating to the past; (2) to the future; (3) to the present. A person is not fit to talk with if he does not give a categorical or discriminating reply, or if he replies with a counter question or if he becomes angry and vexed, or he does not abide by the conclusions and assumptions, or abuses and scorns, or is not assured and does not give an ear. In the opposite case he is fit to talk with. There is profit in such talk as it emancipates the mind."

[69] 8. Other sects, (Aññatitthiyasutta). "Monks, If those of other sects ask you 'What is the difference between them and you on greed, hatred and delusion' you should answer thus: (1) lust arises because of careless attention to an attractive object; (2) hatred arises because of careless attention to a repulsive object; (3) delusion arises due to careless attention."

[70] 9. Roots (Akusalmūlasutta). "Monks, the three unskilful roots are (1-3) greed, hatred and delusion. Whatever one does based on these three is unwholesome. If a tree is strangled by three mulva creepers a man may come along and cut out these creepers digging up their roots and throw them into a river. So too must you eradicate these there unwholesome roots of unskilful action."

[71] 10. Sabbath (Uposathasutta). Once in Sāvatthi Visākā Migāramātā approached the Buddha and said: "I am observing uposatha". The Buddha said: "There are three kinds of uposatha (1) that of the herdsman; (2) that of the Nigantha; (3) that of the Ariyan. In the herdsman uposata the herdsman reflects on where the cattle had grazed and drunk water and thinks I too would like to eat and drink and his mind is totally engrossed in that. The Nigatha exhorts his disciples to lay down their clothes and to exercise compassion on others distant but when the upostha has passed they make use of possessions that have not been given to them. The Ariyan disciple cleanses his mind by exertion thinking of the virtues of the Tathāagata, the Dhamma and the Sangha."

8. Ānandavagga – 8. Ananda

[72] 1. Channa. (Channasutta). Once the wanderer Channa asked venerable Ananda: "Because of what danger do you advocate abandoning lust, hatred and delusion ?" Ananda replied: "One overcome by these three loses control of the mind and does harm to himself and others; is immoral in deed, word and thought; does not understant what is to his own profit; is blind to insight and does not conduce to Nibbāna." Then Channa asked how they could be overcome. Ananda replied that it was through the eightfold Ariyan way (right view to right concentration).

[73] 2. Ajivaka (Ājivakasutta). When venerable Ananda was living at Kosambi a disciple of the Ajvakas came to im and asked: "Whose Dhamma is well expounded, who are those practicing it and who are the fortunate (sugatā?". Ananda replied: "(1) Well expounded is the Dhamma of those who pratice the abandoning of lust hatred and delusion. (2) those who practice it are those who want to abandon lust, hatred and deluson; (3) they are the fortunate ones. The Ajivaka was impressed and became a follower of venerable Ananda.

[74] 3. Mahānāma (āsutta). Once in Kapilavatthu the Sakyan Mahānāma approached the Buddha and asked: "Does concentration come before knowledge or vice versa?" Venerable Ananda intervened saying that the Buddha was too ill to answer questions. Referring specifically to a trainee monk he said: "(1) Virtue is following the rules of the Pātimokkha; (2) concentration is training to attain the four jhāns; (3) knowledge is the understanding of the four truths." [An adept has presumably to go beyond these minimum requirements for the trainee, not specified in this sutta.]

[75] 4. (sutta). Once at Vesali two Licchavis Abhaya and Panditakumara approached venerable Ananda and Abhaya said: "Niganta Nataputta says that he is omniscient and that past kamma can by expiated by current austerities. What does the samana Gotama say about this?" Ananda replied: "The Buddha has given this way of purification by a disciple: (1) cultivation of the virtues by him; (2) After that in seclusion and free of sensures pleasures he develops the four jhāns; (3) he then destroys the intoxications (āsava). In this way he does not create new kamma and he terminated any old kamma."

[76] 5. Compassion. (Nivesakasutta). Once the Buddha told venerable Ananda: "Those on whom you have compassion should be established in three things: "They should have unwavering loyalty to: (1-3) the Buddha, the Dhamma and the Sangha."

[77] 6. Being 1. (Pathmabhāvasutta). Once the Buddha gave this discourse to the venerable Ananda: "Those with whom ou should develop fellow-feeling should have unwavering loyalty to (1-3) the Buddha, the Dhamma and the Sangha. "

[78] 7. Being 2. (Dutiyabhāvasutta). Once venerable Ananda asked the Buddha: "In what way is there existence (being)?" The Buddha said: "(1) kamma is the cause of renewed existence in an inferior realm for beings fettered by ignorance; (2) it is also the cause for rebirth in a middling realm; (3) it is also the cause for rebirth in a superior realm."

[79] 8. (Sīlabbatasutta). Once the Buddha asked venerable Ananda "Will every kind of moral practice have a like consequence in the future?" Ananda replied: "Not always. When a person engags in unwholesome conduct some of his previous moral kamma will be overlain, but if he continues to practice good kamma both the previous and the new kamma will bear fruit." The Budha made no commentand Ananda left thinking that his view had been endorsed by the Buddha.

[80] 9. Kinds of fragrance. (Gandhajātasutta). Once venherable Ananda asked the Buddha: "Fragrances like that of roots, heartwood and flowers spread with the wind not against it, Are there fragrances that spread both with and against the wind? " The Buddha said: "There is. This is the fragrance of a person who has gone for refuge in the Buddha, the Dhamma and the Sangha; one who practices the prcepts; one who is without miserliness, devoted to generossity and charity. The fragranc eof such a person spreads both with and against the wind."

[81] 10. Abibhu. (Cūḷanikāsutta). Once venerable Ananda said to the Buddha: "Abibhu the disciple of Buddha Sikhīi said 'Standing in the Brahma world I can make my voice heard throughout the thousand-fold world system. How far can the Tathāgta make his voice heard?" The Buddha said: "Abibhu was only a disciple not a Thathāgata." Ananda repeated his question and the Buddha said: "There are many world systems of various sizes each with thousands of suns, moons, heavens, continents and so on . Some of these are called the minor world systems (Cūḷanikālākadhātu). Throughout one of these the Tathāgata can spread his effulgence and beings living within it see this. Then the Tathāgata can convey his voice as far as he wants." Then Ananda exclaimed: "How powerful is my teacher !". Then venerable Udayi said: "What is that to you, Ananda ?". The Buddha said: "Do not say so, Udayi. If Ananda were to die without gaining enlightenment he would become a celestion king, but he will become enlightened before he dies".

9. Samaṇavagga – 9. The recluse

[82] 1. Ascetics. (Samaṇasutta). "Monks, there are three tasks for an ascetic (bhikkhu). There are to train in (1-3) higher virtue, higher mind and higher wisdom."

[83] 2. The ass (Gadrabhasutta). "Monks, suppose a man were following a herd of donkeys imitating them thinking that he too is a donkey that does not make him a donkey. Similarly a bhikkhu following other (good) bhikkhus thinking that he too is a (good) bhikkhu like them this does not make him a (good) bhikkhu. "

[84] 3. The field. (Khettasutta). "Monks, a farmer has to do three preliminary things: (1) plough the field; (2) sow the seeds; (3) irrigate the field. Similarly a monk has to do three preliminary tasks: train in higher virtue, higher mind and higher wisdom."

[85] 4. Son of a Vajjian (Vajjiputtasutta). Once a monk who was the son of a Vajjian came to the Buddha and said that he could not follow the one -hundred-and-fifty training rules recited every fortnight. The Buddha asked him if he could do three things: train in higher virtue, higher mind and higher wisdom. The monk said he could and the Buddha asked him to do so. Doing so he abandoned lust, hatred and delusion.

[86] 5. Trainee. (Sekkhasutta). A certain monk approached the Buddha and asked: "Who is a trainee (monk) and in what is he trained?" The Buddha said that a monk who is in training is a trainee and he is trained in the higher virtue, the higher mind and the higher wisdom."

[87] 6. The training process 1. (Pathamasikkāpadasutta). "Monks, There are more than one hundred and fifty training rules recited each fortnight. These deal with three trainings. (1) There is training in morality. If the minor of these rules are violated the monk can be rehabilitated, but the fundamental rules relating to spiritual life are inviolate. (2) Cultivation of concentration and wisdom to a moderate extent. Here too the violation of minor rules can be rehabilitated. (3) Training fully in concentration and wisdom. Here the monk diminishes greed hatred and delusions and becomes a once-returner. Others realise the liberation of mind in this very life. They destroy the āsavas and puts an end to birth. Some trainees do some of these trainings well others do other trainings well. I say these rules are not barren."

[88] 7. The training process 2. (Dutiyasikkāpadasutta). This sutta continues on the training process given in the previous sutta up to the point where the trainee succeeds in achieving full insight and liberation of mind. Then the Buddha continued: "If the trainee destroys three fetters he will wander at most seven times in human and deva births before ultimate liberation. If he destroys more fetters he has to wander two or three times among good families. If he destroys greed, hatred and delusion he becomes a one returner. If he destroys the five lower fetters he proceeds upstream achievng nibbāna with or without exertion. A bhikkhu who cultivates in part succeeds in part."

[89] 8. The training process 3. (Tatiyasikkāpadasutta). This sutta repeats what is stated in the two previous suttas until the third stage in the training is reached. The training of the mind is described as being secluded from sensual pleasures and dwelling in he four jhānas.

[90] 9. The trainings 1. (Pathamasikkhattayasutta). "Monks, the three trainings are: (1)Training in virtuous behaviour which is to observe the higher moral rules; (2) the training in the higher mind which is to dwell in the four jhāns; (3) training in the higher wisdom which is to understand the four noble truths."

[91] 10. The trainings 2. (Dutiyasikkhattayasutta). This is the same as the previous sutta except that the training in higher wisdom is described as the destruction of the intoxicants and the realisation of the liberation of the mind by direct insight.

[92] 11. Paṅkadhā. (Paṅkadhāsutta). Once on tour with the bhikkhus the Buddha reached the town of Paṅkadhā in Kosala. There he gave a discourse on the trainings and a local monk Kassapagotta became dissatisfied with the discourse saying that it was too strict. Eventually the Buddha left Paṅkadhā and reached the Gijjhakuta in Rajagaha. Kassapagotta feeling remorse too came to Gijjhakuta and sought forgiveness for his transgression. The Buddha said: "It was wrong of you to have made the transgression at Paṅkadhā but as you have rightly expressed regret I accept it. I praise elderly, middle standing, and junior monks who praise the training of monks."

10. Loṇakapallavagga – 10. Lump of salt

[93] 1. Urgent (Accāyikasutta). "Monks, a farmer's urgent tasks are to plough the field, sow the seeds, and let water in and out of the field. These tasks cannot be done by magic commands. A bhikkhu's three tasks are to undertake training (1) in virtue; (2) in mind; (3) in wisdom. He too has no magic command to do these. You, monks, too should do likewise."

[94] 2. Solitude. (Pavivekasutta). "Monks, wanderers of other faith practice three kinds of solitude: (1) with respect to clothes (wearing only discarded rags); (2) with regard to alms-food (taking only the most basic); (3) with respect to lodging (living in the open under trees). In the Dhamma the bhikkhu practices three kinds of solitude: virtue, right view, and abandonment of the intoxications (āsava).

[95] 3. Autumn. (Saradasutta). "Monks, just as in autumn the sun shines in the clear sky dispelling darkness so vision arises in the noble disciple who has destroyed the three fetters of personality belief, doubt, and wrong view. He then dwells in the first jhāna. If he passes away then with no remaining fetter he will not return to this world again."

[96] 4. Assemblies. (Parisāsutta). "Monks, there are three assemblies: (1) The assembly of the distinguished. This consists of elder bhikkhus who shun luxuries and arouse energy in seclusion. (2) The divided assembly. Here the monks fall into quarrelling and argumentation. They wound each other verbally. (3) The harmonious assembly. Here concord prevails. This leads to tranquillity, bodily pleasure and concentration of mind."

[97] 5. Thoroughbred 1. (Patamaājānīyasutta). "Monks, a royal thoroughbred has three qualities: beauty, strength and speed. A bhikkhu also has these three qualities: (1) the beauty is in his virtuosity and adherence to the Pātimokkha; (2) the strength is in the energy to acquire worthwhile qualities; (3) The speed is in the apprehension of the noble truths. These make the bhikkhu worthy of gifts and offerings; and is a field of merit (to others)."

[98] 6. Thoroughbred 2. (Dutiyaājānīyasutta). This differs from the previous sutta in that the speed attribute of the bhikkhu is assigned to his overcoming the five lower fetters.

[99] 7. Thoroughbred 3. (Tatiyaājānīyasutta). This differs from the previous two suttas in that the speed attribute of the bhikkhu is assigned to his overcoming the intoxicants (āsava).

[100] 8. Rough cloth. (Pottthakasutta). "Monks, a rough cloth is ugly and of little value even when new, when it is old it is used to clean pots. So too is an immoral monk whether junior, middling or elderly. . (1) He is considered ugly. (2) Those who follow and associate with him come to harm and suffering. (3) Gifts to him are worthless. On the other hand Benares cloth is valuable and used to wrap gems and the like. A monk who is good is like such a cloth. When he speaks his words are greatly prized."

[101] 9. A lump of salt. (Loṇakapallasutta). "Monks, if kamma is experienced in the same way that it was created then no spiritual life is possible, but if only the fulfilment of kamma takes place them spiritual life is possible. One person doing a trifling kamma may go to hell but another will experience the results in this life itself. The person going to hell is not developed in body, mind and wisdom while the other person is developed even to a small extent in these."

[102] 10. The goldsmith.. (Paṃsudhovakasutta). "Monks, there are many impurities in gold. A goldsmith subjects the gold to many processes to purify it and when it is utterly pure does he use it to make jewellery. A bhikkhu devoted to the higher mind (1) eliminates defilements in body, word and mind; (2) abandons thoughts of sensuality, ill-will. and harming others; (3) ends thoughts about reputation or country. Then only thoughts of Dhamma remain. A time comes when his mind is fully tranquil and there is no need to forcefully suppress defilements. Then he is capable of realizing any state he wishes. He can develop the various psychic powers go through walls and mountains, dive into the earth, fly in the air, read the minds of others, recall his past lives, develop the divine eye and ear, see people being reborn in various destinations, and so on."

[103] 11. Marks. (Nimittasutta). "Monks, a bhikkhu devoted to the mind should periodically give attention to: (1) the mark of concentration; (2) the mark of exertion; (3) the mark of equanimity. If attention is paid to only one of these marks his mind could veer into laziness, restlessness, or inability to destroy the intoxicants. But if attention is given to all three the monk can develop those powers described in the previous sutta."

11. Sambodhavagga – 11. Enlightenment

[104] 1. Before. (Pubbevasambodhasutta). "Monks, before my enlightenment it occurred to me: (1) what is gratification (assāda)?; (2) what is its danger?; (3) what is the escape from it? Then it occurred to me that pleasure in things of the world is the cause. But the world is impermanent and suffering. The escape is removal of desire and lust for the world. When I realized this knowledge and vision arose in me and my mind was liberated."

[105] 2. Gratification 1. (Pathamaassādasutta). "Monks, I set out (1) seeking gratification; (2) seeking the danger in it; (3) seeking the escape from it. Until I found these I could not claim to be enlightened. When I found them knowledge and vision arose in me, my mind was liberated and there will be no more renewed existence."

[106] 3. Gratification 2. (Dutiyaassādasutta). "Monks, (1) if there were no gratification beings would not be enamoured with it; (2) if there were no danger in it beings would not become disenchanted with it; (3) if there were no escape beings would not escape from it. But when beings know this they can escape from the world, become detached and released and dwell with a mind rid of barriers,"

[107] 4. Recluses and brahmins. (Samanṇbrāhmanṇsutta). "Monks, I do not consider recluses and brahmins who have not understood (1) gratification; (2) its danger; (3) its release to be real ascetics and brahmins. But those who have understood them have realized the goal of asceticism and brahminhood."

[108] 5. Lamentation. (Raṇṇasutta). "Monks, In the Ariyan discipline (1) singing is lamentation; (2) dancing is madness; (3) loud laughter is childishness."

[109] 6. No satisfaction. (Atittisutta). "Monks, three things give no satisfaction: (1) sleeping; (2) liquor; (3) sexual intercourse."

[110] 7. Unprotected. (Arakkhitasutta). Once the Buddha told the householder Anāthapiṇḍika: "When the mind is unprotected actions by body and word are unprotected, tainted and rotten. If the roof of a peaked house is badly thatched the whole structure could become rotten. It is so with the mind. One of whose deeds by body, word and mind are not rotten will have a good death."

[111] 8. Failed mind. (Byāpannasutta). This is another version of the Buddha's discourse to Anāthapiṇḍika given in the previous sutta."

[112] 9. Causes 1. (Pathamanidānasutta). "Monks, kamma is originated by three causes: (1-3) greed, hatred and delusion. This kind of kamma results in suffering. There are three other kinds of kamma which originate from non-greed, non-hatred and non-delusion. This kind of kamma is beneficial."

[113] 10. Causes 2. (Dutiyanidānasutta). "Monks, there are three causes of kamma: desire which leads to lust for things (1) in the past; (2) in the future; (3) in the present. This kind of desire is a fetter"

12. Āpāyikavagga – 12. Hell 0

[114] 1. Destined to hell. (Āpāyikasutta). "Monks, the following are bound for hell (if they do not give up their faults): (1) a non-celibate claiming to be a celibate; (2) one who slanders a pure celibate; (3) one who finds no fault in sensual pleasures and indulges in them."

[115] 2. Rare (Dullabhasutta). "Monks, these three are rare: (1) the appearance of a Tathāgata; (2) One who teaches the Dhamma proclaimed by a Tathāgata; (3) a grateful and thankful person."

[116] 3. Immeasurable. (Appameyyasutta). "Monks, these persons exist in the world: (1) The easily measured. They are vain, arrogant, talk ramblingly, with uncotr0lled senses. (2) the not easily measured. These are opposite to the previous kind, (3) The immeasurable. These are the arahants.

[117] 4. The Imperturbable. (Āneñjasutta). "Monks, there are three kinds of persons: (1) Those who have reached the base of infinity of space (ākāsānañcāyatana). On death they are reborn as devas with a 20,000 eon lifespan. If they are not Ariyan disciples after that they are reborn in hell, or as an animal or Pretha. Ariyan disciples simply pass away after their life as a deva. (2).Those who have reached the base of infinity of consciousness (ākiñcaññāñcāyatana). They are similar to the previous category except that as gods their lifespan is 30,000 eons. (3) Those who have reached the base of nothingness. Same as the previous groups except that the deva lifespan is 60,000 eons."

[118] 5. Failure and success. (Vipttisampadāsutta). "Monks, there are three kinds of failure and success: (1-3) in morals, in mind, and in view. In morals it is the failure or the ability to keep the precepts. In mind it is being covetous and ill-willed or the opposite. In view it is having wrong or right view."

[119] 6. The faultless. (Apaṇṇakasutta). This identifies the same three kinds of fault as in the previous sutta with a comparison made with the throw of dice.

[120] 7. Actions. (Kammantasutta). "Monks, there are three failures: failure in (1-3) actions, livelihood and in view. Failure in actions is the taking of life and the other wrong actions. Failure in livelihood is earning one's livelihood by wrong means. Failure in view is the view that there is no charity, there are no ascetics who have realized the world, and the like."

[121] 8. Purity 1. (Pathamasoceyyasutta). "Monks, there are three forms of purity: (1) purity in body (abstention from killing stealing, lust, and the like); (2) purity in speech (speaking the truth, and the like); (3) purity of mind (having right view)."

[122] 9. Purity 2. (Dutiyasoceyyasutta). This is substantially the same as the previous sutta."

[123] 10. Perfection. (Moneyyasutta). Here the three perfections are perfection in body, in speech and in mind. The first two are as in the two previous suttas. Perfection of mind is the destruction of the intoxicants and achievement of liberation of mind.

13. Kusināravagga – 13. Kusināra

[124] 1. Kusināra. (Kusinārasutta). At Kusivāra the Buddha addressed the monks: "Suppose a monk is invited by a householder for a meal and is served with delicious food. If this monk thinks: (1) This food is delicious; (2) I wish that I will be invited for such meals in the future. (3) He becomes infatuated with the food and does not see the danger in it. What is given to such a monk is not of much merit. Suppose now that another monk too is invited to such a meal by a householder. He does not think like the other monk, and is not infatuated with the food. What is given to such a monk is of great merit."

[125] 2. Strife. (Bhaṇḍnasutta). "Monks, those bhikkhus who argue and cause strife have abandoned thoughts of dispassion, benevolence and non-harming. They have cultivated thoughts of sensuality, malevolence and harming."

[126] 3. Gotamaka (Gotamakasutta). Once at the Gotamaka shrine in Vesali the Buddha addressed the monks: "I teach Dhamma (1) with direct knowledge; (2) with basis; (3) with marvels. Not without these. This for you to be pleased, satisfied and well-taught."

[127] 4. (Bharaṇḍukālāmasutta). Once the Buddha on tour came to Kapilavatthu and there the Sākyan Mahānāma visited the Buddha who asked him to find a suitable lodging. Mahānāma searched for one and recommended the hermitage of Bharaṇḍu the Kālāman. The Buddha proceeded there and established himself. Mahānāma came the next day and said: "There are three kinds of teachers each prescribing full understanding of (1) sensual pleasure but not sensual objects and feeling; (2) sensual pleasure and sensual objects but not feeling; (3) sensual pleasure, sensual objects and feelings. Are these three the same or different?". Bharaṇḍu said they were the same, but the Buddha said they were different. This happened three times whereat Bharaṇḍu said that he would leave Kapilavatthu and did so.

[128] 5. Hattaka. (Hattakasutta). Once the Devaputta Hassaka appeared before the Buddha after assuming a gross body. The Buddha asked him if now things were the same as when he was a human being. Hattaka said that some were the same and some different. He could still preach the Dhamma to young devas. But he had three regrets as a human. He had died unable to satisfy himself fully with (1) seeing the Buddha enough; (3) hearing enough of the good Dhamma; (3) attending enough on the Sangha.

[129] 6. Pollution. (Katuviyasutta). Once during an alms round in Baranāsi the Buddha met a bhikkhu who was confused and unconcentrated, with a wandering mind. He advised the monk not to pollute himself acquiring a stench which will attract flies. The bhikkhu got a sense of urgency. Later after his meal the Buddha related this incident to the monks. A monk wanted to know what pollution, the stench and the flies were. The Buddha replied: "(1) Longing is the pollution; (2) ill-will is the stench; (3) bad thoughts are the flies."

[130] 7. Anuruddha 1. (Pathmaanuruddhasutta). Once venerable Anuruddha came to the Buddha and said: "With my divine eye I see women folk being mostly reborn in hell." The Buddha said: "This is so because women dwell in the home with three qualities: (1) in the morning they live with the stain of miserliness; (2) at midday they live with a mind obsessed with envy; (3) in the evening they live with a a mind obsessed with sensual lust."

[131] 8. Anuruddha 2. (Dutiyaanuruddhasutta). Once venerable Anuruddha came to venerable Sāriputta and said: "With my divine vision I see the thousand-fold world system, my energy is aroused and steadfast, my mindfulness is established yet I have not rid myself of the intoxicants (āsava)." Sāriputta said: "It is conceit that makes you think that you see the world system, it is arrogance that leads to make the statement about your energy, and to destroy the intoxicants you should concentrate of the deathless." Later on Anuruddha did as he was advised and he reached his goal and became an arahant.

[132] Secret . (Paṭicchannasutta). "Monks, there are three secret things: (1) the ways of women; (2) the chants of brahmins; (3) the views of perverse people. Three things ae open and shines: the moon, the sun, and the Dhamma and Discipline of the Tathāgta."

[133] 10. Written in stone. (Lekhasutta). "Monks, there are three kinds of persons: (1) A person like a line written in stone. He is one continuously angry. (2) A person like a line written on the ground. He is one who is angry for a limited time. (3) A person like a line etched on the water. He is a person who is easily reconciled."

14. Yodhājīvavagga – 14. The warrior

[134] 1. The warrior. (Yodhājīvasutta). "Monks, a warrior who is worthy to serve a king, or be a king himself, has three qualities: he is a far shooter, a sharp shooter, and a piercer of huge objects. With these same qualities a monk is worthy of gifts and worship. (1) A monk is a far shooter because he sees all form, feeling, perception, volitional activities and consciousness as 'This is not mine, this I am not, this is not my self'. (2) A monk is a sharp shooter because he understands what is suffering, its origin, cessation, and the path to its cessation. (3) A monk is a piercer of huge things because he is a pierce of ignorance."

[135] 2. Assemblies. (Parisāsutta). "Monks, there are three kinds of assembly: (1) that trained to vain talk; (2) that trained to inquiry; (3) that trained to the limit."

[136] 3. A friend, (Mittasutta). "Monks, (your) friend should have three qualities: (1) give what is hard to give; (2) do what is hard to do; (3) endure what is hard to endure."

[137] 4. Arising. (Uppādasutta). "Monks, whether Tathāgatas arise or not (1) the law that 'All conditioned phenomena are impermanent' will exist; (2) the law that 'All conditioned phenomena are suffering' will exist; (3) the law that 'All conditioned phenomena are non-self' will exist."

[138] 5. Hair blanket. (Keskambalasutta). "Monks, A hair blanket is the worst, ugly, smelly and cold. The doctrine of Makkhali that 'There is no kamma, no deed, no energy' is the worst. (1) The Tathāgatas and arhants of the past taught a doctrine of kamma, deed and energy; (1) the Tathāgatas and arhants of the past taught a doctrine of kamma, deed and energy; (2) the Tathāgatas and arhants of the future will teach a doctrine of kamma, deed and energy; (3) at present I teach a doctrine of kamma, deed and energy;. Just as a trap at the mouth of a river will bring disaster to many fish so Makkhali has laid a trap for many people to come to disaster."

[139] 6. Accomplishment. (Sampadāsutta). "Monks, there are three accomplishments: (1-3) of faith, virtue and wisdom."

[140] 7. Growth. (Vuddhisutta). "Monks, there are three kinds of growth: (1-3) of faith, virtue and wisdom."

[141] 8. Untrained horse. (Assakhaḷuṅkasutta). "Monks, there are three kinds of untrained horse: (1) one with speed but not beauty or proportion; (2) one with speed and beauty but not proportion; (3) one with speed, beauty and proportion. There are also persons (monks) corresponding to these three types: (1) Here the monk has speed (the knowledge of the noble truths on suffering), but he lacks beauty (the knowledge of Dhamma) and proportion (alms, robes and other necessities). (2) Here he knows suffering and Dhamma but does not get alms, robes and necessities. (3) Here he has all three."

[142] 9. Horse. (Assaparassesutta). Here the three types of horse are the same as the three types of wild horse in the previous sutta. But their human counterparts are different: (1) Here the monk has destroyed the five lower fetters but he fails on Dhamma and requisites; (2) here the monk has destroyed the five fetters and knows Dhamma but fails in requisites; (3) here he satisfies all three requirements.

[143] 10. Thoroughbred Horse. (Assajānīyasutta). "Monks. here the bhikkhu counterpart of the thoroughbred horse has three characteristics: (1) the monk has destroyed the intoxicants and fully liberated himself (speed); (2) he is an adapt on the teaching (Dhamma); (3) he gets alms, robes, and other requisit4s (proportion)."

[144] 11. Peacock sanctuary 1. (Paṭhamamonaranivāpasutta). At the peacock samctiary in Rājagaha the Buddha addressed the monks: "The three qualities of a monk who has won the ultimate security from bondage are: (1) Virtues beyond that of the trainee; (2) concentration beyond that of the trainee; (3) wisdom beyond that of the trainee."

[145] 12. Peacock sanctuary 2. (Dutiyamonaranivāpasutta). Same as the previous sutta but the three qualities are now given as: "(1) The wonder of psychic potency; (2) the wonder of mind-reading; (3) the wonder of instruction."

[146] 13. Peacock sanctuary 3. (Tatiyamonaranivāpasutta). Same as the previous sutta but the three quaolities are now given as: "(1) ṛight view (2) right knowledge; (3) right liberation."

15. Mangalavagga – 15. Auspicious

[147] 1. Unskilful. (Akusalasutta). "Monks, a person goes to hell because of sinful acts by (1-3) body, speech and mind. In the opposite case he goes to heaven. "

[148] 2. Blameworthy. (Sāvajjasutta). " "Monks, a person goes to hell because of blameworthy acts by (1-3) body, speech and mind. In the opposite case he goes to heaven."

[149] 3. Crooked. (Visamasutta). Same as previous sutta for blameworthy conduct.

[150] 4. Foul. (Asucisutta). "Same as previous suttas for Crooked and blameworthy conduct.

[151] 5. Maimed 1. (Paṭhamamakhatasutta). "Monks, the foolish, sinful person gets much demerit because of: (1-3) immorality of body, speech, and mind." Doing the opposite earns much merit.

[152] 6. Maimed 2. (Dutiyakhatasutta). The qualities are those in sutta 148.

[153] 7. Maimed 3. (Tatiyakhatasutta). The qualities are those in sutta 149.

[154] 8. Maimed 4. (Catutthakhatasutta). The qualities are those in sutta 150.

[155] 9. Homage. (Vandanāsutta). "Monks, there are three kinds of homage: (1-3) homage done with body, speech and mind."

[156] 10. Good morning. Pubbaṇhasutta). "Monks, those who engage in good conduct in the morning, afternoon and evening feel good at those times. Those who offer alms to holy men have a happy and blessed time. So too are those of upright conduct as they progress on the way."

16. Acelakavagga – 16. Austere practice

[157 - 163] This concluding chapter of this nipāta considers three ways of practice involving extreme sensuality, extreme asceticism, and a middle way which is the way of the Ariyan disciple. Most of it is a repetition of what has been said previously. The suttas are not given specific names. They are omitted in this abstract of suttas.

Here ends the book of the Tikanipāta.