Aṅguttara Nikāya– Book of Gradual Sayings

4. Cattutanipāta – 1. Book of Fours

[NOTE: All statements in these suttas, unless otherwise noted, are made by the Buddha addressing the monks at Jetavana in Sāvatthi. These are included within quotation marks: "...". Sections within curly brackets {...} are comments notes and further explanations by the author of these abstracts. Other statements give general information susally with suare brackets []. Each sutta in this Book deals with four items. They are usually numbered here (1) ... (4) though not in the original Pali]

1. Paṇṇāsaka – 1. The first Fifty

1. Bhaṇḍagāmavagga – 1. At Bhaṇḍagāma

[1] 1. Understanding. (Anubuddhasutta). "Monks, it is because of not understanding four things that you and I have wandered so long. These were (1) noble virtue; (2) noble concentration; noble wisdom; noble release. When these are understood craving ceases and the cord of becoming is cut."

[2] 2. Fallen. (Papatitasutta). One who does no possess the four things mentioned in sutta [1] has fallen from the Dhamma. One who has then has done his task and is happy.

[3] 3. Maimed 1. (Paṭhamakhtasutta). "Monks, A person is injured if without investigation and scrutiny (1) he praises one deserving dispraise; (2) he speaks dispraise of one who deserves praise; (3) he believe a matter that is only suspicious; (4) he is suspicious of a praiseworthy matter."

[4] 4. Maimed 2. (Dutiyakhtasutta). "Monks, a foolish bad person is injured and is subject to reproach if he behaves wrongly towards: (1) his mother; (2) his father; (3) the Tathāgata; (4) a disciple of the Tathāgata. Opposite if he behaves correctly towards them.

[5] 5. Towards the stream. (Anusotasutta). "Monks, there are four kinds of persons: (1) one who goes along the stream (indulges in sensual pleasures); (2) goes against the stream (lives a spiritual life); (3) is inwardly firm (destroys the five lower fetters); (4) one who has crossed over (destroys the intoxicants and reached liberation of mind)."

[6] 6. Learning. (Appassutasutta). "Monks, "there are four kinds of persons: (a1) little learning not fully understood; (2) little learning understood; (3) wide learning not fully understood; (4) wide learning fully understood." In each case the learning refers to learning of Dhamma (suttas and other). Here understanding involves correct practice of what is learned.

[7] 7. Adornment. (Sonhanasutta). "Monks, there are four kinds of a person who adorns the Dhamma: (1) a bhikkhu who is competent, confident in Dhamma and practice it; (2) a bhikkhuni similar to the previous; (3) a male lay follower who is competent in Dhamma; (4) a female lay follower similar to the previous".

[8] 8. Confidence. (Vesārajjasutta). "Monks, a Tathāgata has four confidences and cannot be accused by any ascetic or brahmin or deva or Māra or Brahmā or anyone else of (1) not being fully enlightened; (2) not fully destroying the taints (āsava); (3) declaring as obstacles things that are not obstacles; (4) his Dhamma not leading to the end of suffering. The Tathāgata's Dhamma differs from that of all others."

[9] 9. Craving. (Taṇhuppādasutta). "Monks, craving can arise in a monk because of (1-4) robes, food, lodging, desire for rebirth."

[10] 10. Bonds, (Yogasutta). "Monks, there are four bonds: (1) sensuality (the passion for lust, greed, delight, thirst and craving); (2) existence (or becoming and rebirth); (3) views (not understanding the origin of suffering and seeking other explanations); (4) ignorance (of the arising of the sense spheres). These bonds can be severed."

2. Caravagga – 2. Walking(etc.)

[11] 1. Walking. (Carasutta). "Monks, a monk is lacking in zeal and is sluggish if sensual thoughts arise and are not dispelled when he is (1) walking; (2) standing; (3) sitting; (4) lying down."

[12] 2. Virtue. (Sīlasutta). "Monks, live virtuously restrained by the Pātimokkka. A bhikkhu is ardent and resolute if he has got rid of coveting-and-ill-will, sloth-and-torpor, excitement and doubt while (1) walking; (2) standing; (3) sitting; (4) lying down."

[13] 3. Effort. (Padhānasutta). "Monks, the four right efforts are the effort to : (1) avoid new unwholesome states; (2) destroy existing bad unwholesome states; (3) generate new wholesome states; (4) develop existing wholesome states."

llly exam ined all the [14] 4. Restraint. (Saṃvarasutta). "Monks, There are four efforts: (1) the effort to restrain (the sense faculties of eye, ear, tongue, body and mind); (2) the effort to abandon (sensual thoughts, ill-will); (3) the effort to develop (the enlightenment factors of mindfulness, discrimination of phenomena, energy, rapture, tranquillity and equanimity); (4) the effort to protect (the different objects of concentration like a skeleton or corpse)."

[15] 5. Types (of person). (Paññattisutta). "Monks, there are four types of person: (1) with a body like Rahu the Assura; (2) with sensuality like King Mandhātā; (3) with authority like Māra th Evil One; (4) with excellence like the Tathāgata and the arahants."

[16] 6. Softness. (Sokummasutta). "Monks, bhikkhus have four kinds of softness: (1) softness of body; (2) softness of feeling; (3) softness of perception; (4) softness of volitional activities."

[17] 7. Wrong direction 1. (Paṭhamaagatisutta). "Monks, the four reasons for taking the wrong direction are (1-4) desire, hatred, delusion and fear."

[18] 8. Wrong direction 2. (Dutiyaagatisutta). The reasons for not taking the wrong direction are the opposite of those identified in the previous sutta.

[19] 9. Wrong direction 3. (Tatiyaagatisutta). This is a combination of the two previous suttas.

a [20] 10. The assigner of meals. (Battuddesakasutta). "Monks, an assigner of meals who takes the wrong direction goes to hell if he acts due to (1-4) desire, hatred, delusion and fear."

3. Uruvelavagga – 3. Uruvela

[21] 1. Uruvela 1. (Paṭhamauruvelasutta). "Monks, once I was living at Uruvela (after the Enlightenment) and the thought ocurred to me if there was anyone to whom I should show reverence. Then I realised that there was none in this world with its devas, Maras, Brahmas, ascetics, brahmins, and humans, to whom I should honour, reverence, obey and serve. Then it ocurred to me that the Dhamma alone was worthy of reverence. The Brahma Sahampati read my mind and appeared before me. He urged me in my line of thinking and begged me to teach the Dhamma."

[23] 3. The world (Lokasutta). "Monks, The Tathā gata is so called because: (1) he is aware of and has mentally examined all the sense phenomena in the world; (2) During his entire life after the Enlightenment he utters only that which is just; (3) he does what he says; (4) he is the universal vanquisher. "

[24] 4. Kālaka. (Kāḷakasutta). In the Kalaka Park in Sāteka the Buddha said: "Monks, the Tathāgata does not misconceive: (1) what he sees; (2) what he hears; (3) what he senses; (4) what he cognizes. Thus the Tathāgata is a stable one."

[25] 5. The devine life. (Brāhmacariyasutta). "Monks, the devine life is not lived for cheating, for gain, for notoreity. It is lived for (1-4) self-restraint; for abandoning; for detachment from the passions; for cessation."

[26] 6. The deceivers. (Kuhasutta). "Monks, those monks who are deceivers are: (1) not bhikkhus; (2) have strayed from this Dhamma and discipline. But those who are honest and comply with the Dhamma are: (3) bhikkhus; (4) achieve growth."

b>[27] 7. Contentedness. (Santutthisutta). "Monks, these are trifles: (1) "A robe made of rags; (2) a handful of almsfood; (3) the foot of a tree as lodgings; (4) urine as medicine. A monk who is content with these trifles is a true recluse."

[28] 8. Lineage. (Āriyavaṃsasutta). "Monks, these are the ancient Ariyan lineages: (1) contentment with any robe; (2) contentment with any alms-food; (3) contentment with any lodging; (4) delight in abandoning. Any monk following these is in the ancient Ariyan lineage."

[29] 9. Dhamma factors. (Dhammapadasutta). "Monks, there are four Dhamma factors of long standing: (1-4) non-longing; good-will; right mindfulness; Right Concentration."

[30] 10. Wanderers. (Paribbājakasutta). In this sutta the Buddha repeats the four ancient Dhamma factors given in the previous sutta to a group of wandereres assembled on the banks of the' Sappini river.

4. Cakkavagga – 4.The Wheel

[31] 1. (Cakkasutta). "Monks, rolling these four wheel a deva or human can be great and get great wealth: (1) Live in a suitable locality; (2) rely on good persons; (3) make right resolution; (4) have merits done in the past."

[32] 2. Sympathy. (Saṅgahasutta). "Monks, there are four ways of having a good relationship: (1-4) Chritable giving, endearing speech, good conduct, and impartiality."

[33] 3. The lion. (Sīhasutta). "Monks, when the lion utters his roar all animals quake and hide themselves. So too when a Tathāgata arises and proclaims the Dhamma people know that (1) Such is individual existence; (2) such is its the origin; (3) such is its cessation; (4) such is the way to its cessation."

[34] 4. Foremost doctrine. (Aggapādasutta). "Monks, there are four aspects of the foremost doctrine: (1) the Tathāgata is the foremost of beings; (2) his Ariyan eight-fold path is the foremost of doctrines; (3) dispassio is foremost quality and the ending of craving leads to Nibbāna; (4) confidence in the Buddha's Sangha is foremost of groupings. Thus confidence in the Sangha is the best kind of confidence."

[35] 5. Vassakara. (Vassakārasutta). "Monks, once in Rajagaha the brahmin Vassakara came to me and said that brahmins regard the four best qualities of a man as: great learning, undersanding what is leant, good memory, and diligent peformance of a houeholder's duties. I neither agreed nor disagreed with him but gave the four qualities of the Dhamma as: (1) a Dhamma practitioner works for the welfare of many people; (2) he is a mental master of the ways of thought; (3) he easily achieves the four jhānas; (4) he achieves the liberation of mind by eliminating the intoxicacations." ,

[36] 6. Dona. (Doṇasutta). Once the Buddha was travellihg between Ukkatta and Setabbya when he left the highway to meditate under a tree. The Brahmin Dona was also travelling after the Buddha and he observed the footprints of the Buddha which had the special markings. He caught up with the Buddha under the tree and asked him: "Are you a deva or a gandabbha, or a yakkha or a human being ?" The Buddha said that he was none of these because he had destroyed the taints that would have led to those kinds of birth and that he was now a Buddha,

[37] 7. No falling away. (Aparihāniyasutta). "Monks, by developing four things a monk is close to Nibbāna, these are: (1-4): he is of virtuous behavior, he guards the sense-doors, he is moderate in eating, and he is intent on wefulness."

[38] Withdrawn,Patilīnasutta). "Monks, to be withdrawn a bhikkhu should : (1) abandon individual beliefs (like 'the world is eternal'); (2) give up searching (for things like sense pleasure); (3) make the body tranquil (like by acquiring the fourth jhāna); (4) be totally withdrawn (like by abandoning the conceit 'I am')."

[39] 9. Ujjaya. (Ujjayasutta). The brahmin Ujjaya came to the Buddha and asked if Gotama praises sacrifice. The Buddha replied that he does not praise the killing of any living being as a sacrifice. Nor does he approve of the various rituals involvd in the (Vedic) sacrifice. But he does I praise sacrifice that does not innvlove killing and cruelty. Such sacrifice is praised by the worthy ones". < br>
[40] 10. Udayin. (Udāyīsutta). This is the same as the previous sutta but given to another brahmin Udayin.

6. Rohitassavagga – 3. Rohitassa

[41] 1. Concentration (Samādibhāvanāsutta). "Monks, concentration leads to four goals: (1) a happy life (through development of the jhānas); (2) acquiring knowledge and vision (through a luminous mind); (3) mindfulness (especially of feelings); (4) destruction of the āsavas (through eliminaton of craving)."

[42] 2. Questions. Pañhbyākaraṇasutta). "Monks, Thre are four ways of dealing with a question: (1) give a categorical reply; (2) give a qualified reply; (3) ask a conter question; (4) ignore the question."

[43] 3. Anger 1. (Paṭhamakodhagarusutta). "Monks, there are four types of peresons: (1) those who value anger to Dhamma; (2) those who value reviling to Dhamma; (3) those who value gain to Dhamma; (4) those who value honours to Dhamma. But there are also those who value Dhamma to all these."

[44] 4. Anger 2. (Dutiyakodhagarusutta). This is the same as the previous sutta where bad people value the four things given to the Dhamma while the good people value the Dhamma above these.

[45] 5. Rohitassa 1. (Paṭhamarohitassasutta). Once towards the end of the night the deva Rohitassa came to the Buddha and asked: "Is it possible by walking to reach the end of the world where there is no more being born or growing old or dying, or being reborn ?" The Buddha said that it was not possible to do so. The deva then said that in a previous birth he had great psychic powers including the power to walk in giant strides but he tried to walk to the end of the world but could not do so and died in the process.

[46] 6. Rohitassa 2. (Dutiyarohitassasutta). In this sutta the Buddha recounts to the monks the story of the visit of the deva Rohitassa given in the previous sutta.

[47] 7. Far away. (Suvidūrasutta). "Monks, There are four pairs of things that are near and far: (1) Sky and earth; (2) the shores of the ocean; (3) where the sun rises and sets. (4) good teaching and bad teaching."

[48] 8. Visākha. (Viskhasutta). Once the venerable Visākha Pancaliputta was addressing the monks in the Assembly Hall in Sāvatthi exorting the listerners with good Dhamma talk. Later the Buddha came to the Hall and asked who had been speaking earlier. When told that it was Visākha the Buddha complimented Visākha and added: "One knows a wise person by his words. If a person is silent one would not know who he is."

[49] 9. Perversions. (Vipallāsasutta). "Monks, perversions in perception, thought and view are of four kinds, holding what is (1) impermanent as permanent; (2) suffering as pleasure; (3) non-self as self; (4) unattractive as attractive."

[50] 10. Defilements. (Upakilesasutta). "Monks, there are four defilements that could obscure the light from the sun and the moon. These are (1-4): Clouds, fog, smoke and dust.


Dutiyapaññāsaka – The second fifty suttas

6. Paññāsakavagga – 6. Flood of Merit

[51] 1. Flood of merit 1. (Paṭhamapaññāsakasutta). "Monks, there are four floods of merit (to householders). These are the giving (to monks) of (1-4) robes, food, lodging, and medicines. These allow the monks to engage in concentration and the givers go to heaven."

[52] 2. Flood of merit 2. (Dutiyapaññāsakasutta). In this sutta the same four floods of merit mentioned in the previus sutta are repeated with the addition that the Ariyan disciple so engaged is motivated by faith in the Buddha, the Dhamma and the sangha.

[53] 3. Living together 1.(Paṭhamasamavāsasutta). Once the Buddha while travelling between Madura and Verañja a group of householders came to him. The Buddha addressed them thus: "There are four ways of living together. (1-4): A vile woman lives with a vile man, a vile woman lives with a virtuous man, a virtuous man lives with a vile woman, a virtuous man l,ives with a virtuous woman. Virtuosity here is the keeping of the moral precepts. It is the last kind of living together that produces the best results.

[54] 4. Living together 2. (Dutiyasamavasasutta). This is the same as the previous sutta but this time addressed to the monks and not the householders.

[55] 5. Equal living 1.(Paṭhamasamajīvasutta). Once in Bhagga the Buddha visited the home of Nakula's parents. Both Nakula's parents then told the Buddha: "Ever since our marriage we have lived in harmony speaking kind words to each other. How can we do the same in our next birth also?" The Buddha replied: "Blessing comes to a married couple if they live according to Dhamma, speaking kind words to each other. Their enemies are defeated. After death they will be born in the deva world, there enjoying the sensual pleasures."

' [56] 6. Equal living 2. (Dutiyasamajīvasutta). In this sutta the Buddha's reply to Nakula's parents in the previous sutta is given to the monks.

[57] 7. Suppavasa. (Suppvasasutta). Once in the Koliyan town of Sajjanela the Buddha was invited for a meal by the Koliyan lady Suppavasa. After the meal the Buddha addressed Suppavasa thus: "When food is given by a noble lady she provides four things to the recipient: (1-4) life, beauty, happiness, and strength. But she also partakes of the same four for herself. When the donation is for those who are upright merit is joined to merit. Having destroyed miserliness the giver is joyful and after death goes to heaven." ,

[58] 8. Sudatta. (Sudatttasutta). In this sutta the same discourse given to Suppavasa in the previous sutta is now given to Anātapiṇḍika (Sudatta).

[59] 9. Food. (Bhojanasutta). In this sutta the same discourse given to Suppavasa and Anātapiṇḍika in the previous two suttas is now given to the monks.

[60] 10. The lay person's duty. (Gihisāmicisutta). The Buddha once addessed Anātapiṇḍika thus: "The four duties of the Ariyan disciple are to wait upon the Order of monks offering (1-4) robes, alms-food, lodging and medicines. By day and night their merit grows and they reach heaven."

7. Pattakammavagga – 7. Meritorious deeds

[61] 1. Meritorious deeds. (Pattakammasutta). Once the Buddha addressed Anātapiṇḍika thus: "The four things that householders wish for are wealth, fame, longevity and after death rebirth in heaven. These may be difficult things to achieve. But there are four other things whose acquisition may lead to the four thing wished for. These are accomplishment in (1-4) faith, virtue, generosity, and wisdom. Wealth acquired righteously should be spent on acquiring these four worthy deeds. When wealth is exhausted in things other than these four it is wealth wasted.  But when anyone exhausts wealth on these four worthy deeds, that wealth is said to have gone to good use."

[62] 2. Without debt. (Ānaṇyasutta). On another occcasion the Buddha addressed Anātapiṇḍika thus: "Householders seek four kinds of happiness: the bliss of ownership, of enjoyment, of freedom from debt, and of blamelessness. Being blameless of wrong action by body, speech and mind is the greatest of these kinds of happiness."

[63] 3. Brahma's equal.(Brahmasutta). "Monks, mothers and fathers in families who are worshipped in the home are considered equal to (1)Brahmā (2) teachers of old; (3) devas; (4) persons to whom offering should be made. People should serve them with food, clothing, beds, massage, and they will be rewarded in heaven."

[64] 4. Hell. (Nirayasutta). "Monks, a person goes to hell who (1-4) takes life, steals, does wrong in sensual desires, and is a liar.

[65] 5. External form.(Rūpasutta). "Monks, there are four kinds of persons depending on whether they judge on : (1) external form; (2) speech; (3) austerity; (4) Dhamma. The first three place their confidence on the single factor, but not the Dhamma farer."

[66] 6. Lust. (Sarāgasutta). "Monks, there are four kinds of persons: (1-4) the lustful, the hateful, the deluded, and the proud. They are low beings enamoured by the attractive, deluded beings who increase their fetters."

[67] 7. King of snakes. (Ahirājasutta). Once a monk in Sāvatthi died of a snake bite. This news was conveyed to the Buddha who said: "This monk had not regarded the four royal families of snakes (Virupakkha, Erapattla, Chabyiputta and Kasha-gotamaka) with a mind of loving kindness." He then taught the monks a chant by which they could extens loving kindness to these snakes.

[68] 8. Devadatta. (Devadattasutta). Soon after Devadatta had left the Order the Buddha addressed the monks: "Devadatta went to his ruin and destruction because of his own wish for gain, honour and flattery. Just like the plantain (banana) tree which destroys itself after it has yielded its fruit."

[69] 9. Effort. (Padhānasutta). "Monks, there are four efforts, (1-4) the effort to restrain, to abandon, to develop and to to protect. Restraining is preventing unwholesome states from arising. Abandoning is the destruction of unwholesome states that have arisen. Development is the cultivation of new wholesome states. Protection is the preservation wholesome states that have arisen.

[70] 10. Not Dhamma. (Adhammikasutta). "Monks, when kings are unrighteous they are followed by ministers, brahmins, and householders, all of whom become unrighteous. This is followed by the sun and moon who change their course, days, nights and seasons are out of joint, winds blow out of season, and the rains fail. When the kings are righteous the opposite happens. This is like the lead bull going one way followed by the rest of he herd."

8. Apaṇṇakavagga – 8. The Certain

[71] 1. Effort. (Padhānasutta). "Monks, if a monk has these four qualities he is certain of destroying the āsavas (intoxicants): he is (1-4) virtuous, learned, of ardent effort, and wise."

[72] 2. Right view. (Sammādiṭṭhisutta). "Monks, if a monk has these four thoughts he is certain of destroying the āsavas (intoxicants): renunciation, good intention, non-harming, and right view."

[73] 3. Unworthy 1. (Sappurisasutta). "Monks, a person is unworthy if he: (1) reveals the faults of others even if he is not asked; (2) does not reveal the virtues of others even if asked; (3) does not reveal his own faults even if asked; (4) claims virtues for himself falsely. A good person does the opposite of these."

[74] 4. Foremost 1. (Paṭhamaaggasutta). "Monks, four things that are foremost and best: (1-4) virtuous behaviour, concentration, wisdom, and liberation."

[75] 5. Foremost 2. (Dutiyaaggasutta). "Monks, four things that are foremost and best: (1-4) (physical) forms, feelings, perceptions, and states of existence. "

[76] 6.Kusināra. (Kusinārasutta). When the Budddha was at Kunisnāra between the Sal trees before his final passing away he asked the assembled monks three times to ask any question if they needed clarification on the Dhamma. But the monks were silent. He then said that if anyone was reluctant to ask directly he could ask a friend to ask on his behalf, Again the monks were silent, Then venerable Ananda observed: "It is indeed marvellous that the monks do not have any doubt on the Dhamma."

[77] 7. Unthinkable. (Acinteyyasutta). "Monks, there are four unthinkable matters: (1) The domain of the Buddhas; (2) the domain of one in jhāna; (4) speculation about the world. To conceive them would be either madness or frustration."

[78] 8. Gifts. (Dakkhninasutta). "Monks, there are four situations in the making and receiving of gifts: (1) the giver is virtuous but the receiver is wicked; (2) the giver is wicked but the receiver is virtuous; (3) both giver and receiver are wicked; (4) both giver and receiver are virtuous.

[79] 9. Trade. (Vanijjasutta). Once the venerable Sāriputta came to the Buddha and asked: "Why is it that a business deal made by a one person succeeds as intended while that of another person fails ?" The Buddha replied: "If in a previous birth a person had not kept his promise in a transaction then in this life a business deal undertaken by him will be a failure. Also if a person cheats in a transaction in this life in a future life his trade will be a failure. If on the other hand a person had acted correctly in a transaction in a previous life then a transaction he does in this life will be a success."

[80] 10. The fruit of the deed. (Kambhojasutta). Once at Kosambi the venerable Ananda asked the Buddha: "Why is it that women neither sit in a court, nor engage in business, nor reach the fruit of  the deed ?" The Buddha replied: "Women are uncontrolled, envious, greedy, weak in wisdom. That is the reason."

9 . Macalavagga – 9. Unshaken

[81] 1. Killing. (Pānātipātasutta). "Monks, a person goes to hell if he destroys the life of living things. If he does not do so he is rewarded. "

[82] 2. Lying. (Musāvādasutta). "Monks, a person goes to hell if he engages in wrong speech. If he does not do so he is rewarded. "

[83] 3. Praise,(Avaṇṇārhasutta). "Monks, a person goes to hell because of (1) praising something not worthy of paise; (2) blaming things worth of praise; (3) appreciating things not worthy of appreciation; (4) not appreciating what should be appreciated, In the opposite cases he is rewarded. "

[84] 4. Anger. (Kodagarusutta). "Monks, a person goes to hell because he acts contrary to Dhamma with regard to (1-4) wrath, hypocrisy, gain, and honours. In the opposite situations he goes to heaven."

[85] 5. Darkness.(Tamotamasutta). "Monks, there are four kinds of persons: (1) those in darkness and bound for darkness; (2) those in darkness but bound for light; (3) those in light but bound for darkness; (4) those in darkness but bound for light. Here darkness means being in unfavourable circumstances like poverty, ill health and so on, light means being in opposite circumstance;. It is action that determines the destination."

[86] 6. Bent down. (Oṇatoṇatasutta). "Monks, there are four kinds of person: (1) One who is (1) low and remains low; (2) low and becomes high; (3) high and becomes low; (4) high and remains high."

[87] 7. Recluses. (Puttasutta). "Monks, there are four kinds of recluse (bhikkhu) : (1) the unshaken recluse (who is the worthy successor of his teacher and has entered the way); (2) the blue-lotus recluse (who has destroyed the āsavas but not achieved the eight emancipations); (3) the white-lotus recluse (who has destroyed the āsavas and achieved the eight emancipations); (4) the exquisite recluse (who gets his requistes when invited otherwise not). "

[88] 8. Fetters. (Saṃyojanasutta). In this sutta the same four classes of recluses given in sutta 87 are given except that the steadfast recluse is one who is a stream-winner with three fetters destroyed, the blue-lotus recluse is a once-returner, the white-lotus recluse is a non-returner, and the exquisite recluse is one who has achieved full liberation of mind.

[89] 9. Right View. (Sammādiṭṭhisutta). In this sutta the same four classes of recluses given in sutta 87 are given except that the steadfast recluse is one who has achieved the requirements of the eight-fold path, the blue-lotus recluse does the same but has no personal experience of the eight deliverances, the white-lotus recluse, has achieved these deliverances, and finally the exquisite recluse gets his material requirements through invitation from his devotees.

[90] 10. Aggregates. (Khandasutta). In this sutta the same four classes of recluses given in sutta 87 are given except that the steadfast recluse is a pupil, who has not made up his mind and lives aspiring for the goal, the blue-lotus recluse is one who is contemplating the rise and fall of the five grasping-groups and does not experience the eight deliverances, the white-lotus recluse has experienced these deliverances, and the exquisite recuse is the same as iun the previous sutta.

10 . Asuravagga – 10. The Asuras

[91] 1. The Asuras. (Asurasutta). "Monks, there are fouir kinds of persons:  (1-4) the asura with a retinue of asuras, the asura with a retinue of devas. the deva with a retinue of asuras and the deva with a retinue of asuras. Here 'asura' means an immoral person, and a 'deva' means a moral person."

[92] 2. Concentration 1. ( Paṭhamasamādhisutta). "Monks, there are four kinds persons: (1) the one who gains mental calm of the self, but not the higher wisdom of insight; (2) the one who gains the higher wisdom of insight into things, but does not gain mental calm of the self; (3) the one who gains neither of these things; (4) the one who gains both."

[93] 3. Concentration 2. ( Dutiyasamādhisutta). This sutta explains the four kinds of persons identified in the previous suttsa as four kinds of bhikkhus.

[94] 4. Concentration 3. ( Tatiyasamādhisutta). In this sutta a monk goes to four bhikkhus each of whom belongs to one of the four kinds of bhikkhu identified in the previous sutta and is given an explanation why the bhikkhu belongs to that particular kind to which he belongs.

[95] 5. The firebrand. (Chavālatasutta). In this sutta a bhikkhu goes to the four kinds of persons identified in sutta 92. The monks approached said why they beonged to their category of choice.

[96] 6. Lust. (Rāgavinayasutta). "Monks, there are four kinds persons: (1) one who is only concerned with his own welfare; (2) one who is concerned only with the welfare of others; (3) one who is concerned with both; (4) one who is concerned with neither." Here welfare is seen as the removal of lust, hatred and delusion.

[97] 7. Quick witted. (Khippanisantisutta). As in the previous sutta the four kinds of people are defined in terms of their attitude to welfare, but welfare is now described as being quick in attending to wholesome teachings, memorizing them, understanding their their meaning and practicing them. .

[98] 8. Self welfare. (Attahitasutta). This is the same as the previous sutta.

[99] 9. Precepts. (Sikkhapadasutta). This is the same as the immediate previous suttas on the four kinds of welfare but welfare is now defined as keeping the five precepts.

[100] 10. Potaliya. (Potaliyasutta). Once the wanderer Potaliya came to the Buddha and the Buddha said to him that there were four kinds of  people: (1) some deservardly dispraises someone who deserves dispraise, and the dispraise is accurate, truthful, and timely; but he does not praise of someone deserving  praise; (2) some deservardly praises someone but does disprsise someone deserving dispraise; (3) another does not dispraise someone who deserves dispraise, nor praise someone deserving  praise; (4) another dispraises someone deserving dispraise and praises one deserving praise. which of these is the better?" Potaliya chose the third alternative.  Te Buddha however showed that the fourth alternative is the best. This convinced Potaliya.

11 . Valāhakavagga – 11. Clouds

[101] 1. Cloud 1. (Paṭhmvalāhalukasutta). "Monks, there are four types of clouds (1-4) the thunderer but not rainer, rainer but not thunderer, neither thunderer nor rainer, and both thunderer and rainer. Similarfly there are four types of person where a thunderer is one who talks and a rainer is one who acts.

[102] 2. Cloud 2. (Dutiyavalāhalukasutta). This suttta elaborates on the four classses of persons (compared to clouds) given in the previous sutta, as follows: (1) This kind of person knows all the discourses does not know what suffering and so on are. (2) This person does not know the discourses but understands suffering. (3) This person knows neither the discourses nor does he know what suffering is. (4) He knows bothe the texts and th way to end suffering..

b>[103] 3. The pot. (Kumbhasutta). "Monks, There are four kinds of pots: the empty and closed, the full and open, the empty and open, and the full and closed. Corresponding to these there are four kinds of persons. (1) an empty and closed person is charming but does not understand the Noble Truths. (2) a full and open person is not charming but he understands the Noble Truths. (3) an empty and open person is neither charming nor understands the Noble Truths. (3) a full and closed person is charming but does not understand the Noble Truths. (4) a full and closed person is charming and understands the Noble Truths. " The last is the best.

[104] 4. Pools of water. (Udakarahadasutta). In this sutta the analogy of the four pools given in the previous sutta is applied to four pools of water to illustrate the four kinds of persons..

[105] 5. Mangoes. (Ambasutta). In this sutta the analogy of the four persons given in the Sutta 103 previous sutta is applied to four kinds of mangoes, ripe and unripe, appears to be ripe aned appers to be unripe. These are used to illustrate the four kinds of persons.

[106] 6. Mangoes 2. (Dutiyaambasutta). This is a repetition of the previous sutta but does not appear in any Pali text.

[107] 7. Mice (Musikasutta). In this sutta the analogy of the four pois given in the Sutta 103 is applied to four kinds of mice,one making a hole but not living there and making a hole and living there. These are used to illustrate the four kinds of persons.

> [108] 8. Cattle. (Balibaddakasutta). This sutta deals with four kinds of persons (as given in suttta 103) who are compared to four kinds of bull, one aggressive towards other cattle not its own kind, one aggresive towards the own kind but not others, one aggressive towards all, and one aggressivfe towards none. It is only the last mentioned that is approved by the Buddha.

[109] 9. Trees. (Rukkhssutta). This sutta deals with four kinds of persons (as given in suttta 103) who are compared to four kinds of trees, one one made of softwood trees surrounded by hardwood trees; the one made of softwood who is surrounded by hardwood; one made of hardwood surrounded by softwood; and one made of hardwood surrounded by hardwood. In this analogy softwood is compared to immoral persons and hardwood to moral persons. The Buddha approves the fourth kind of person.

[110] 10. Snakes. (Asīvisasutta). hssutta). This sutta deals with four kinds of persons (as given in suttta 103) who are compared to four kinds of snakes, one venomous but not fierce,, one fierce but not venomous, one both, asnd one neither. The Buddhaq approved of the last kind.

11 . Kesivagga – 11. Kesi.

[111] 1. Kesi. (Kesisutta). Once the Buddha asked Kesi the horse trainer how he trains a horse. Kesi answered: "By harshness or kindness or both; but if it is untrainable it is destroyed. How does the Buddha train a man?" The Buddha answered: "Also by harshness and kindness. He is taught the precepts and the consequences of not following them like rebirth in bad destinations. If he is not trainable he is destroyed." Kesi is surprised that the Buddha would kill him but the Buddha answered that in his system destruction is not physical killing but the inability of the person to be saved from rebirth.

[112] 2. Speed. (Javasutta). "Monks, the qualities that make a horse worthy of a king are: (1-4) straightness, speed, patience and docility. Possessed of these same four qualities a man [monk] is worthy of veneration, receiving gifts, and is the best field of merit in the world."

[113] 3. Goad. (Patodasutta). "Monks, an excellent horse at the feel of the whip becomes (1) agitated as to what is rewhat quired of him, (2) is stirred. (3) feels agitated, and (4) thinks it can do for its driver. Similarly an excellent person at the thought that someone somewhere is gravely ill has the same four kinds of feeling as the horse struck by the whip."

[114] 4. Elephant. (Nāgasutta). "Monks, an elephant is worthy of a king if he is (1-4) a listener, a destroyer, an endurer.and a goer. Similarly a monk with these same four qualities is worthy of gifts and is an unsurpassed field of merit for the world."

[115] 5. Actions. (Thānasutta). "Monks, there are four kinds of actions to the doer: (1) unpleasant and unprofitable; (2) unpleasant but profitable; (3) pleasant but unprofitable; (4, both pleasant and profitable. The first three kinds of actions are done by the foolish, anbd the fur th by the wise."

[116] 6. Alertness. (Appamādasutta). "Monks, there ar e four kinds of misconduct you should abandon and develop their opposite. These are misconduct (1-4) of body, of speecjh, of mind, and of wrong view." these are : bodilu misconduct, verbnal misconduct, mental miscondct, and wrong view. Then there will be nofear of the life to come after death."

[1177] 7. Guarded, (Ārakkhasutta). "Monks, there are four things that a monk concerned with his welfare should guard his mind against. These are : (1-4) lust; hatred; heedlessness and intoxication."

[118] 8. Emotion, (Saṃvedanasutta). "Monks, there are four places which a believing clansman shuld regard with inspiration and great emotion. These are these places are: (1-4) where thje Tathāgata was born; where he achieeed enlightenment; where he delivered the first sermon; and where he passed into Nibbāna.

[119] 9. Fear 1, (Paṭhamabhayasutta). "Monks, there are four fears"the fears of (1-4): birth; old age; aisease; and death. These are the four fears."

[120] 10. Fear 2, (Dutiyabhaysutta). (sutta). "Monks, there are four fears"the fears of (1-4): fire; water;, the King; and bandits."

12 . Bhayavagga – 12. Fear

[121] 1. Self reproach (Attānuvādasutta). "Monks, There are four fears: reproach by oneself (for doing evil); reproach by others (for same); punishment (for evil) , rebirth in hell (after death)."

[122] 2. The wave. (ūmibhayasutta). "Monks, someone entering the water has four fears. These are fear of waves, crocodiles, whirlpools, and sea-monsters. Corresponding to these a monk has four fears of having to leave the training due to (1) vexatious instructions from fellow monks (waves); (2) pining for good food he had formerly (crocodiles); (3) pining for former lust he enjoyed (whirlpools); and (4) pining for women (sea monsters)."

[123] 3. Different persons 1. (Paṭhamaānākaraṇasutta). "Monks, there are four kinds of persons (monks): one who, secluded from sensual pleasures and unwholesome states, reaches (1) the first jhāna; (2) the second jhāna; (3) the third jhāna; (4) the fourth jhāna. After death they all go to the Brahma worlds."

[124] 4. Different persons 2. (Dutiyaānākaraṇasutta). "Monks, there are four kinds of persons (monks): one who, aloof from sense desires, reaches (1) the first jhāna; (2) the second jhāna; (3) the third jhāna; (4) the fourth jhāna. After death they all become devas of the Pure Abodes"

[125] 5. Loving kindness 1. (Paṭhamamettāsutta). "Monks, There are four kinds of persons. One pervading all quarters, up and down, and everywhere with a mind full of (1) loving kindness; (2) compassion; (3) equanimity; (4) altruistic joy."

[126] 6. Loving kindness 2. (Dutiyamettāsutta). All the persons mentioned in the previous sutta after death are reborn in the Pure Abodes.

[127] 7. Miracles 1. (Paṭhamatathāgataaccariyasutta). "Monks, great and mighty miracles happen when (1) a bodhisattva leaves the Tusita heaven destined to become a Buddha; (2) when a Tathāgata is born; (3) when a Tathāgata declares the Dhamma; (4) when a Tathāgata passes into utter Nibbāna."

[128] 8. Miracles 2. (Dutiyatathāgataaccariyasutta). "Monks, four things that happen when a Tathāgata is manifested: the people (1) take delight and rejoice; (2) are excited with pride; (3) are eager to hear the Dhamma; (4) take delight in shedding their ignorance."

[129] 9. Miracles 3. (Ānandaaccariyasutta). "Monks, there are these four marvellous things about Ananda: (1) when monks come to see Ananda they are delighted; (2) when lay male followers come to see Ananda they are delighted; (3) when bhikkhunis come to see Ananda they are delighted; (4) when female lay followers come to see Ananda they are delighted."

[130] 10. Miracles 4. (Cakkavattiachariyasutta). In this sutta the four wonderful things that happen with regard to Ananda in the previous sutta are repeated with regard to a wheel-turning monarch who is visited by noblemen, brahmins, householders and recluses.

13. Puggalavagga – 13. Pe rsons

[131] 1. Fetters. (Saṃyojanasutta). "Monks,

[132] 2. Reply. (Paṭibhāaasutta). "Monks, m en [133] 3. Quick-witted. (Uggahaṭitaññusutta). "Monks,

[134] 4. Effort. (Uṭṭhānapharasutta). "Monks,

[135] 5. Blameworthy, (Savajjasutta). "Monks,

[136] 6. Virtue1. (Paṭhamasīlssutta). "Monks,

[137] 7. Virtue 2. Dutiyasīlssutta). "Monks,

[138] 8. Subdued.(Nikaṭṭhasutta). "Monks,

[139] 9. Dhamma talk. (Dhammakaṭhikasutta). "Monks,

[140] 10. Expounder (Vādhiksutta). "Monks,

14. vagga – 14.

[] 1. (sutta). "Monks,

[] 2. (sutta). "Monks, m en [] 3. (sutta). "Monks,

[] 4. (sutta). "Monks,

[] 5. (sutta). "Monks,

[] 6. (sutta). "Monks,

[] 7. (sutta). "Monks,

[] 8. (sutta). "Monks,

[] 9. (sutta). "Monks,

[] 10. (sutta). "Monks,