Aṅguttara Nikāya– Book of Gradual Sayings

4. Cattutanipāta – 1. Book of Fours

[NOTE: All statements in these suttas, unless otherwise noted, are made by the Buddha addressing the monks at Jetavana in Sāvatthi. These are included within quotation marks: "...". Sections within curly brackets {...} are comments notes and further explanations by the author of these abstracts. Other statements give general information susally with suare brackets []. Each sutta in this Book deals with four items. They are usually numbered here (1) ... (4) though not in the original Pali]

1. Paṇṇāsaka – 1. The first Fifty

1. Bhaṇḍagāmavagga – 1. At Bhaṇḍagāma

[1] 1. Understanding. (Anubuddhasutta). "Monks, it is because of not understanding four things that you and I have wandered so long. These were (1) noble virtue; (2) noble concentration; noble wisdom; noble release. When these are understood craving ceases and the cord of becoming is cut."

[2] 2. Fallen. (Papatitasutta). One who does no possess the four things mentioned in sutta [1] has fallen from the Dhamma. One who has then has done his task and is happy.

[3] 3. Maimed 1. (Paṭhamakhtasutta). "Monks, A person is injured if without investigation and scrutiny (1) he praises one deserving dispraise; (2) he speaks dispraise of one who deserves praise; (3) he believe a matter that is only suspicious; (4) he is suspicious of a praiseworthy matter."

[4] 4. Maimed 2. (Dutiyakhtasutta). "Monks, a foolish bad person is injured and is subject to reproach if he behaves wrongly towards: (1) his mother; (2) his father; (3) the Tathāgata; (4) a disciple of the Tathāgata. Opposite if he behaves correctly towards them.

[5] 5. Towards the stream. (Anusotasutta). "Monks, there are four kinds of persons: (1) one who goes along the stream (indulges in sensual pleasures); (2) goes against the stream (lives a spiritual life); (3) is inwardly firm (destroys the five lower fetters); (4) one who has crossed over (destroys the intoxicants and reached liberation of mind)."

[6] 6. Learning. (Appassutasutta). "Monks, "there are four kinds of persons: (a1) little learning not fully understood; (2) little learning understood; (3) wide learning not fully understood; (4) wide learning fully understood." In each case the learning refers to learning of Dhamma (suttas and other). Here understanding involves correct practice of what is learned.

[7] 7. Adornment. (Sonhanasutta). "Monks, there are four kinds of a person who adorns the Dhamma: (1) a bhikkhu who is competent, confident in Dhamma and practice it; (2) a bhikkhuni similar to the previous; (3) a male lay follower who is competent in Dhamma; (4) a female lay follower similar to the previous".

[8] 8. Confidence. (Vesārajjasutta). "Monks, a Tathāgata has four confidences and cannot be accused by any ascetic or brahmin or deva or Māra or Brahmā or anyone else of (1) not being fully enlightened; (2) not fully destroying the taints (āsava); (3) declaring as obstacles things that are not obstacles; (4) his Dhamma not leading to the end of suffering. The Tathāgata's Dhamma differs from that of all others."

[9] 9. Craving. (Taṇhuppādasutta). "Monks, craving can arise in a monk because of (1-4) robes, food, lodging, desire for rebirth."

[10] 10. Bonds, (Yogasutta). "Monks, there are four bonds: (1) sensuality (the passion for lust, greed, delight, thirst and craving); (2) existence (or becoming and rebirth); (3) views (not understanding the origin of suffering and seeking other explanations); (4) ignorance (of the arising of the sense spheres). These bonds can be severed."

2. Caravagga – 2. Walking(etc.)

[11] 1. Walking. (Carasutta). "Monks, a monk is lacking in zeal and is sluggish if sensual thoughts arise and are not dispelled when he is (1) walking; (2) standing; (3) sitting; (4) lying down."

[12] 2. Virtue. (Sīlasutta). "Monks, live virtuously restrained by the Pātimokkka. A bhikkhu is ardent and resolute if he has got rid of coveting-and-ill-will, sloth-and-torpor, excitement and doubt while (1) walking; (2) standing; (3) sitting; (4) lying down."

[13] 3. Effort. (Padhānasutta). "Monks, the four right efforts are the effort to : (1) avoid new unwholesome states; (2) destroy existing bad unwholesome states; (3) generate new wholesome states; (4) develop existing wholesome states."

llly exam ined all the [14] 4. Restraint. (Saṃvarasutta). "Monks, There are four efforts: (1) the effort to restrain (the sense faculties of eye, ear, tongue, body and mind); (2) the effort to abandon (sensual thoughts, ill-will); (3) the effort to develop (the enlightenment factors of mindfulness, discrimination of phenomena, energy, rapture, tranquillity and equanimity); (4) the effort to protect (the different objects of concentration like a skeleton or corpse)."

[15] 5. Types (of person). (Paññattisutta). "Monks, there are four types of person: (1) with a body like Rahu the Assura; (2) with sensuality like King Mandhātā; (3) with authority like Māra th Evil One; (4) with excellence like the Tathāgata and the arahants."

[16] 6. Softness. (Sokummasutta). "Monks, bhikkhus have four kinds of softness: (1) softness of body; (2) softness of feeling; (3) softness of perception; (4) softness of volitional activities."

[17] 7. Wrong direction 1. (Paṭhamaagatisutta). "Monks, the four reasons for taking the wrong direction are (1-4) desire, hatred, delusion and fear."

[18] 8. Wrong direction 2. (Dutiyaagatisutta). The reasons for not taking the wrong direction are the opposite of those identified in the previous sutta.

[19] 9. Wrong direction 3. (Tatiyaagatisutta). This is a combination of the two previous suttas.

a [20] 10. The assigner of meals. (Battuddesakasutta). "Monks, an assigner of meals who takes the wrong direction goes to hell if he acts due to (1-4) desire, hatred, delusion and fear."

3. Uruvelavagga – 3. Uruvela

[21] 1. Uruvela 1. (Paṭhamauruvelasutta). "Monks, once I was living at Uruvela (after the Enlightenment) and the thought ocurred to me if there was anyone to whom I should show reverence. Then I realised that there was none in this world with its devas, Maras, Brahmas, ascetics, brahmins, and humans, to whom I should honour, reverence, obey and serve. Then it ocurred to me that the Dhamma alone was worthy of reverence. The Brahma Sahampati read my mind and appeared before me. He urged me in my line of thinking and begged me to teach the Dhamma."

[23] 3. The world (Lokasutta). "Monks, The Tathā gata is so called because: (1) he is aware of and has mentally examined all the sense phenomena in the world; (2) During his entire life after the Enlightenment he utters only that which is just; (3) he does what he says; (4) he is the universal vanquisher. "

[24] 4. Kālaka. (Kāḷakasutta). In the Kalaka Park in Sāteka the Buddha said: "Monks, the Tathāgata does not misconceive: (1) what he sees; (2) what he hears; (3) what he senses; (4) what he cognizes. Thus the Tathāgata is a stable one."

[25] 5. The devine life. (Brāhmacariyasutta). "Monks, the devine life is not lived for cheating, for gain, for notoreity. It is lived for (1-4) self-restraint; for abandoning; for detachment from the passions; for cessation."

[26] 6. The deceivers. (Kuhasutta). "Monks, those monks who are deceivers are: (1) not bhikkhus; (2) have strayed from this Dhamma and discipline. But those who are honest and comply with the Dhamma are: (3) bhikkhus; (4) achieve growth."

b>[27] 7. Contentedness. (Santutthisutta). "Monks, these are trifles: (1) "A robe made of rags; (2) a handful of almsfood; (3) the foot of a tree as lodgings; (4) urine as medicine. A monk who is content with these trifles is a true recluse."

[28] 8. Lineage. (Āriyavaṃsasutta). "Monks, these are the ancient Ariyan lineages: (1) contentment with any robe; (2) contentment with any alms-food; (3) contentment with any lodging; (4) delight in abandoning. Any monk following these is in the ancient Ariyan lineage."

[29] 9. Dhamma factors. (Dhammapadasutta). "Monks, there are four Dhamma factors of long standing: (1-4) non-longing; good-will; right mindfulness; Right Concentration."

[30] 10. Wanderers. (Paribbājakasutta). In this sutta the Buddha repeats the four ancient Dhamma factors given in the previous sutta to a group of wandereres assembled on the banks of the' Sappini river.

4. Cakkavagga – 4.The Wheel

[31] 1. (Cakkasutta). "Monks, rolling these four wheel a deva or human can be great and get great wealth: (1) Live in a suitable locality; (2) rely on good persons; (3) make right resolution; (4) have merits done in the past."

[32] 2. Sympathy. (Saṅgahasutta). "Monks, there are four ways of having a good relationship: (1-4) Chritable giving, endearing speech, good conduct, and impartiality."

[33] 3. The lion. (Sīhasutta). "Monks, when the lion utters his roar all animals quake and hide themselves. So too when a Tathāgata arises and proclaims the Dhamma people know that (1) Such is individual existence; (2) such is its the origin; (3) such is its cessation; (4) such is the way to its cessation."

[34] 4. Foremost doctrine. (Aggapādasutta). "Monks, there are four aspects of the foremost doctrine: (1) the Tathāgata is the foremost of beings; (2) his Ariyan eight-fold path is the foremost of doctrines; (3) dispassio is foremost quality and the ending of craving leads to Nibbāna; (4) confidence in the Buddha's Sangha is foremost of groupings. Thus confidence in the Sangha is the best kind of confidence."

[35] 5. Vassakara. (Vassakārasutta). "Monks, once in Rajagaha the brahmin Vassakara came to me and said that brahmins regard the four best qualities of a man as: great learning, undersanding what is leant, good memory, and diligent peformance of a houeholder's duties. I neither agreed nor disagreed with him but gave the four qualities of the Dhamma as: (1) a Dhamma practitioner works for the welfare of many people; (2) he is a mental master of the ways of thought; (3) he easily achieves the four jhānas; (4) he achieves the liberation of mind by eliminating the intoxicacations." ,

[36] 6. Dona. (Doṇasutta). Once the Buddha was travellihg between Ukkatta and Setabbya when he left the highway to meditate under a tree. The Brahmin Dona was also travelling after the Buddha and he observed the footprints of the Buddha which had the special markings. He caught up with the Buddha under the tree and asked him: "Are you a deva or a gandabbha, or a yakkha or a human being ?" The Buddha said that he was none of these because he had destroyed the taints that would have led to those kinds of birth and that he was now a Buddha,

[37] 7. No falling away. (Aparihāniyasutta). "Monks, by developing four things a monk is close to Nibbāna, these are: (1-4): he is of virtuous behavior, he guards the sense-doors, he is moderate in eating, and he is intent on wefulness."

[38] Withdrawn,Patilīnasutta). "Monks, to be withdrawn a bhikkhu should : (1) abandon individual beliefs (like 'the world is eternal'); (2) give up searching (for things like sense pleasure); (3) make the body tranquil (like by acquiring the fourth jhāna); (4) be totally withdrawn (like by abandoning the conceit 'I am')."

[39] 9. Ujjaya. (Ujjayasutta). The brahmin Ujjaya came to the Buddha and asked if Gotama praises sacrifice. The Buddha replied that he does not praise the killing of any living being as a sacrifice. Nor does he approve of the various rituals involvd in the (Vedic) sacrifice. But he does I praise sacrifice that does not innvlove killing and cruelty. Such sacrifice is praised by the worthy ones". < br>
[40] 10. Udayin. (Udāyīsutta). This is the same as the previous sutta but given to another brahmin Udayin.

6. Rohitassavagga – 3. Rohitassa

[41] 1. Concentration (Samādibhāvanāsutta). "Monks, concentration leads to four goals: (1) a happy life (through development of the jhānas); (2) acquiring knowledge and vision (through a luminous mind); (3) mindfulness (especially of feelings); (4) destruction of the āsavas (through eliminaton of craving)."

[42] 2. Questions. Pañhbyākaraṇasutta). "Monks, Thre are four ways of dealing with a question: (1) give a categorical reply; (2) give a qualified reply; (3) ask a conter question; (4) ignore the question."

[43] 3. Anger 1. (Paṭhamakodhagarusutta). "Monks, there are four types of peresons: (1) those who value anger to Dhamma; (2) those who value reviling to Dhamma; (3) those who value gain to Dhamma; (4) those who value honours to Dhamma. But there are also those who value Dhamma to all these."

[44] 4. Anger 2. (Dutiyakodhagarusutta). This is the same as the previous sutta where bad people value the four things given to the Dhamma while the good people value the Dhamma above these.

[45] 5. Rohitassa 1. (Paṭhamarohitassasutta). Once towards the end of the night the deva Rohitassa came to the Buddha and asked: "Is it possible by walking to reach the end of the world where there is no more being born or growing old or dying, or being reborn ?" The Buddha said that it was not possible to do so. The deva then said that in a previous birth he had great psychic powers including the power to walk in giant strides but he tried to walk to the end of the world but could not do so and died in the process.

[46] 6. Rohitassa 2. (Dutiyarohitassasutta). In this sutta the Buddha recounts to the monks the story of the visit of the deva Rohitassa given in the previous sutta.

[47] 7. Far away. (Suvidūrasutta). "Monks, There are four pairs of things that are near and far: (1) Sky and earth; (2) the shores of the ocean; (3) where the sun rises and sets. (4) good teaching and bad teaching."

[48] 8. Visākha. (Viskhasutta). Once the venerable Visākha Pancaliputta was addressing the monks in the Assembly Hall in Sāvatthi exorting the listerners with good Dhamma talk. Later the Buddha came to the Hall and asked who had been speaking earlier. When told that it was Visākha the Buddha complimented Visākha and added: "One knows a wise person by his words. If a person is silent one would not know who he is."

[49] 9. Perversions. (Vipallāsasutta). "Monks, perversions in perception, thought and view are of four kinds, holding what is (1) impermanent as permanent; (2) suffering as pleasure; (3) non-self as self; (4) unattractive as attractive."

[50] 10. Defilements. (Upakilesasutta). "Monks, there are four defilements that could obscure the light from the sun and the moon. These are (1-4): Clouds, fog, smoke and dust.


Dutiyapaññāsaka – The second fifty suttas

6. Paññāsakavagga – 6. Flood of Merit

[51] 1. Flood of merit 1. (Paṭhamapaññāsakasutta). "Monks, there are four floods of merit (to householders). These are the giving (to monks) of (1-4) robes, food, lodging, and medicines. These allow the monks to engage in concentration and the givers go to heaven."

[52] 2. Flood of merit 2. (Dutiyapaññāsakasutta). In this sutta the same four floods of merit mentioned in the previus sutta are repeated with the addition that the Ariyan disciple so engaged is motivated by faith in the Buddha, the Dhamma and the sangha.

[53] 3. Living together 1.(Paṭhamasamavāsasutta). Once the Buddha while travelling between Madura and Verañja a group of householders came to him. The Buddha addressed them thus: "There are four ways of living together. (1-4): A vile woman lives with a vile man, a vile woman lives with a virtuous man, a virtuous man lives with a vile woman, a virtuous man l,ives with a virtuous woman. Virtuosity here is the keeping of the moral precepts. It is the last kind of living together that produces the best results.

[54] 4. Living together 2. (Dutiyasamavasasutta). This is the same as the previous sutta but this time addressed to the monks and not the householders.

[55] 5. Equal living 1.(Paṭhamasamajīvasutta). Once in Bhagga the Buddha visited the home of Nakula's parents. Both Nakula's parents then told the Buddha: "Ever since our marriage we have lived in harmony speaking kind words to each other. How can we do the same in our next birth also?" The Buddha replied: "Blessing comes to a married couple if they live according to Dhamma, speaking kind words to each other. Their enemies are defeated. After death they will be born in the deva world, there enjoying the sensual pleasures."

' [56] 6. Equal living 2. (Dutiyasamajīvasutta). In this sutta the Buddha's reply to Nakula's parents in the previous sutta is given to the monks.

[57] 7. Suppavasa. (Suppvasasutta). Once in the Koliyan town of Sajjanela the Buddha was invited for a meal by the Koliyan lady Suppavasa. After the meal the Buddha addressed Suppavasa thus: "When food is given by a noble lady she provides four things to the recipient: (1-4) life, beauty, happiness, and strength. But she also partakes of the same four for herself. When the donation is for those who are upright merit is joined to merit. Having destroyed miserliness the giver is joyful and after death goes to heaven." ,

[58] 8. Sudatta. (Sudatttasutta). In this sutta the same discourse given to Suppavasa in the previous sutta is now given to Anātapiṇḍika (Sudatta).

[59] 9. Food. (Bhojanasutta). In this sutta the same discourse given to Suppavasa and Anātapiṇḍika in the previous two suttas is now given to the monks.

[60] 10. The lay person's duty. (Gihisāmicisutta). The Buddha once addessed Anātapiṇḍika thus: "The four duties of the Ariyan disciple are to wait upon the Order of monks offering (1-4) robes, alms-food, lodging and medicines. By day and night their merit grows and they reach heaven."

7. Pattakammavagga – 7. Meritorious deeds

[61] 1. Meritorious deeds. (Pattakammasutta). Once the Buddha addressed Anātapiṇḍika thus: "The four things that householders wish for are wealth, fame, longevity and after death rebirth in heaven. These may be difficult things to achieve. But there are four other things whose acquisition may lead to the four thing wished for. These are accomplishment in (1-4) faith, virtue, generosity, and wisdom. Wealth acquired righteously should be spent on acquiring these four worthy deeds. When wealth is exhausted in things other than these four it is wealth wasted.  But when anyone exhausts wealth on these four worthy deeds, that wealth is said to have gone to good use."

[62] 2. Without debt. (Ānaṇyasutta). On another occcasion the Buddha addressed Anātapiṇḍika thus: "Householders seek four kinds of happiness: the bliss of ownership, of enjoyment, of freedom from debt, and of blamelessness. Being blameless of wrong action by body, speech and mind is the greatest of these kinds of happiness."

[63] 3. Brahma's equal.(Brahmasutta). "Monks, mothers and fathers in families who are worshipped in the home are considered equal to (1)Brahmā (2) teachers of old; (3) devas; (4) persons to whom offering should be made. People should serve them with food, clothing, beds, massage, and they will be rewarded in heaven."

[64] 4. Hell. (Nirayasutta). "Monks, a person goes to hell who (1-4) takes life, steals, does wrong in sensual desires, and is a liar.

[65] 5. External form.(Rūpasutta). "Monks, there are four kinds of persons depending on whether they judge on : (1) external form; (2) speech; (3) austerity; (4) Dhamma. The first three place their confidence on the single factor, but not the Dhamma farer."

[66] 6. Lust. (Sarāgasutta). "Monks, there are four kinds of persons: (1-4) the lustful, the hateful, the deluded, and the proud. They are low beings enamoured by the attractive, deluded beings who increase their fetters."

[67] 7. King of snakes. (Ahirājasutta). Once a monk in Sāvatthi died of a snake bite. This news was conveyed to the Buddha who said: "This monk had not regarded the four royal families of snakes (Virupakkha, Erapattla, Chabyiputta and Kasha-gotamaka) with a mind of loving kindness." He then taught the monks a chant by which they could extens loving kindness to these snakes.

[68] 8. Devadatta. (Devadattasutta). Soon after Devadatta had left the Order the Buddha addressed the monks: "Devadatta went to his ruin and destruction because of his own wish for gain, honour and flattery. Just like the plantain (banana) tree which destroys itself after it has yielded its fruit."

[69] 9. Effort. (Padhānasutta). "Monks, there are four efforts, (1-4) the effort to restrain, to abandon, to develop and to to protect. Restraining is preventing unwholesome states from arising. Abandoning is the destruction of unwholesome states that have arisen. Development is the cultivation of new wholesome states. Protection is the preservation wholesome states that have arisen.

[70] 10. Not Dhamma. (Adhammikasutta). "Monks, when kings are unrighteous they are followed by ministers, brahmins, and householders, all of whom become unrighteous. This is followed by the sun and moon who change their course, days, nights and seasons are out of joint, winds blow out of season, and the rains fail. When the kings are righteous the opposite happens. This is like the lead bull going one way followed by the rest of he herd."

8. Apaṇṇakavagga – 8. The Certain

[71] 1. Effort. (Padhānasutta). "Monks, if a monk has these four qualities he is certain of destroying the āsavas (intoxicants): he is (1-4) virtuous, learned, of ardent effort, and wise."

[72] 2. Right view. (Sammādiṭṭhisutta). "Monks, if a monk has these four thoughts he is certain of destroying the āsavas (intoxicants): renunciation, good intention, non-harming, and right view."

[73] 3. Unworthy 1. (Sappurisasutta). "Monks, a person is unworthy if he: (1) reveals the faults of others even if he is not asked; (2) does not reveal the virtues of others even if asked; (3) does not reveal his own faults even if asked; (4) claims virtues for himself falsely. A good person does the opposite of these."

[74] 4. Foremost 1. (Paṭhamaaggasutta). "Monks, four things that are foremost and best: (1-4) virtuous behaviour, concentration, wisdom, and liberation."

[75] 5. Foremost 2. (Dutiyaaggasutta). "Monks, four things that are foremost and best: (1-4) (physical) forms, feelings, perceptions, and states of existence. "

[76] 6.Kusināra. (Kusinārasutta). When the Budddha was at Kunisnāra between the Sal trees before his final passing away he asked the assembled monks three times to ask any question if they needed clarification on the Dhamma. But the monks were silent. He then said that if anyone was reluctant to ask directly he could ask a friend to ask on his behalf, Again the monks were silent, Then venerable Ananda observed: "It is indeed marvellous that the monks do not have any doubt on the Dhamma."

[77] 7. Unthinkable. (Acinteyyasutta). "Monks, there are four unthinkable matters: (1) The domain of the Buddhas; (2) the domain of one in jhāna; (4) speculation about the world. To conceive them would be either madness or frustration."

[78] 8. Gifts. (Dakkhninasutta). "Monks, there are four situations in the making and receiving of gifts: (1) the giver is virtuous but the receiver is wicked; (2) the giver is wicked but the receiver is virtuous; (3) both giver and receiver are wicked; (4) both giver and receiver are virtuous.

[79] 9. Trade. (Vanijjasutta). Once the venerable Sāriputta came to the Buddha and asked: "Why is it that a business deal made by a one person succeeds as intended while that of another person fails ?" The Buddha replied: "If in a previous birth a person had not kept his promise in a transaction then in this life a business deal undertaken by him will be a failure. Also if a person cheats in a transaction in this life in a future life his trade will be a failure. If on the other hand a person had acted correctly in a transaction in a previous life then a transaction he does in this life will be a success."

[80] 10. The fruit of the deed. (Kambhojasutta). Once at Kosambi the venerable Ananda asked the Buddha: "Why is it that women neither sit in a court, nor engage in business, nor reach the fruit of  the deed ?" The Buddha replied: "Women are uncontrolled, envious, greedy, weak in wisdom. That is the reason."

9 . Macalavagga – 9. Unshaken

[81] 1. Killing. (Pānātipātasutta). "Monks, a person goes to hell if he destroys the life of living things. If he does not do so he is rewarded. "

[82] 2. Lying. (Musāvādasutta). "Monks, a person goes to hell if he engages in wrong speech. If he does not do so he is rewarded. "

[83] 3. Praise,(Avaṇṇārhasutta). "Monks, a person goes to hell because of (1) praising something not worthy of paise; (2) blaming things worth of praise; (3) appreciating things not worthy of appreciation; (4) not appreciating what should be appreciated, In the opposite cases he is rewarded. "

[84] 4. Anger. (Kodagarusutta). "Monks, a person goes to hell because he acts contrary to Dhamma with regard to (1-4) wrath, hypocrisy, gain, and honours. In the opposite situations he goes to heaven."

[85] 5. Darkness.(Tamotamasutta). "Monks, there are four kinds of persons: (1) those in darkness and bound for darkness; (2) those in darkness but bound for light; (3) those in light but bound for darkness; (4) those in darkness but bound for light. Here darkness means being in unfavourable circumstances like poverty, ill health and so on, light means being in opposite circumstance;. It is action that determines the destination."

[86] 6. Bent down. (Oṇatoṇatasutta). "Monks, there are four kinds of person: (1) One who is (1) low and remains low; (2) low and becomes high; (3) high and becomes low; (4) high and remains high."

[87] 7. Recluses. (Puttasutta). "Monks, there are four kinds of recluse (bhikkhu) : (1) the unshaken recluse (who is the worthy successor of his teacher and has entered the way); (2) the blue-lotus recluse (who has destroyed the āsavas but not achieved the eight emancipations); (3) the white-lotus recluse (who has destroyed the āsavas and achieved the eight emancipations); (4) the exquisite recluse (who gets his requistes when invited otherwise not). "

[88] 8. Fetters. (Saṃyojanasutta). In this sutta the same four classes of recluses given in sutta 87 are given except that the steadfast recluse is one who is a stream-winner with three fetters destroyed, the blue-lotus recluse is a once-returner, the white-lotus recluse is a non-returner, and the exquisite recluse is one who has achieved full liberation of mind.

[89] 9. Right View. (Sammādiṭṭhisutta). In this sutta the same four classes of recluses given in sutta 87 are given except that the steadfast recluse is one who has achieved the requirements of the eight-fold path, the blue-lotus recluse does the same but has no personal experience of the eight deliverances, the white-lotus recluse, has achieved these deliverances, and finally the exquisite recluse gets his material requirements through invitation from his devotees.

[90] 10. Aggregates. (Khandasutta). In this sutta the same four classes of recluses given in sutta 87 are given except that the steadfast recluse is a pupil, who has not made up his mind and lives aspiring for the goal, the blue-lotus recluse is one who is contemplating the rise and fall of the five grasping-groups and does not experience the eight deliverances, the white-lotus recluse has experienced these deliverances, and the exquisite recuse is the same as iun the previous sutta.

10 . Asuravagga – 10. The Asuras

[91] 1. The Asuras. (Asurasutta). "Monks, there are fouir kinds of persons:  (1-4) the asura with a retinue of asuras, the asura with a retinue of devas. the deva with a retinue of asuras and the deva with a retinue of asuras. Here 'asura' means an immoral person, and a 'deva' means a moral person."

[92] 2. Concentration 1. ( Paṭhamasamādhisutta). "Monks, there are four kinds persons: (1) the one who gains mental calm of the self, but not the higher wisdom of insight; (2) the one who gains the higher wisdom of insight into things, but does not gain mental calm of the self; (3) the one who gains neither of these things; (4) the one who gains both."

[93] 3. Concentration 2. ( Dutiyasamādhisutta). This sutta explains the four kinds of persons identified in the previous suttsa as four kinds of bhikkhus.

[94] 4. Concentration 3. ( Tatiyasamādhisutta). In this sutta a monk goes to four bhikkhus each of whom belongs to one of the four kinds of bhikkhu identified in the previous sutta and is given an explanation why the bhikkhu belongs to that particular kind to which he belongs.

[95] 5. The firebrand. (Chavālatasutta). In this sutta a bhikkhu goes to the four kinds of persons identified in sutta 92. The monks approached said why they beonged to their category of choice.

[96] 6. Lust. (Rāgavinayasutta). "Monks, there are four kinds persons: (1) one who is only concerned with his own welfare; (2) one who is concerned only with the welfare of others; (3) one who is concerned with both; (4) one who is concerned with neither." Here welfare is seen as the removal of lust, hatred and delusion.

[97] 7. Quick witted. (Khippanisantisutta). As in the previous sutta the four kinds of people are defined in terms of their attitude to welfare, but welfare is now described as being quick in attending to wholesome teachings, memorizing them, understanding their their meaning and practicing them. .

[98] 8. Self welfare. (Attahitasutta). This is the same as the previous sutta.

[99] 9. Precepts. (Sikkhapadasutta). This is the same as the immediate previous suttas on the four kinds of welfare but welfare is now defined as keeping the five precepts.

[100] 10. Potaliya. (Potaliyasutta). Once the wanderer Potaliya came to the Buddha and the Buddha said to him that there were four kinds of  people: (1) some deservardly dispraises someone who deserves dispraise, and the dispraise is accurate, truthful, and timely; but he does not praise of someone deserving  praise; (2) some deservardly praises someone but does disprsise someone deserving dispraise; (3) another does not dispraise someone who deserves dispraise, nor praise someone deserving  praise; (4) another dispraises someone deserving dispraise and praises one deserving praise. which of these is the better?" Potaliya chose the third alternative.  Te Buddha however showed that the fourth alternative is the best. This convinced Potaliya.

11 . Valāhakavagga – 11. Clouds

[101] 1. Cloud 1. (Paṭhmvalāhalukasutta). "Monks, there are four types of clouds (1-4) the thunderer but not rainer, rainer but not thunderer, neither thunderer nor rainer, and both thunderer and rainer. Similarfly there are four types of person where a thunderer is one who talks and a rainer is one who acts.

[102] 2. Cloud 2. (Dutiyavalāhalukasutta). This suttta elaborates on the four classses of persons (compared to clouds) given in the previous sutta, as follows: (1) This kind of person knows all the discourses does not know what suffering and so on are. (2) This person does not know the discourses but understands suffering. (3) This person knows neither the discourses nor does he know what suffering is. (4) He knows bothe the texts and th way to end suffering..

b>[103] 3. The pot. (Kumbhasutta). "Monks, There are four kinds of pots: the empty and closed, the full and open, the empty and open, and the full and closed. Corresponding to these there are four kinds of persons. (1) an empty and closed person is charming but does not understand the Noble Truths. (2) a full and open person is not charming but he understands the Noble Truths. (3) an empty and open person is neither charming nor understands the Noble Truths. (3) a full and closed person is charming but does not understand the Noble Truths. (4) a full and closed person is charming and understands the Noble Truths. " The last is the best.

[104] 4. Pools of water. (Udakarahadasutta). In this sutta the analogy of the four pools given in the previous sutta is applied to four pools of water to illustrate the four kinds of persons..

[105] 5. Mangoes. (Ambasutta). In this sutta the analogy of the four persons given in the Sutta 103 previous sutta is applied to four kinds of mangoes, ripe and unripe, appears to be ripe aned appers to be unripe. These are used to illustrate the four kinds of persons.

[106] 6. Mangoes 2. (Dutiyaambasutta). This is a repetition of the previous sutta but does not appear in any Pali text.

[107] 7. Mice (Musikasutta). In this sutta the analogy of the four pois given in the Sutta 103 is applied to four kinds of mice,one making a hole but not living there and making a hole and living there. These are used to illustrate the four kinds of persons.

> [108] 8. Cattle. (Balibaddakasutta). This sutta deals with four kinds of persons (as given in suttta 103) who are compared to four kinds of bull, one aggressive towards other cattle not its own kind, one aggresive towards the own kind but not others, one aggressive towards all, and one aggressivfe towards none. It is only the last mentioned that is approved by the Buddha.

[109] 9. Trees. (Rukkhssutta). This sutta deals with four kinds of persons (as given in suttta 103) who are compared to four kinds of trees, one one made of softwood trees surrounded by hardwood trees; the one made of softwood who is surrounded by hardwood; one made of hardwood surrounded by softwood; and one made of hardwood surrounded by hardwood. In this analogy softwood is compared to immoral persons and hardwood to moral persons. The Buddha approves the fourth kind of person.

[110] 10. Snakes. (Asīvisasutta). hssutta). This sutta deals with four kinds of persons (as given in suttta 103) who are compared to four kinds of snakes, one venomous but not fierce,, one fierce but not venomous, one both, asnd one neither. The Buddhaq approved of the last kind.

11 . Kesivagga – 11. Kesi.

[111] 1. Kesi. (Kesisutta). Once the Buddha asked Kesi the horse trainer how he trains a horse. Kesi answered: "By harshness or kindness or both; but if it is untrainable it is destroyed. How does the Buddha train a man?" The Buddha answered: "Also by harshness and kindness. He is taught the precepts and the consequences of not following them like rebirth in bad destinations. If he is not trainable he is destroyed." Kesi is surprised that the Buddha would kill him but the Buddha answered that in his system destruction is not physical killing but the inability of the person to be saved from rebirth.

[112] 2. Speed. (Javasutta). "Monks, the qualities that make a horse worthy of a king are: (1-4) straightness, speed, patience and docility. Possessed of these same four qualities a man [monk] is worthy of veneration, receiving gifts, and is the best field of merit in the world."

[113] 3. Goad. (Patodasutta). "Monks, an excellent horse at the feel of the whip becomes (1) agitated as to what is rewhat quired of him, (2) is stirred. (3) feels agitated, and (4) thinks it can do for its driver. Similarly an excellent person at the thought that someone somewhere is gravely ill has the same four kinds of feeling as the horse struck by the whip."

[114] 4. Elephant. (Nāgasutta). "Monks, an elephant is worthy of a king if he is (1-4) a listener, a destroyer, an endurer.and a goer. Similarly a monk with these same four qualities is worthy of gifts and is an unsurpassed field of merit for the world."

[115] 5. Actions. (Thānasutta). "Monks, there are four kinds of actions to the doer: (1) unpleasant and unprofitable; (2) unpleasant but profitable; (3) pleasant but unprofitable; (4, both pleasant and profitable. The first three kinds of actions are done by the foolish, anbd the fur th by the wise."

[116] 6. Alertness. (Appamādasutta). "Monks, there ar e four kinds of misconduct you should abandon and develop their opposite. These are misconduct (1-4) of body, of speecjh, of mind, and of wrong view." these are : bodilu misconduct, verbnal misconduct, mental miscondct, and wrong view. Then there will be nofear of the life to come after death."

[1177] 7. Guarded, (Ārakkhasutta). "Monks, there are four things that a monk concerned with his welfare should guard his mind against. These are : (1-4) lust; hatred; heedlessness and intoxication."

[118] 8. Emotion, (Saṃvedanasutta). "Monks, there are four places which a believing clansman shuld regard with inspiration and great emotion. These are these places are: (1-4) where thje Tathāgata was born; where he achieeed enlightenment; where he delivered the first sermon; and where he passed into Nibbāna.

[119] 9. Fear 1, (Paṭhamabhayasutta). "Monks, there are four fears"the fears of (1-4): birth; old age; aisease; and death. These are the four fears."

[120] 10. Fear 2, (Dutiyabhaysutta). (sutta). "Monks, there are four fears"the fears of (1-4): fire; water;, the King; and bandits."

12 . Bhayavagga – 12. Fear

[121] 1. Self reproach (Attānuvādasutta). "Monks, There are four fears: reproach by oneself (for doing evil); reproach by others (for same); punishment (for evil) , rebirth in hell (after death)."

[122] 2. The wave. (ūmibhayasutta). "Monks, someone entering the water has four fears. These are fear of waves, crocodiles, whirlpools, and sea-monsters. Corresponding to these a monk has four fears of having to leave the training due to (1) vexatious instructions from fellow monks (waves); (2) pining for good food he had formerly (crocodiles); (3) pining for former lust he enjoyed (whirlpools); and (4) pining for women (sea monsters)."

[123] 3. Different persons 1. (Paṭhamaānākaraṇasutta). "Monks, there are four kinds of persons (monks): one who, secluded from sensual pleasures and unwholesome states, reaches (1) the first jhāna; (2) the second jhāna; (3) the third jhāna; (4) the fourth jhāna. After death they all go to the Brahma worlds."

[124] 4. Different persons 2. (Dutiyaānākaraṇasutta). "Monks, there are four kinds of persons (monks): one who, aloof from sense desires, reaches (1) the first jhāna; (2) the second jhāna; (3) the third jhāna; (4) the fourth jhāna. After death they all become devas of the Pure Abodes"

[125] 5. Loving kindness 1. (Paṭhamamettāsutta). "Monks, There are four kinds of persons. One pervading all quarters, up and down, and everywhere with a mind full of (1) loving kindness; (2) compassion; (3) equanimity; (4) altruistic joy."

[126] 6. Loving kindness 2. (Dutiyamettāsutta). All the persons mentioned in the previous sutta after death are reborn in the Pure Abodes.

[127] 7. Miracles 1. (Paṭhamatathāgataaccariyasutta). "Monks, great and mighty miracles happen when (1) a bodhisattva leaves the Tusita heaven destined to become a Buddha; (2) when a Tathāgata is born; (3) when a Tathāgata declares the Dhamma; (4) when a Tathāgata passes into utter Nibbāna."

[128] 8. Miracles 2. (Dutiyatathāgataaccariyasutta). "Monks, four things that happen when a Tathāgata is manifested: the people (1) take delight and rejoice; (2) are excited with pride; (3) are eager to hear the Dhamma; (4) take delight in shedding their ignorance."

[129] 9. Miracles 3. (Ānandaaccariyasutta). "Monks, there are these four marvellous things about Ananda: (1) when monks come to see Ananda they are delighted; (2) when lay male followers come to see Ananda they are delighted; (3) when bhikkhunis come to see Ananda they are delighted; (4) when female lay followers come to see Ananda they are delighted."

[130] 10. Miracles 4. (Cakkavattiachariyasutta). In this sutta the four wonderful things that happen with regard to Ananda in the previous sutta are repeated with regard to a wheel-turning monarch who is visited by noblemen, brahmins, householders and recluses.

13. Puggalavagga – 13. Persons

[131] 1. Fetters. (Saṃyojanasutta). "Monks, there are four kinds of person, (1) one who has not abandoned the lower fetters (relating to tho current world); (2); one who has abandoned worldly fetters but not those relating to rebirth; (3) one who has abandoned both these kinds of fetters but not those relating to existence (bhavapatilābha); (4) one who has abandoned all fetters, i.e. the Arahant."

[132] 2. Response. (Paṭibhānasutta). "Monks, there are four ways of responding: (1) to the point (yutta) but diffuse (mutta);(2) not diffuse but also not to the point; (3) doing both; (4) doing neither."

[133] 3. Quick-learning. (Uggahaṭitaññusutta). "Monks, there are four ways of learning: (1) quickly through mere hints; (2) needing full details; (3) needing additional instruction; (4) going just by the word."

[134] 4. Effort. (Uṭṭhānapharasutta). "Monks, there are four kinds of person: (1) one who relies on effort but not on kamma; (2) one who relies on kamma and not on effort; (3) one who relies on neither; (4) one who relies on both."

[135] 5. Blameworthy, (Savajjasutta). "Monks, there are four kinds of person: (1) one who is blameworthy (for his bodily, verbal and mental actions); (2) one who is fully blameworthy; (3) one who is slightly blameworthy; (4) one who is not blameworthy at all."

[136] 6. Virtue 1. (Paṭhamasīlssutta). "Monks, there are four kinds of person: (1) one who does not value (and 'put first') each of virtue, concentration, or wisdom; (2) one who values virtue but not concentration or wisdom; (3) one who values the first two bnt not the third; (4) one who values all three."

[137] 7. Virtue 2. (Dutiyasīlssutta). Same as the previous sutta except that the qualification 'putting first' is ommited.

[138] 8. Subdued. (Nikaṭṭhasutta). "Monks, there are four kinds of person: (1) one who is subdued in body but not in mind; (2) one subdued in mind but not in body; (3) one not subdued in either; (4) one subdued in both."

[139] 9. Talking about Dhamma. (Dhammakaṭhikasutta). "Monks, There are four ways of talking about Dhamma: (1) saying little and not to the point so that listeners do not understand; (2) saying little but to the point, so that skilled listeners can understand; (3) saying much but off the point so that listerners do not understand; (4) says much and to the point, so that skilled listeners can understand."

[140] 10. Speakers. (Vādhiksutta). "Monks, There are four kinds of speakers of Dhamma: (1) one who knows the letter but not the meaning; (2) one who knows the meaning but not the letter; (3) one who does not know either; (4) one who knows both. The last kind possesses thefour analytical powers."

14. Abhāvagga – 14. Splendour

[141] 1. Splendour. (Abhāsutta). "Monks, there are four splendours: that of (1-4) the moon; the sun; fire; wisdom. The last is the best."

[142] 2. Radiance. (Pabhasutta). "Monks, there are four radiances: that of (1-4) the moon; the sun; that of fire; that of wisdom. The last is the best."

[143] 3. Light. (Ālokasutta). "Monks, there are four lights: (1-4) the moon; the sun; fire; wisdom. The last is the best."

[144] 4. Brilliance. (Obhāsasutta). "Monks, there are four brilliances: that of (1-4) the moon; the sun; that of fire; that of wisdom. The last is the best."

[145] 5. Lamp. (Pajjotasutta). "Monks, there are four lamps (1-4) moon; sun; fire; wisdom. The last is the best."

[146] 6. Season 1. (Paṭhamakālasutta). "Monks, four things can be done in due season: (1-4) hearing Dhamma; discussing Dhamma; calming (oneself); gaining insight.

[147] 7. Season 2. (Dutiyaālasutta). The previous sutta is repeated to which is added: "Just as heavy rain fills all places where water is held, the four seasons should be developed in order to achieve the destruction of the intoxicants (Āsavas).

[148] 8. Wrong Speech. (Duccaritasutta). "Monks, there are four kinds of bad speech: (1-4) lying; spiteful; harsh; gossip."

[149] 9. Right Speech. (Sucharitasutta). "Monks, There are four kinds of good speech: (1-4): truthful; without spite; mild; thoughtful."

[150] 10. Essence. (Sārasutta). "Monks, there are four essences: (1-4) virtue; concentration; wisdom; release."


15. Indriyavagga – 15. Powers

[151] 1. Faculties. (Indriyasutta). "Monks, the four faculties (indriyāni) are: (1-4) faith; energy; mindfulness; concentration.

[152] 2. Faith. (Saddhābalasutta). In this sutta the four faculties given in the previous sutta (faith and so on) are called the four powers (balāni).

[153] 3. Wisdom. (Paṇṇābalasutta). "Monks, the four powers are: (1-4): wisdom. energy, blamelessness, good relationship."

[154] 4. Mindfulness. (Satibalasutta). "Monks, the four powers are: (1-4): mindfulness; concentration; blamelessness; good relationship."

[155] 5. Consideration. (Paṭisankhānabalasutta). "Monks, the four powers are: (1-4): consideration, cultivation, blamelessness; good relationship."

[156] 6. Eon. (Kappasutta). "Monks, The following four things relating to an eon are incalculable: (1-4): the time it takes to dissolve; the time it stays in dissolution; the time it takes to evolve; the time it stays in evolution."

[157] 7. Illness. (Rogasutta). "Monks, a monk with strong desires can suffer from four illnesses: (1) being discontented with food, lodging, and medicines; (2) having desires for gain, honour, and praise; (3) making an effort to secure these evil desires; (4) not enduring cold, heat, hunger, thirst; flies, mosquitoes, wind, and so on. You should train yourselves to avoid these illnesses."

[158] 8. Decline; (Parihānisutta). Venerable Sāriputta said this to the monks: "The Buddha has said there there is a falling away on the part of monks if there are four things: (1-4) an abundance of lust; an abundance of hatred; an abundance of delusion; failure to develop the wisdom eye. If the opposite of these occur there is no falling away."

[159] 9. (Bhikkhunīsutta). Once at the Ghosita Park in Kosambi a message was sent to venerable Ananda by a bhikkhuni that a certain other bhikkhuni was ill, and imploring Ananda to visit her. Ananda consented and went to see this bhikkhuni. When the bhikkhuni (who was not really ill) saw Ananda coming she got into bed pretending to be ill. Ananda gave a Dhamma discourse and the Bhikkhuni, realising her fault confessed it to Ananda and sought his blessing. Ananda said it was right for an Ariyan disciple who has committed a fault to confess it.

[160] 10. The Fortunate One. (Sugatavinayasutta). "Monks, the fortunate one (Tathāgata) and his discipline arises for the good of the many-folk. These four things lead to the decline of this discipline: (1) bhikkhus take down the teacher's words badly and interpret them wrongly; (2) the bhikkhus are difficult to correct, are impatient and do not accept correction respectfully; (3) bhikkhus who are learned, heirs to the heritage, experts on the Dhamma and discipline do not respectfully teach the discourses to others; (4) elder bhikkhus are luxurious, lax, and are backsliding, When these happen the Dhamma and discipline decline.

16. Paṭipadāvagga – 16. Practice

[161] 1. Briefly. (Saṃkittasutta). "Monks, there are for kinds of practice: (1-4) painful with little direct knowledge; painful with much direct knowledge; pleasant with little direct knowledge; pleasant with much direct knowledge."

[162] 2. In detail. (vicārasutta). The previous sutta is repeated with explanations. 'Painful' is being subjected to lust, hatred and delusion. 'Pleasant' is not being so subjected. Two degrees are recognized for each, mild and strong. Only the fourth category leads to the destruction of the intoxications (Āsava.

[163] 3. The unlovely. (Asubhasutta). The previous sutta is repeated with more explanation on the four kinds of practice identified in sutta 161. The bhikkhus fall into the four categories by the extent to which they contemplate the unattractiveness of the body, and the five faculties (faith, energy, mindfulness, concentration and wisdom).

[164] 4. Patience 1. (Paṭhamakhamasutta). Here the four kinds of practice are defined in terms of patience and impatience on the part of the bhikkhu, and the extent to which he is 'tamed'. Impatience is determined by the way the bhikkhu reacts to being reviled, insulted and abused. Tameness is defined by the way the bhikkhu reacts to the impressions of the five sense organs (eye, ear, tongue, body and mind), whether they lead to lust and so on.

[165] 5. Patience 2. (Dutiyakhamasutta). In this sutta the patience of the bhikkhu is determined by the way he reacts to physical discomfort like cold, heat, hunger, thirst, flies, mosquitoes, wind, sun and creeping insects. Tameness is defined as in the previous sutta.

[166] 6. Both. (Ubhayasutta). This sutta summarises what has been said in the previous suttas in this chapter about the four modes of practice divided into 2 kinds of two modes each, based on whether they are painful or pleasant. The modes of practice in each kind of practice differ on the degree of intuition which the bhikkhu practitioner develops.

[167] 7. Moggallāna. (Mahāmoggallānasutta). In this sutta the venerable Sāriputta visits the venerable Mahāmogallāna and explains to him the four modes of practice.

[168] 8. Sāriputta. (Sāriputtasutta). In this sutta it is venerable Mahāmogallāna who visits venerable Sāriputta to consider the modes of practice. Moggallāna says that the had followed the fourth mode of practice which involved pleasantness and great intuition. This enabled him to destroy the Āsavas,

[169] 9. With effort. (Sasaṅkarasutta). In this sutta the Buddha says that there are four kinds of persons: (1) one who is set free in this very life but with some effort; (2) one who is set free after death ut with some effort; (3) one who is set free in this life without effort; (4) one who is set free after death without effort. In all cases to be set free the bhikkhu lives contemplating the unloveliness in body, the repulsiveness of food, with distaste for the world, and aware of impermanence. Those set free in this very life have awareness of death implanted in the very self while those set free after death have to undergo the experience of death. Differences between individuals depend on the extent to which they develop the faculties mentioned in the previous suttas.

[170] 10. Joined. (Yuganaddhasutta) Once in Kosambi the venerable Ananda addressed the monks thus: "When a monk or nun says that he or she has attained arhantship this can only be achieved in one of these four ways: (1) developing insight preceded by calm; (2) developing calm preceded by insight; (3) developing both joined together; (4) clearing he mind of all doubts regarding the Dhamma. In all cases the eightfold path must be followed."

18. Cetanāvagga – 18. Intention

[171] 1. Intention. (Cetanāsutta). "Monks, pleasure and pain arise because of bodily, verbal and mental volition, either with or without clear comprehension. It is ignorance that leads to these states. Individuality can be acquired by (1) one's own volition; (2) the volition of others; (3) both one's own and others volition; (4) neither one's own nor others volition". Then venerable Sāriputta said that beings pass away from their current state because of acquiring (new) individuality. He asked how devas could arise without one's own or others volition. The Buddha said that such devas are devas of the base of neither-perception-nor-non-perception. If beings who become such devas have not eliminated the lower fetters they will return otherwise they will pass away without returning.

[172] 2. Analysis. (Vibattisutta). Once venerable Sāriputta addressed the monks thus: "I have been ordained for six months. During this time I have realized analytical knowledge and grasped the meaning of concepts in the Dhamma and Discipline.  I explain them in the way I have understood them. If anyone has any questions on these they should get the meaning explained further from the Teacher (the Tatāgata) himself."

[173] 3. Koṭṭhita. (Mahākoṭṭhitasutta). Once venerable Mahākoṭṭhita asked venerable Sāriputta: "After the passionless ending, without remainder, of the six spheres of contact does anything at all exist or not exist or both exist and not exist?". But Sāriputta did not answer only asking Koṭṭhita not to ask such a question. When pressed for a reason Sāriputta said that so long as the sense spheres exist there is proliferation (papañca) but without them there is none.

[174] 4. Ananda (Ānandasutta). This sutta is the same as the previous except that venerable Ananda asks the same question from Koṭṭhita.

[175] 5. Upavāṇa. (Upavāṇasutta). The venerable Upavāna asked venerable Sāriputta: "Does one become an end-maker (antakaro) by (1) knowledge; (2) conduct; (3) both knowledge and conduct; (4) in any othe way"? Sāriputta answered in the negative. When pressed further he answered: "In each of these ways the person would seek an end. To be an end-mker a person should should see things as they really are."

[176] 6. Aspiration. (Āyācanasutta). "Monks, a bhikkhu endowed with faith should aspire to be like venerables "Sāriputta and Moggallāna, a bhikkhuni should be like Khema and Uppalavanna, male householders should be like Citta and Hatthaka, and women lay followers like Khujuttara and Velukantakiya."

[177] 7. Rāhula. (Rāhulasutta). Once the Buddha addressed venerable Rāhula, who had come to see him, thus: "(1) The internal and external water element should be seen as 'This is not me' and revulsion developed towards it; (2-4) so also the water, fire and air elements."

[178] 8. The pond. (Jambālīsutta). "Monks, There asre four kings of bhikkhu: (1) a bhikkhu who reaches a liberation of mind but cannot abolish the personality view. He cannot reach the cesation of personality. This is comparable to a pond whose dykes remain fast. (2) A bhikkhu who reaches a liberation of mind and is able to abolish the personality view. This is comparable to a pond whose dykes are broken. (3) A bhikkhu who reaches a liberation of mind and is able to aboish ignorance. but cannot abolish ignorance. There is no liberation of mind for him. This is comparable to a pond whose dykes remain fast. (4) A bhikkhu who reaches a liberation of mind but is able to break ignorance. This is comparable to a pond whose dykes are broken."

[179] 9. Nibbāna. (Nibbānasutta). Once venerable Ananda asked venerable Sāriputta: "Why is it that some people do not fully attain nibbāna in this very life ?". Sāriputtta aswered: "It is because some people do not undersand that some pereptions lead to worsoning; (2) some to stabilization; (3) some to distinction; (4) some to penetration."

[180] 10. Authorities. (Mahāpadesasutta). Once at the Ananda shrine in Bhoganagara the Buddha addressed the monks: "I will teach you the four great authorities: (1)A monk may say I heard these words from the Buddha but his word should neither be accepted nor rejected but the words attributed to the Buddha should be throughly examined. (2) A monk may say that he heard the words at a monastery with elder monks. This too should be similarly treated. (3) A monk may say that he heard the words at the residence of expert monks, This too should be treated in the same way. (4) But if the words which a monk claims to have heard from whatever source tallies with what is in the discourses on the Dhamma and the Discipline these words should be accepted as the true Dhamma.

17. Brāhmaṇavagga – 17. Brahmins

[181] 1. Warrior. (YodhBjīvasutta). "Monks, a king's warrior is worthy if he is skilled in finding places of vantage, is a far-shooter, is a sharp-shooter, and can split a big object. Similarly a monk is worthy of respect for four things. (1) He should be virtuous and live according to the Patimokkha; (2) he sees all things correctly as 'This is not I, it is not me'; (3) he understands the four noble truths; (4) he splits the mass of ignorance."

[182] 2. Guarantor. (Pāṭibhogasutta). "Monks, no guarantee can be given by a recluse or a brahmin or a deva or a Mara or a Brahma or anyone else against: (1) old age; (2) illness; (3) death; (4) bad kamma.

[183] 3. Hearsay. Sutasutta). Once in Rājagaha Vassakāra, a high official of state, came to the Buddha and said: "I hold that there is no harm for a person who has seen or heard or sensed something personally saying so". The Buddha said that in such a situation the person should say only what is profitable in what he had experienced, not something that is unprofitable. Vassakār agreed with the Buddha.

[184] 4. Fearless. (Abhayasutta). Once the brahmin Jāṇnussoṇi came to the Buddha and said: "I hold that no one subject to death will not tremble at the thought of death." The Buddha said that those who tremble at the thought of death are of four kinds: (1) those not devoid of lust, passion and craving for sensual pleasure; (2) those with lust and craving for the body; (3) those who had not done any good for themselves; (4) those who had been evil and cruel to others. Those who do not belong to these four categories do not tremble at the thought of death.

[185] 5. Brahmin truths. (Brahmaṇasaccasutta). Once when the Buddha was residing at Gijjhakuta near Rājagaha and a number of leading wanderers like Annabhara, Varadhara, and Sakuludayin were gathered near the Sappini river discussing the subject of Brahmin truths. After his meditation the Buddha approached the wanderers and learning what they were discussing said: "There are these four truths which Brahmins say, but while they are true they alone do not make them into brahmins or ascetics or wanderers. These are: (1) All living beings are to be spared the rod. (2) All sensual pleasures are impermanent, suffering, abd changeable. (3) All states of existence are also the same. (4) I do not belong to anyone nor does anything belong to me. While these Brahmins are correct they are not generally followed by brahmins.

[186] 6. Hidden. (Ummaggasutta). Once a certain monk came to the Buddha and asked four questions. These questions and the comments by the Buddha on them are as follows: (1) 'By what is the world led and dragged along ?' The Buddha said: "By the mind". (2) 'How is a person an expert on the Dhamma ?' The Buddha said: "I have given many discourses but if a person can recite ever four lines, know its meaning and practice it, then he is an expert on the Dhamma. (3) 'How is one learned of penetrative wisdom ?' The Buddha said: "It is by knowing and understanding the four noble truths". (4) 'How is a person of great wisdom?' The Buddha said: "He is one who thinks of is own welfare, the welfare of others, the welfare of both, and the welfare of the whole world

[187] 7. Vassakāra (Vassakārasutta). Once Vassakāra, the high official of state, asked the Buddha: "Can a bad person know if a bad person is bad, and a good person is good? Can a good person know if a good person is good and a bad person is bad?" The Buddha answered that it was not possible for a bad person to know whether another is good or bad, while it was possible for a good person to know this. Then Vassakāra said that the Todeyya brahmins were abusing the followers of King Aleyya  because they pay respect to the ascetic Rāmaputta. But the Buddha assured Vassakāra that the Todeyya brahmins were wrong in this.

[188] 8. Upaka (Upakasutta). Once when the Buddha was residing at Gijjakuta near Rajagaha Upaka Maṇḍikaputta came to him and said: "I consider that if a person abuses another but cannot prove his accusations then he should be held blameworthy and guilty of an offence." While agreeing with this the Buddha pointed out that Upaka too was also guilty of this same offence. The Buddha then said that he had proclaimed many times: (1) what is wholesome; (2) what is unwholesome and should be abandoned; (3) given reasons why wholesome things are good; (4) wholesome things should be developed. Upaka was pleased and left. He then visited King Ajātasatu and related the whole conversation. But the King (thinking that Upaka had been reviling the Buddha) dismissed Upaka calling him the son of a salt worker.

[189] 9. Realization. (Saccikaraṇīysutta). "Monks, there are four things to be realized: (1) the eight bodily releases (vimokkhā); (2) former lives by recollection; (3) the death and rebirth of beings (by the eye); (4) the destruction of the intoxicants (by widom)."

[190] 10. Uposatha. (Uposathasutta). Once on an uposatha day the Buddha with a large company of monks was sitting at the Migārmātā mansion in Sāvatthi. Surveying ehe silent monks he said: "This assembly of monks does not engage in idle chatter and is well estblished in the sangha. There is nothing comparable to it anywhere in the world. Some monks here have attained various states: (1) Some monks here are like devas. They have done so by attaining the four jhānas. (2) Some have attained the state of brahmās. They have done so by suffusing the whole world with the four four brahma vihāras: loving kindness, compassion, sympathetic joy and serenity. (3) Some have attained the status of imperturability. This they have done by attaining the formless jhānas. (4) Some have become noble ones (arhants) which they had done by destroying the intoxicants (āsava).

18. Mahāvagga – 18. The Great Chapter

[191] 1. Teaching that is heard. (Sotasutta). "Monks, if a bhikkhu recites, examines and penetrates teachings he has heard then four results can occur : (1) after death he would be born in the deva world; (2) same as the former but he can teach dhamma to the devas; (3) same as the previous but the devas who hear the teaching can reach distinction; (4) same as the previous but the deva who reached distinction and make other devas too to reach distinction.

[192] 2. What can be known. (Ṭānasutta). "Monks, four things that can be known from certain conditions: (1) virtuous behaviour can be known from living together; (2) integrity can be known from dealings; (3) fortitude can be known from misfortune; (4) wisdom can be known from conversation.

[193] 3. Bhaddhiya. (Bhaddhiyasutta). Once in Vesali Bhaddiya the Liccavi came to the Buddha and said: "I have heard it said that Gotama is a magician who entices people of other views by magic tricks". The Buddha then tells Bhaddiya that he should not believe things on the basis of what he has heard {and then then gave the other conditions listed in the Kālāma sutta for not believing in mere hearsay}. Then he asked Bhaddiya when greed. malice, delusion and vengeance arise in a man whether it is for his good. Bhaddiya agrees that they do not arise for the good, while their opposites are wholesome, blameless, praised by the wise, and when undertaken lead to welfare and happiness. The Buddha then said that it is these that he teaches, and when others accuse him of converting by magic that they are wrong. He then explained his method in detail. Bhaddiya is converted.

[194] 4.Sāpūgama. (Sāpūgaṃsutta). Once the people of Sāpūgama in the country of the Koliyas came to the venerable Ananda, who preached to them as follows: "There are four factors of striving for purity preached by the Buddha. These are: (1) virtuous behaviour which involves the fulfilment of the moral requisites; (2) mind, which involves the practice of the four jhānas; (3) view, which is the understanding of the four noble truths; (4) liberation which is the fulfilment of the three previous strivings."

[195] 5. (sutta). Once when the Buddha as residing at Kapilavatthu Vappa a naked ascetic approached venerable Moggallāna who asked him: "Do you think that the Āsava causing pain will arise in future in a person who is restrained in body, speech and mind and whose ignorance is gradually replaced by knowledge ?" Vappa answered: "Yes, if he has done evil deeds in the past {i.e. old kamma} whose fruit has as yet not ripened". At this point the Buddha approached them and learnt of this talk between Moggallāna and Vappa. The Buddha disagreed with Vappa and said that pain will not rise in the future for the kind of person as he does not do any new bad kamma and the old kamma will dissipate by 'constant contact' (phussa phussa byantīkaroti. {How the old kamma disappears is not explained in greater detail. } Vappa agreed with the Buddha and became a convert.

[196] 6. Sāḷha. (Sāḷhasutta). Once when the Buddha was living in Vesāli two Licchavis Sāḷha and Abhaya approached his and Sāḷha asked: "Some recluses and Brahmins say that there are two ways of crossing the flood, by pure morals and by austerities. What does the Buddha say ? " The Buddha said that virtuous behaviours is a factor ascetism and will enable the crossing of the flood but austerities will not enable one to cross the flood. He gave two analogies to make his point clear. (1) A man who desires to cross a river goes to the forest and cuts a sal log, works on its exterior and tries to the cross but he will fail beause the log will sink to the bottom. A second man scoops out the interior of the log and shapes it into a boat. He will be able cross the river. (2) A warrior who is an archer even though has many skills he is not worthy of serving the king. But if he has three specific qualities he is worthy of serving the king. These are he is a long-distance shooter, he is a s sharp shooter, and he can split a large object.

[197] 7. Mallikā. (Mallikāsutta). Once Queen Mallikā visited the Buddha and asked four questions. These questions and Buddha's response are as follows: (1) Mallikā: "Why are some women ugly, poor, and lack influence ?" Buddha: "These women are prone to anger, are not charitable, and are envious of others". (2) Malllikā: "Why are some women ugly, rich, and influential ?" Buddha: "These women are prone to anger, but are charitable and not envious of others." (3) Malllikā: "Why are some women beautiful, poor, and lacking influence ?" Buddha: "These women are prone to anger, is uncharitable, and are envious of others." (4) Mallikā: "Why are some women beautiful, rich, and influencial ?" Buddha: "These women are not prone to anger, are charitable, and are not envious of others."
Then Mallikā said "If in a previous birth I had been any one of these four types then in this life I would have had the corresponding consequences. So in this life I will not be prone to anger, I will be charitable to ascetics and the like and I will not be envious of anyone."

[198] 8. The self-tormentor. (Attantapasutta). "Monks, there are four kinds of persons: (1) A self-tormentor, who is given to self-mortification in a multiplicity of ways some due to his religious beliefs. (2) A tormentor of others, such as a butcher or fisherman. (3) One who is both a self-tormentor and a tormentor of others, such as one who makes a ritual sacrifice in which he shaves head and inflicts torture on himself but also causes many animals to be killed in the sacrifice. (4) One who is neither a self-tormentor nor a tormentor of others, such as those who follows the teaching of a Tathāgata when he arises in the world.

[199] 9. Craving. (Taṇhāsutta). "Monks, I will teach you about craving by which the world is smothered. There are 18 kinds of craving internally and18 kinds externally. The internal kinds are: I am, I am in this world, I am thus, I am otherwise, I am not eternal, I am eternal, Should I be, Should I be in this world, Should I be thusm Should I be otherwise, May I become, May I become in this world, May I become thus, May I become otherwise, I shall become, I shall become in this world. I shall become thus, I shall become otherwise." The 18 external kinds named by the Buddha are the same as the internal kinds but with specific reference to the world.

[200] 10. Affection. (Pemasutta). "Monks, there are four things that are born: (1) affection is born from affection; this happens when two persons are affectionate to each other; (2) hatred is born from affection; this happens when one person is affectionate to another but that person responds with hatred; (3) affection is born from hatred; here a peron has hatred for someone but that person responds with affection; (4) hatred is born from hatred; in this case both persons have mutual hatred for ach other."

5. Pañcamapaṇṇāsaka – Chapter 5

1. Sappurisavagga – 1. The Good Man

[201] 1. Precepts. (Sikkhāpadasutta). "Monks, I will teach about (1) a bad person, who takes life, steals, engages in sexual misconduct, speaks falsely and indulges in alcohol; (2) one even worse, who in addition to the above also encourages others to do the same; (3) a good person, who abstains from the five wrong things; (4) one even better, who encourages others to do the same. "

[202] 2. Without faith. (Assaddhasutta). Here the bad person is given as one without morals , shameless and reckless; one worse than that as one who encourages others to be likewise; a good person is one with faith, shame and dread; and one even better as one who encorages others to be likewise.

[203] 3. Seven acts. (Sattakammasutta). Here a bad person is one who takes life, steals, does sexual misconduct, speaks falsely, speaks harshly, engages in idle talk. The worse, good and better persons are defined in terms of these seven actions as in sutta 201.

[204] 4. Ten acts (Daskammasutta). Here the seven acts in the previous sutta are expanded into ten by the addition of covetousness, ill-will and wrong view. The rest follows the same pattern as the previous sutta.

[205] 5. The Eightfold way. (Aṭṭhaṅdikasutta). This sutta defines the bad person as one who does the opposite of the Noble Eightfold path. The still worse person, the good person and the better pers are defined in the same way as in Sutta 201 but in relation to the eight factors in the path.

[206] 6. The Tenfold way. (sutta). This is the same as the previous sutta but with the addition of two more factors wrong knowledge and wrong release.

[207] 7. The sinful person 1. (Paṭhamapāpadhammasutta). Here the sinful wicked person is the one who does the same ten things as in sutta 204. The other categories of more wicked, the still more wicked, the non-wicked and the even better categories are defined as in sutta 204.

[208] 8. The sinful person 2. (Dutiyapāpadhammasutta). This is the same as sutta 206.

[209] 9. The sinful person 3. (Tatiyapāpadhammasutta). This is the same as sutta 207.

[210] 10. The sinful person 4. (Catutthapāpadhammasutta). This is the same as sutta 208.

2. Parisāvagga – 2. Assemblies.

[211] 1. Assemblies. (Parisāsutta). "Monks, a (Sangha) assembly is corrupted if one bhikkhu, bhikkhuni, male lay follower, or a female lay follower is correpted. Otherewise it is pure."

[212] 2. View. (Diṭṭhisutta). "Monks, bad conduct in deed, word, thought or view leads to hell. Otherwise it leads to heaven. "

[213] 3. Ingratitude. (sutta). Same as previous sutta except that "view" is repl;aced by ingratitude.

[214] 4. Taking life. (Pāṇātipātīsutta). "Monks, Taking a life leads to hell, otherwise heaven ."

[215] 5. Path 1. (Paṭhamamaggasutta). Wrong view, intention,speech and action replace taking life in sutta 214.

[216] 6. Path 2. (Dutiysamaggasutta). Wrong livelihood, effort, mindfulness, and concentration replace taling life in sutta 214.

[217] 7. Speech 1. (Paṭhamavohārasutta). Wrongly saying what one has seen or heard replace taking life in sutta 214.

[218] 8. Speech 2. (Dutiyavohārasutta). Wrongly saying what one has not seen or not heard replace taking life in sutta 214.

[219] 9. Shamelessness. (Ahirikasutta). Being shameless replaces taking life in sutta 214.

[220] 10. Imorality. (Dussīlasutta). Immorality replaces taking life in sutta 214.

3. Ducharitavagga – 3. Bad conduct.

[221] 1. Bad conduct. (Ducaritasutta). "Monks, the four kinds of verbal uisconduct are false speech, divisive speech, harsh speech, and idle spreech. The opposites are goood conduct."

[222] 2. View. (Diṭṭhisutta). "Monks, by bad conduct of body, speech and mind, and wrong view the worthless man leads an uprooted lifeless self. The worthy man does the opposite."

[223] 3. Ingratitude. (Akaññutāsutta). Same as previous sutta but with 'Ingratitude ' replacing 'wrong view'.

[224] 4. Taking of life. (Pāṇātipātīsutta). "Monks, the worthless man takes life, steals, indulges in wrong sense-desires, and lies. The worthy man does the opposite."

[225] 5. Path 1. (Paṭhamamaggasutta). "Monks, the worthless man has wrong view, wrong aim, wrong speech and wrong action. The wrothy man does the opposite."

[226] 6. Path 2. (Dutiyamaggasutta). "Monks, the worthless man has wrong livelihood, wrong effort, wrong mindfulness and wrong concentation. The wrothy man does the opposite."

[227] 7. Modes of speech 1. (Paṭhamavohārapathasutta). Same as sutta 217.

[228] 8. Modes of speech 2. (Dutiyavohārapathasutta). Same as sutta 218.

[229] 9. Shamelessness. (Ahirikasutta). "Monks, the unworthy man is faithless, is immoral, is indolent, and is weak in wisdom. The wrothy man is the opposite."

[230] 10. Of poor wisdom. (Dupaññasutta). Same as previous sutta except that 'weak in wisdom' is replaced by 'weak i morals'.

[231] 11. Poets. (Kavisutta). "Monks. there are four kinds of poets: the imaginative, the narrative, the didactic and the extempore. "

4. Kammavagga – 4. Actions.

[232] 1. In Brief. (Saṃkhittasutta). "Monks, there are four kinds of deeds which I  have personally realized: (1) a dark deed with a dark result; (2) a bright deed with a bright result; (3) a deed that is both; (4) a deed that is neither."

[233] 2. In detail. (Vitthārasutta). The Buddha's detailed explanation of the four kinds of deeds given in the previous sutta is as follows: (1) "these are action of body, speech and mind planned to give harm"; (2) "these are actions that do not result in harm, which lead to rebirth in a harmless world"; (3) "these are actions of a mixed nature some harming others not"; (4) "this is the intention to avoid dark deeds and the intention to do bright deeds".

[234] 3. Sonakayana. (Soṇkāyanasutta). Once the brahmin Sikhamoggallāna came to the Buddha and said: "The youth Sonakayana said that Gotama the recluse proclaims the ineffectiveness of all deeds, which amounts to the annihilation of the world." The Buddha then repeated what he had said about deeds in suttas 232-233.

[235] 4. Precepts. (Paṭhamasikkhāpadasutta). In this sutta the Buddha repeats what he had said about the four kinds of deeds in suttas 232-233.

[236] 5. Training rules. (Dutiyasikkhāpadasutta). This is the same as the previous sutta.

[237] 6. The noble path. (Ariyamaggasutta). In this sutta the bright deeds are associated with the Eightfold path.

[238] 7. The limbs of enlightenment. (Bojjhaṅgasutta). This is the same as the previous sutta identifying the 8 elements of the Noble Path.

[239] 8. Blameworthy. (Sāvajjasutta). "Monks, The four actions that lead to hell are: blameworthy bodily action; blameworthy verbal action; blameworthy mental action; and lameworthy view."

[240] 9. Harmful. (Abyābajjhasutta). "Monks, The four actions that lead to hell are: harmful bodily action; harmful verbal action; harmful mental action; and harmful view. Their opposires lead to heaven."

[241] 10. Ascetics. (Samaṇasutta). "Monks, in this dispensation there are four kinds of ascetics: (1) by destroying three fetters a bhikkhu becomes a stream enterer; (2) in addition to the above by reducing greed, hatred and delusion a bhikkhu becomes a once returner; (3) by utterly destroying the five lower fetters a bhikkhu becomes a deva from there to reach nibbāna; (4) by destroying all intoxications (Āsava) a bhikkhu becomes an arhant. There are no ascetic in other dispensations.

[242] 11. Rewards of a good person. (Sappurisānisamasutta). "Monks, four rewards accrue to a good person: (1) growth in Ariyan virtue;(2) growth in Ariyan concentration; (3) growth in Ariyan wisdom; (4) growth in Ariyan release. "

5. Āpattibhyavagga – 5. Fear of offenses .

[243] 1. Schism. (Āpattibhayasutta). Once when the Buddha was in Kosambi venerable Bahia the pupil of Venerable Anudruddha created a dispute and Anuruddha did not intervene. This was reported by venerable Ananda to the Buddha who said that it was not Anuruddha but Ananda and venerables Sāriputta and Moggallāna who settle disputes. The Buddha further said that an evil bhikkhu will create a dispute for four reasons: (1) he is evil and immoral; (2) he holds wrong view; (3) he is of wrong livelihood; (4) he desires gain, honour and admiration."

[244] 2. Fear of offending. (Āpattibhayasuttasutta). "Monks, there are four fears of offences. (1) Seeing a thief or criminal being beheaded on the order of the king a person may have fear of committing a similar offence. (2) A man may boast to a crowd of people that he has committed an offence punishable by clubbing and challenge the king to have him clubbed. A person hearing him might fear committing such an offence.(3) A man may boast that he has committed an offence which deserves a lesser punishment that the two previous cases and challenge that he be so punished. This would induce fear in persons committing such (lesser) offences. (4) In this case the person confesses to committing a wrong that deserves only a warning." {These four instances will deter a monk from committing  a pārājika offence; a sangādisesa offence; a pācittiya offence; and even lesser offence respectively.}

[245] 3. Benefit of training. (Sikkhānisaṃsasutta). "Monks, the divine life (brahmacariya) has four benefits or rewards. These are: (1) Training. (2) Wisdom. (3) Liberation. (4) Mindfulness.

[246] 4. Postures. (Seyyāsutta). "Monks, there are four postures: (1) the peta posture which is lying on the back; (2) the sensualist posture, which is lying on the left side; (3) the lion's posture which is lying on the right side; (4) the Tathāgata posture; which is dwelling in the four jhānas."

[247] 5. Deserving a stupa. (Thūpārahasutta). "Monks, four persons are worthy of a stupa: a Tathāgata; a paccekabuddha; an arahant disciple; a universal monarch."

[248] 6. Growth in wisdom. (Pññāvuddisutta). "Monks, there are four ways to grow in wisdom: associating with a good man; hearing Saddhamma; careful mental attention; behaviour according to Dhamma."

[249] 7. Helpful things. (Bahukārasutta). In this sutta the four things mentioned in the previous sutta are considered helpful for a human being.

[250] 8. Modes of speech 1. (Paṭhamavohārasutta). "Monks, declaring the following four without actually experiencing them is ignoble: something seen, something heard; something sensed; something cognized."

[251] 9. Modes of speech 2. (Dutiyavohārasutta). This sutta gives the four noble modes of speech which are the opposite of those given in the previous sutta.

[252] 10. Modes of speech 3. (Tatiyavohārasutta). This sutta give the ignoble modes of speech given in sutta 250.

[253] 11. Modes of speech 4. (Cattuthavohārasutta). This sutta repeats the noble modes of speech given in sutta 251.

6. Abhiññavagga – 6. Higher knowledge

[254] 1. Higher knowledge. (Abyiññasutta). "Monks, there are these four things to be done with higher knowledge: (1) understanding the five aggregates of clinging; (2) abandoning ignorance and craving; (3) developing serenity and insight; (4) realizing knowledge and release."

[255] 2. Quests. (Parisanāsutta). "Monks, the four Ariyan quests are: (1) being subject to decay seeks the to be free of decay; (2) being subject to illness seeks wellness; (3) being subject to death seeks the deathless; (4) being subject to defilement seeks to be free of defilement."

[256] 3. Fellowship. (Saṅghavatthusutta). "Monks, these are the four bases of fellowship: Charity, pleasant speech, beneficent conduct, and treating all alike."

[257] 4. Mālunkyaputta. (Mālunkyaputtasutta). Once Mālunkyaputta came to the Buddha and asked that he be given a brief lesson in Dhamma. The Buddha said: "There are four sources of craving for a bhikkhu. They are robes, alms food, lodgings, and life here or elsewhere. If you cut them off you are a bhikkhu. You should cut off the fetter of craving and conceit, then you can end suffering." Then Mālunkyaputta went away and did as instructed and became an arahant.

[258] 5. Families. (sutta). "Monks, the wealth of wealthy families may not last long if they do one or more of these four things: (1) they do not seeks what they have lost; (2) do not repair what is broken; (3) too much eating and drinking; (4) their chief is an immoral person. In the opposite case their wealth will last long.

[259] 6. Thoroughbred 1. (PaṭhamaĀjānīyasutta). "Monks, a thoroughbred steed is worthy of a king if he has beauty, strength, speed, and right proportions. Similarly a bhikkhu is worthy of gifts if he has four corresponding qualities: (1) he is virtuous; (2) he is energetic; (3) he understands the four noble truths; (4) he gains robes, alms, lodging and medicines."

[260] 7. Thoroughbred 2. (DutiyaĀjānīyasutta). Same as the previous sutta except that the third quality of a bhikkhu now becomes the destruction of the āsava (intoxicants).

[261] 8. Powers. (Balasutta). "Monks, there are four powers: energy, mindfulness, concentration and wisdom."

[262] 9. Forest dwelling. (Araññasutta). "Monks, a bhikkhu is not fit for forest dwelling if he has: sensual thoughts; thoughts of ill-will; thoughts of harming; is unwise. In the opposite case he is fit for forest dwelling."

[263] 10. Action. (Kammasutta). "Monks, an unworthy person is foolish and sinful if he has blameworthy bodily action, speech, thought and view."

7. Kammapahavagga – 7. Path of kamma

[264] 1. Taking of life. (sutta). "Monks, a person is put in hell if he takes life, encourages others to do so, approves it, and praises it."

[265-273] In these suttas the same punishment prescribed in sutta 264 (going to hell) is applied [265] for taking that which is not given; [266] for wrong doing in sense desire, [267] for telling falsehoods, [268] for slandering, [269] for bitter speech, [270] for babbling, [271] for being covetous, [272] for having a malicious mind, [273] and for harbouring wrong view.

8. Rāgapeyyālvagga – 8. Repetition on passions

[274] In this sutta all the conditions needed for the comprehension of passion is repeated starting with the factor of mindfulness. This sutta is divided into several suttas in some versions of this book.

Here ends the Cattukanipāta of the Aṅguttaranikāya of the Suttapiṭaka.