Aṅguttara Nikāya– Book of Gradual Sayings

4. Pañcakanipāta &É#8211; 1. Book of Fives

[NOTE: All statements in these suttas, unless otherwise noted, are made by the Buddha addressing the monks at Jetavana in Sāvatthi. These are included withÉin quotation marks: "...". Sections within curly brackets {...} are comments notes and further explanations by the author of these abstracts. Other statements give general information usually within square brackets [...]. Each sutta in this Book deals with four items. They are usually numbered here (1) ... (5) though not in the original Pali]

1. Paṇṇāsaka – 1. The first Fifty

1. Sekabalavagga – 1.

[1] 1. In brief. (Saṃkhittasutta). "Monks, the five powers of the learner are: (1) faith; (2) moral shame; (3) moral dread; (4); energy; (5) wisdom."

[2] 2. In detail.(Vitthatasutta). The detailed explanation of the five powers mentioned in the previous sutta are: (1) faith in the Buddha; (2) being ashamed of bodily, mental and verbal misconduct; (3) dreading the same; (4); energy to give up unwholesome qualities and acquire their opposite; (5) penetrate what leads to suffering.

[3] 3. Suffering. (Dukkhasutta). "Monks, a bhikkhu suffers because of five qualities: (1) devoid of faith; (2) morally shameless; (3) morally reckless; (4) lazy; (5) unwise. Their opposite leas to to no suffering."

[4] 4. Reality. (sutta). The Buddha said that a bhikkhu goes to hell if he has the five qualities mentioned in sutta 1.

[5] 5. Training. (Sikkhāsutta). The Buddha said that a bhikkhu or bhikkhni who does not have the five qualities mentioned in sutta 1 gives up the training.

[6] 6. Entering. (Samāpattisutta). "Monks, a bhikkhu does not enter into wrong if he has faith, moral shame, moral dread, energy and wisdom."

[7] 7. Sensual pleasure. (Kāmasutta). "Monks, beings delight in sensual pleasure but a monk leaves the household life out of faith, When an infant puts a stone in his mouth this is extracted even if it injures him. But when grown up he can do it himself. Similarly a bhikkhu who is not accomplished in faith, in moral shame, in moral dread, in energy, and in wisdom needs to be looked after. But when he is accomplished in these he can look after himself."

[8] 8. Falling away. (Cavanasutta). "Monks, a bhikkhu without these five, faith in dhamma, moral shame, moral dread, energy and wisdom falls away. If he has these quali8ties he does not fall away."

[9] 9. Lacking in respect 1. (Paṭhamaagāravasutta). "Monks, a bhikkhu without faith in dhamma, moral shame, moral dread, energy and wisdom is lacking in respect. Otherwise he is established in good dhamma."

[10] 10. Lacking in respect 2. (Dutiyaagāravasutta). Same as the previous sutta"

2. Balavagga – 2. Powers

[11] 1. Not heard. (Ananussatasutta). "Monks, a Tathāgata claims five powers: the power of faith, of moral shame, of moral dread, of energy, of wisdom. With these powers he can roar the lion's roar."

[12] 2. The peak. (Kūṭasutta). "Monks, of the five powers of a trainee the power of faith is the peak. With this he holds the others together."

[13] 3. In brief. (Saṃkhittasutta). Same as sutta 1.

[14] 4. In detail. (Vitthatasutta). Same as sutta 2.

[15] 5. Where seen. (Daṭṭabbasutta). "Monks, of the five powers the power of faith is seen in the stream-winning, the power of energy is seen in the four right efforts. the power of mindfulness to be seen in the four foundations of mindfulness, the power of concentration is seen in the four jhānas, and the power of insight is seen in the four noble truths."

[16] 6. The Peak again. (Punakūṭasutta). Same as sutta 12 with the analogy pf the peaked house.

[17] 7. Doing good 1. (Paṭhamahitasutta). "Monks, for one's own good one cultivates virtue, concentration, release, vision and knowledge. He does these not for the good of another."

[18] 8. Doing good 2. (Dutiyahitasutta). In this suttta the same things done for own good in the previous sutta are done for another's good.

[19] 9. Doing good 3 (Tatiyahitasutta). In this sutta the same things done in the previous sutta are done neither for one's nor for another's good.

[20] 10. Doing good 4. (Catutthahitasutta). In this sutta the things done in the previous sutta are done both for one's good and the others's good.

3. Pañcaṅgikavagga – 3. The Five Limbs

[21] 1. Irreverent 1. (Paṭhamaagārvasutta). "Monks, a bhikkhu who is disrespectful and unruly cannot keep the rule of proper conduct; without which he cannot keep the rule of a trainee; without which he cannot keep the rule of virtue; without which he cannot keep the rule of right view; without which he cannot keep the rule of right concentration. But a bhikkhu who us reveretial and orderly can keep all these rules."

[22] 2. Irreverent 2. (Dutiyaagārvasutta). Same as the previous sutta.

[23] 3. Defilements. (Upakilesasutta). "Monks, gold can be debased by the addition of iron, copper, lead, tin and silver. When so debased it is difficult to make various ornaments with it. So too there are five defilements of the mind: sensual desire, ill-will, sloth and torpor, flurry and worry, and doubt. When these invade the mind of a person he cannot get rid of the intoxications (āsava). He cannot develop the supernormal powers. He cannot get the supeme liberation of mind."

[24] 4. Immoral. (Dussīlasutta). "Monks, the wicked person or bhikkhu lacks virtue, which destroys right concentration, which destroys true knowledge and insight, which destroys aversion and dispassion, which destroys emancipated knowledge and insight. This is like a tree devoid of branches and leaves which does not grow as a result."

[25] 5. Helped. (Anuggahitasutta). "Monks, right view leads to the emancipation of mind helped by virtue, by learning, by discussion, by tranquillity and by inward vision."

[26] 6. Liberation. (Vimuttāyatanasutta). "Monks, there are five bases of liberation: (1) a teacher teaching the Dhamma; (2) the person who is taught the Dhamma teaching it in detail to others; (3) a person reciting at length what he has heard relating to the Dhamma (without further elaboration); (4) a person mentally inspecting what he has been taught as the Dhamma; (5) a person who has grasped the true meaning of the Dhamma he has heard."

[27] 7. Concentration. (Samādhisutta). "Monks, engage in concentration becuase it will lead you to the five-fold knowledge: (1) it is your personal pleasure; (2) it is noble and spiritual; (3) it is something not praticed by a low peson; (4) it is peaceful and sublime; (5) it leads to mindfulness."

[28] 8. The five limbed. (Pañcaṅgikasutta). "Monks, I will teach the five bases of noble concentration: (1) The bhikkhu dwells in the first jhāna in which there is zest and pleasure accompanied by discursive thought and examination. (2) He dwells in the second jhāna in which he dispenses of thought and examination but keeps up with zest and pleasure. (3) He dwells in the third jhāna in which he replaces zest with equanimous and mindful comprension. (4) He dwells in the fourth jhāna in which he abandons pleasure and pain and purifies mindfulnesss with equanimity. (5) Here the bhikkhu grasps well whatever object he is considering and penetrates it with wisdom."

[29] 9. Walking meditation. (Caṅkamasutta). "Monks, The five advantages of walking meditation are: (1) it strengths one for travelling; (2) it is good for striving; (3) it is healthy; (4) it assists digestion after meals; (5) the concentration from it lasts long."

[30] 10. Nagita. (Nagitasutta). Once the Buddha with the Sangha came to the Kosalan village of Iccānaṅgala. The Buddha's fame had reached the brahmins of the village who prepared much food and came to the entrance of the wood where the Buddha was staying making a great commotion. The Buddha then asked his attendnt venerable Nagita what the commotion was about and he was told what was happening. The Buddha then said: "Let me never get fame. What I get with ease is the bliss of rennciation, solitude, peace and enlightenment. Those cannot get these let them enjoy the vile pleasures of gain, honor and praise." When Nagita remonstrated the Buddha gave five reasons: "(1) What is eaten and drunk ends up as bodily waste; (2) impermanance of pleasure leads to sorrow and lamentation; (3) meditation on unattractiveness leads to revulsion of the beautiful; (4) contemplating impermanence in the six bases for contact leads to revulsion towards them; (5) contemplating impermanance of the five aggregates of clinging leads to revelsion towards them."

4. Sumanavagga – 4. Sumana

[31] 1. Sumana. (Sumanasutta). Once at Sāvatthi the Princess Sumana approached the Buddha with her entourage and asked: "If two virtuous and wise disciples, one generous and the other not die, and are reborn devas would there be a difference between them ?The Buddha said that there would be, the generous one would be better in in celestial life span, beauty, happiness, glory, and celestial authority. If reborn as humans they more generous one would be better off in human life span, beauty, happiness, fame, and human authority. If both go forth and become monks the more generous one would excel in robes, alms food, lodging, medicines and consideration from fellow monks. If the both become arhants there would be no difference.

[32] 2. Cundī. (Cundīsutta). Once in Rajagaha the Princess Cundī approached the Buddha and said that her brother told her that a person who kept the precepts would be reborn in a good destination. She asked the Buddha what kind of Dhamma should a being have confidence in for that to happen. The Buddha said that for this there should be confidence in: (1) the teacher the best of whom is the Tathāgata; (2) the path the best of which is the noble eightfold path; (3) the teaching which extols dispassion, crushing of thirst and attachment, and nibbāna; (4) the sangha the best of which is the Sangha of the Tathāgata; (5) teaching which extols virtuous behaviour leading to concentration.

[33] 3. (sutta). Once near Bhaddiya Uggaha invited the Buddha to visit him for a meal. The Buddha accepted and the next day went to Uggaha's house and was served with the meal. After that Uggaha said: "My daughters will soon in marriage go to their husband's home. Please instruct them for their happiness." The Buddha then told the daughters: "(1) Attend to your husbands rising before him and being pleasant in speech; (2) honour your husband's parents, ascetics and brahmins; (3) be diligent in attending to domestic chores; (4) treat the domestic staff well in food and so on; (5) guard and protect the income your husband will bring. If you do this you will be assured of a deva rebirth."

[34] 4. Sīha. (Sīhasutta). Once in Vesali the general Sīha asked the Buddha: "Is it possible to show the visible results of giving ?" The Buddha said: "(1) "A generous giver is dear and agreeable to many; (2) good persons resort to a giver; (3) he gets a good reputation; (4) he approaches assemblies with confidence."

[35] 5. The benefits of giving. (Dānānisaṃsā. tta). "Monks, there are five benefits of giving: (1) A giver is agreeable to many people. (2) Good people resort to a giver; (3) a giver gets a good reputation; (4) he conforms to the layperson's duty; (5) after death he is born in heaven. Giving also dispels suffering and if the intoxications are destroyed will lead to nibbāna.

[36] 6. Timely gifts. (Kālasānasutta). "Monks, five timely gifts are those: (1) given  to a visitor; (2) given when starting a journey; (3) given to a sick person; (4) given during a famine; (5) given from the first harvest to virtuous ones."

[37] 7. Meal (Bhojanasutta). "Monks, a giver of alms to an ascetic gives (1-5) life; beauty; pleasure; strength; discernment. He also partakes the same for himself."

[38] 8. Faith: (Saddhasutta). "Monks, the clansman with faith has five advantages over one without faith: (1) he gets compassion from good people; (2) he is the first person to be approached; (3) he is the first to eceive alms; (4) he is the first to receive instruction in Dhamma; (5) after death he is reborn in heaven."

[39] 9. Son. (Putttasutta). "Monks, parents desire a son for five reasons: (1) expecting support from him later; (2) he will do work for us; (3) he will extend the family lineage; (4) he will manage the inheritance; (5) he will give offerings after our death."

[40] 10. Magestic Sal trees. (Mahāsālaputtasutta). "Monks, The majestic Himalayan Sal trees grow in: (1) branches and foliage; (2) bark; (3) shoots; (4) softwood; (5) heartwood. Similarly home dwellers led by a believing chief groes in faith, virtue, learning, generosity and wisdom.

5. Muṇḍarājavagga – King Muṇḍa.

[41] 1. Wealth. (Ādiyasutta). Once in Sāvatthi the householder Anāthapiṇḍika came to the Buddha. The Buddha told him: "There are five ways in which wealth got legally by strenuous effort can be spent: (1) on one's family; (2) on friends and companions; (3) on provision against future losses; (4) on oblations to relatives, guests, pretas, the king, and devas; (5) on alms to ascetics and brahmins One who does so gets praise in this world and afterwards delight in heaven."

[42] 2. The good man. (Sappurisasutta). "Monks, when a good man is born to a family it is to the welfare of: (1) his parents; (2) his wife and children; (3) his servants and slaves; (4) his friends and companions; (5) ascetics and brahmins."

[43] 3. What is wished. (sutta). Once the Buddha told Anāthapiṇḍika: "Five things which are wished for are: (1-5) long life; beauty; happiness; fame; heaven."

[44] 4. Giver of good things. (Manāpadāyīsutta). Once in Vesali the Buddha visited the householder Ugga. Ugga said: "I have heard from the Buddha himself that the giver of good things gains the good". He then offered the following things which he considered good to the Buddha who accepted them out of compassion: porridge made from Sal flowers, pig meat dressed with jujube fruit, fried vegetable stalks, cleaned boiled rice with condiments, Kasi cloth, and a valuable sandalwood plank (in place of his couch which is not allowable). After this the Buddha having expressed appreciation went away. Later Ugga died and was reborn as a deva and he visited the Buddha who was then in Sāvatthi. The Buddha then asked the deva Ugga if things were as he had said and the deva agreed that they were so. Then the Buddha uttered a verse saying that he who gives the good gains good.

[45] 5. Merit streams. (Puññābhisutta). "Monks, whosoever gives the following five things to a monk who uses them while engaging in measureless concentration earns a stream of merit that takes him to heaven: (1) the robe; (2) the alms; (3) the lodging; (4) the bed or bench to sleep in; (5) the medications."

[46] 6. Perfections; (Sampadāsutta). "Monks, there are five perfections: (1) faith, (2) virtue; (3) learning; (4) charity; (5) insight."

[47] 7. Treasures. (Dhanasutta). In this sutta the five things considered as perfections in the previous sutta are considered as treasures.

[48] 8. Profitless situations. (Alabbhanīyaṭhānasutta). "Monks, the following five profitless situations are unobtainable by anyone whether an ascetic or brahmin or deva or Mara or Brahma: (1) May what is subject to old age not grow old; (2) may what is subject to illness not fall ill; (3) may what is subject to death not die; (4) may what is subject to destruction not be destroyed; (5) may what is subject to loss not get lost. When old age. illness, death, destructon or loss occur to an uninstructed worldling he thinks that these happen not only to himself, but the Ariyan disciple overcomes them and is completely cooled (realizes nibbāna)."

[49] 9. Kosala. (Kosalasutta). Once when the Buddha was at Sāvatthi Pasenadi, king of Kosala, visited him. While he was there the news was brought to him that his queen Mallika had died. The king was sorely grieved, saddened and speechless. The Buddha then preached the previous sutta to him.

[50] 10. Nārada. (Nāradasutta). Once the venerable Nārada was living at Pāṭaliputte when Bhaddi the queen of King Muṇḍa died. The grief stricken king could not do any thing but embrace the body of the dead queen. Then he ordered his treasurer Piyaka to preserve the body of Bhaddiya so that he could see it for a long time. This was done. Then Piyaka thought that the king should see a holy person so that he could get over his grief. Piyaka knew of Nārada and went to see him and asked if Nārada could preach a sermon to the king. This Nārada agreed to do, and Piyaka persuaded king Muṇḍa to see venerable Nārada. When the king came to see him Nārada preached sutta 48 to him. He then told the king not to grieve as it was profitless and only his enemies will rejoice to see him grieve. He should devote himself to whatever tasks are at hand. This convinced the king who ordered his treasurer to burn the body of the dead queen.

The second fifty – Dutiyapaṇṇāsaka

6. Nīvaraṇvagga – 6. Hindrances

[51] 1. Obstructions. (Āvaraṇasutta). "Monks, there are five obstructions which overwhelm the mind and weaken insight: (1) Sensual desire; (2) Ill-will; (3) Sloth and Torpor; (4) Restlessness and worry; (5) Doubt. Bhikkhus who have abandoned these hindrances know their own good as well as that of others.

[52] 2. Heap of unwholesome things. (Akusalarāsisutta). "Monks, the five hindrances are a heap of unwholesome things".

[53] 3. Limbs of striving. (Padhānjyaṅgasutta). "Monks, the five limbs of striving (of a bhikkhu) are: (1) has faith in the Tathāgata; (2) has good digestion; (3) reveals himself as he is to the Master; (4) arouses energy to abandon bad qualities; (5) is wise as to what is noble."

[54] 4. Times for striving. (sutta). "Monks, Wrong times for striving are: (1) when one become old; (2) when ill; (3) during a famine; (4) when there is social disorder; (5) when there is a schism in the Order"

[55] 5. Mother and son.(Mātāputasutta). Once a mother who was a bhikkuni and her son who was a bhikkhu were spending the rainy season together at Sāvatthi. Their affection for each other grew so much that they committed incest. When the Buddha heard of this he said: "I do not see anything that is a greater hindrance to a bhikkhu for realizing his goal as the form, sound, smell, taste, and touch of a woman. Women have lust-making strands and those swept by the flood of sensuality are swept into saṃsāra."

[56] 6. The Preceptor. Upajjhāsutta). Once a bhikkhu approached his preceptor and said "My body feels like being drugged; sloth, torpor and doubt assail me". The two then went to the Buddha who said: "This happens when one is: (1) unguarded in sense faculties; (2) immoderate in eating; (3) not wakeful; (4) lacks insight into wholesome qualities; (5) does not develop the wings of enlightenment." He then advised the monk to avoid these wrong traits.

[57] 7. Things for contemplation. (Abhinhpaccavekkhitabbathanasutta). "Monks, laypersons and bhikkhus should contemplate thus: (1) I am not exempt from old age; (2) I am not exempt from illness; (3) I am not exempt from death; (4) I must be separated from everyone dear to me; (5) I am subject to my kamma. The Ariyan disciple by so reflecting gets rid of the fetters and removes the tendencies and he follows a Dhamma in which there is no substrate."

<5>[58] 8. Liccavi youths. (Liccavikumārakasutta). Once in Vesali the Buddha after his meal was resting in the Great Wood when some Liccavi youths came to him and did reverence to him and stood with upraised hands. Then Mahanama a Vajjian on his walk seeing this came to the Buddha and said: "These Liccavi youths are usually very unruly and rough but here they are standing in silence with upraised hands reverencing the Buddha." The Buddha said: "Every clansman from the king downwards, and those who have become wealthy by lawful means, can expect growth if he shows reverence to these five: (1) his parents; (2) his wife, children and employees; (3) his neighbours and those he does business with; (4) the deities to whom he gives oblations; (5) ascetics and brahmins. If he does this he is praised in this world and after death he rejoices in heaven."

[59] 9. Hard to find 1. (10. Paṭhamavuḍḍhapabbajitasuttaṃ
"Monks, it is hard to find someone who has gone forth in old age who has these five qualities: (1) easy to correct; (2) of good memory; (3) accepts instruction respectfully; (4) speak on the Dhamma; (5) who is an expert on the discipline."

[60] 10. Hard to find 2.(10. Dutiyavuḍḍhapabbajitasuttaṃ). This is the same as the previous sutta.

7. Saññāvagga – 7.Perceptions

[61] 1. Perceptions 1. (Paṭhamasaññāsutta). "Monks, these perceptions when developed bear great fruit leading to deathlessness: (1) foulness; (2) death; (3) danger; (4) repulsiveness of food; (5) distaste for the world."

[62] 2. Perceptions 2. (Dutiyasaññāsutta). Same as the previous sutta with the 5 perceptions now being impermanence, non-self; death; repulsiveness of food; distaste for the world.

[63] 3. Growth 1. (Paṭhamavaḍḍhisutta). "Monks, the Ariyan disciple grows in five ways: faith; virtue; learning; giving up; insight. He thereby absorbs the essence of life."

[64] 4. Growth 2. (Dutiyavaḍḍhisutta). The same as the previous sutta applied to an Ariyan woman.

[65] 5. Discussion. (Sākaccasutta). "Monks, it is fitting to hold discussions with a bhikkhu who is accomplished in: virtue; concentration; wisdom; liberation; knowledge and vision of release. Then they are brahma-farers.

[66] 6. Co-living; (Sājīvasutta). The Buddha said that it is fitting to live with those who are accomplished in the five virtues given in the previous sutta.

[67] 7. Psychic power 1. (Paṭhamaiddhipādasutta). "Monks, if a bhikkhu or bhikkhuni develops psychic power with concentration combined with these five qualities: (1) desire to achieve; (2) energy; (3) mind; (4) investigation; (5) enthusiasm; then he or she become liberated here and now, or if some substrate is still left becomes a non-returner."

[68] 8. Psychic power 2. (Dutiyaiddhipādasutta). In this sutta the Buddha says that before his enlightenment he acquired psychic powers doing what he had explained in the previous sutta.

[69] 9. Disgust. (Nibbidāsutta). "Monks, when these five things are acquired and developed: (1) foulness of the body; (2) greediness for food; (3) distaste as to the world; (4) impermanence in all compounded things; (5) the thought of death; then it leads to disgust, dispassion, calm, knowledge, enlightenment and Nibbāna."

[70] 10. Destruction of intoxications. (Āsavakkhayasutta). The Buddha said that those things mentioned in the previous sutta leads to the destruction of the intoxications (Āsava).

8. Yodhājīvavagga – 8. The Warrior

[71] 1. Fruits of liberation of mind 1. (Paṭhamacetovimuttiphalasutta). "Monks, these five contemplations lead to liberation of mind of a bhikkhu: (1) the foulness of the body; (2) repulsiveness of food; (3) distaste for the world; (4) impermanence in all conditions; (5) thought of death.

[72] 2. Fruits of liberation of mind 2. (Dutiyacetovimuttiphalasutta). Same as previous sutta with the 5 contemplations now being: impermanence; suffering; non-self; renunciation; dispassion.

[73] 3. Living by Dhamma 1. (Paṭhamadhammavihārīsutta). A certain bhikkhu wanted to know what living by Dhamma is. The Buddha said: "Learning, teaching, reciting, and pondering Dhamma alone are not living by Dhamma. But to live Dhamma there should also not be neglect of seclusion and devotion to internal serenity of mind. I have done what has to be done to you, but here are the empty places, you should meditate and not be heedless."

[74] 4. Living by Dhamma 2. (Dutiyadhammavihārīsutta). The same as the previous sutta given to a different monk.

[75] 5. Warrior 1. (Paṭhamayodhājivīvasutta). "Monks, there are five kinds of warriors: (1) the warrior who gives up just on seeing the dust-cloud of battle; (2) the warrior who fails after the flags are raised; (3) the warrior who fails after the he hears the noise of battle; (4) the warrior who fails after he suffers an injury; (5) the warrior who carries through until victory is won. In a similar fashion there are five kinds of bhikkhus: (1) the bhikkhu for whom the dust-cloud is thinking of sensual attraction to females and gives up the training in the holy life; (2) the bhikkhu who actually has sensual attraction to females and gives up the training; (3) a bhikkhu who goes to a lonely place for meditation but the smile of a woman makes him give up the training; (4) a bhikkhu who goes to a lonely place for meditation but instead has sensual contact with a woman and ends the training; (5) the bhikkhu who goes through the full course of training and becomes fully liberated."

[76] 6. Warrior 2. (Dutiyayodhājivīvasutta). This sutta is similar to the previous sutta with the same five kinds of warrior with only the fifth kind battling though to victory, the others giving up the battle at various stages. In the analogy of the bhikkhus the first four kinds of bhikkhu give up the training after succumbing to various degrees of lust. The fifth kind of bhikkhu is the only kind that succeeds in reaching the goal.

[77] 7. Future fears 1. (Paṭhamaanāgatabhayasutta). "Monks, there are five future fears for the earnest forest-gone bhikkhu: (1) being stung by insects and small animals; (2) accident and illness; (3) large wild beasts; (4) criminals; (5) wild spirits. These might even kill him, so he should rouse energy to reach his goal."

[78] 8. Future fears 2. (Dutiyaanāgatabhayasutta). This sutta gives five additional future fears: (1) fear of growing old; (2) fear of possible afflictions; (3) fear of shortage of alms food; (4) fear of social unrest between forest dwellers and country people; (5) fear of Sangha discord. Energy should be roused to meet these eventualities.

[79] 9. Future fears 3. (Tatiyaanāgatabhayasutta). This sutta gives five additional fears: (1) unsuitable persons may be ordained; (2) those ordained may lose their virtue; (3) fellow bhikkhus will slide into a false Dhamma; (4) elder monks may not behave appropriately; (5) elder monks may become luxurious. The bhikkhu should not fall into these ways of the errant bhikkhus.

[80] 10. Future fears 4. (Catutthaanāgatabhayasutta). This sutta gives five further fears that future bhikkhus may (1) give up rag robes; (2) demand fine alms food; (3) demand luxurious lodgings; (4) move to town or even the capital; (5) live with ordinary folk and even acquire property. Again the forest monk should guard against these fears.

9. Theravagga – 8. Elder monk

[81] 1. Enticed. (Rajanīyasutta). "Monks, an elder is displeasing if he is: (1 - 5) lustful; corrupted; infatuated; angered; maddened."

[82] 2. Free of lust. (Vītarāsutta). "Monks, an elder is correct if he is free of: (1 - 5) passion; corruption; infatuation; cant; deceit.

[83] 3. A trickster. (Kuhakasutta). "Monks, an elder is not what he should be if he is a: (1 - 5) trickster; ranter; insinuator; belittler; one who seeks gain on gain. If he is the opposite of these he is esteemed."

[84] 4. Faithless. (Asaddhasutta). "Monks, an elder is not what he should be if he is: (1 - 5) without faith; not modest; not fearing blame; is lazy; and lacks insight. If he is the opposite of these he is esteemed."

[85] 5. Cannot endure. (Akkhamasutta). "Monks, an elder is not what he should be if he cannot endure: (1 - 5) forms; sounds; smells; tastes; touches."

[86] 6. Analysis. (Paṭsambhdāpattasutta). "Monks, an elder is what he should be if he has mastered (1 - 5) logical analysis; causal relations; grammar; analysis of things knowable; things to be done by others."

[87] 7. Virtue. (Sīlavantasutta). "Monks, an elder is what he should be if he is: (1 - 5) virtuous; much learned; a good speaker; easily gets the four jhānas; destroys the intoxications."

[88] 8. Elder Monk. (Therasutta). "Monks, an elder is not to the happiness of the many folk if he is (1 - 5) long gone forth; well-known and renowned; has a great following of householders and monks; receives the requisites for monks; has a learned and retentative memory. In the opposite he is to the happiness of the many folk."

[89] 9. Trainee 1. (Paṭhamasekhasutta). "Monks, these five things lead to the decline of a monk in training: (1 - 5) delight in work; delight in gossip; delight in sleeping; delight in company; not reflecting on the extent to which his mind is freed. In the opposite case there is no decline in training."

[90] 10. Trainee 2. (Dutiyasekhasutta). The same as the previous sutta.

10. Kakudhavagga – 10. Kakudha

[91] 1. Fulfilment 1. (Paṭhamasampadāsutta). "Monks, the five fulfilments are the perfecting of (1 - 5) faith; virtue; learning; charity ; insight."

[92] 2. Fulfilment 2. (Dutiyasampadāsutta). "Monks, the five fulfilments are perfecting of (1 - 5) virtue; concentration; wisdom; liberation; emancipation."

[93] 3.Admissions. (Byākraṇasutta). "Monks, the five final admissions are that of ones (1 - 5) folly; evil desires; foolishness of mind; overrating oneself; pride; fullness of knowledge."

[94] 4. Easy dwelling. (Phāsuvihārasutta). "Monks, there are five ways of comfortable living: (1 - 5) dwelling in first jhāna; dwelling in second jhāna; dwelling in third jhāna; dwelling in fourth jhāna; full liberation of mind."

[95] 5. Unshakable. (Akuppasutta). "Monks, mastering these five a bhikkhu will penetrate the unshakable: (1 - 5) logical analysis; analysis of causal relations; grammatical analysis; analysis of things knowable; reflection on freedom of mind."

[96] 6. The learned. (Sutadharasutta). "Monks, a bikkhu will reach the unshakable if he practices in-an-out breathing accompanied by five things: (1 - 5) few tasks; frugal; contented with life's necessities; taking little food; vigilant in what he has learnt."

[97] 7. Talk (Kathāsutta). Same as last sutta except that the five things are now: (1 - 5) has few tasks; eats little; is alert; listens to austere things and matters of virtue; reflection on freedom of mind.

[98] 8. Forest dwelling. (Āraññakasutta). Same as previous sutta except that the fourth item now is being a forest dweller.

[99] 9. Lion. (Sīhasutta). "Monks, just as the lion utters his roar and goes hunting treating small animals with due respect, so the Tathāgata preaches the Dhamma with care and respect to: (1 - 5) bhikkhus; bhikkhunis, male disciples; female disciples; ordinary layfolk."

[100] 10. Kakudha. (Kakudhasutta). Venerable Maha Mogallāna's attendant Kakudah died and was reborn a deva and he visited Mogallāna and said: "Devadatta wanted to lead the Order and as a result his psychic power declined". Mogallāna reported this to the Buddha who said: "There are five kinds of teachers who are unpurified in (1) behaviour; (2) livelihood; (3) Dhamma teaching; (4) Dhamma exposition; (5) knowledge and insight, yet they claim to be purified and thereby receive gifts from lay people. But I am pure in all these five respects, and my disciples know it.

11. Phāsuvihāravagga – 11. Comfortable Abodes

[101] 1. Fearful. (Sārajjasutta). "Monks, five things that give confidence to a learner are: (1 - 5) faith; virtue; learning; energy; insight."

[102] 2. Suspected. (Ussaṅkitasutta). "Monks, a bhikkhu is suspected if he haunts the house of a: (1 - 5) harlot; widow; unmarried woman; eunuch; bhikkhuni."

[103]. 3. Robber. (sutta). "Monks, a robber relies on five things {in planning a robbery}: (1 - 5) roughness of access; obstructions; aid from the powerful persons; if he can bribe; if he works alone."

[104] 4. Delicate ascetic. (Samaṇasukumālasutta). "Monks, a bhikkhu is a delicate ascetic if he: (1) usually uses robes and other requisites offered to him; (2) is kindly treated by fellow monks; (3) is not bothered by health issues; (4) gains easily the four jhānas; (5) has realized the destruction of the intoxications."

[105] 5. Easy living. (Phāsuvihārasutta). "Monks, a bhikkhu can live in ease with fellow monks in five ways: (1) practice bodily loving-kindness; (2) practice verbal loving-kindness; (3) practice mental acts of loving-kindness; (4) practices virtuous behaviour; (5) practices noble views with his fellow monks."

[106] 6. Ananda. (Anandasutta). Once in Kosambi venerable Ananda asked the Buddha how a bhikkhu can live at ease in the Sangha. The Buddha answered: "(1) When a bhikkhu is accomplished in virtuous behaviour but does not ask others to be likewise; (2) when he examines himself but does not examine others; (3) when he is not well known but is not concerned with this; (4) when he gets into the four jhānas with ease; (5) when he has destroyed the intoxications."

[107] 7. Virtue. (Sīlasutta). "Monks, a bhikkhu is worthy of gifts, salutations and is a field of merit if he has achieved: (1 - 5) virtue; concentration; insight; knowledge; the vision of emancipation."

[108] 8. Beyond training. (Asekhasutta). "Monks, there is no need to train a bhikkhu if he is beyond the aggregate of training in: (1 - 5) virtuous behaviour; concentration; wisdom; liberation; knowledge and vision."

[109] 9. The four quarters. (Cātuddisasutta). "Monks, a bhikkhu has mastered the four quarters if (1 - 5) he is virtuous; has learned much; is contented; achieves the four jhānas; has obtained the emancipation of mind."

[110] 10.(sutta). "Monks, a bhikkhu is fit to follow the ways of the forest wilderness if he now: (1 - 5) is virtuous; is learned; abides in active energy; achieves the four jhānas; enters and abides in emancipation.

12. Andhakavindavagga – 12. Andakavinda

[111] 1. Clan visitor. (Kulūpakasutta). "Monks, A bhikkhu who visits clans becomes disagreeable if he: (1 - 5) presumes intimacy on mere contact; (2) gives things not his own; consorts with those who are divided; whispers in the ear; makes excessive requests."

[112] 2. An attendant recluse. (Pacchāsamaṇsutta). "Monks, an attendant to a bhikkhu should not: (1 - 5) get too far behind or too near; not take the full alms bowl; not stop the bhikkhu from speaking; keep on interrupting the bhikkhu; be stupid. In the opposite case the attendant acts appropriately.

[113]. 3. Right concentration. (Sammāsamādhisutta). "Monks, a bhikkhu cannot do right concentration if he cannot endure : (1 - 5) sights; sounds smells; tastes; touches. In the opposite case he can do right concentration."

[114] 4. Andakavinda. (Andakavindasutta). At Andakavinda in Magadha the Buddha told venerable Ananda that he should see to it that newcomers to the Dhamma should be: (1 - 5) settled in the Patimokkha; restrained in their sense faculties; limited in their speech; encouraged to live in seclusion; established in the right perspective."

[115] 5. Miserly. (Macchrinīsutta). "Monks, a bhikkhuni goes to hell if she is miserly in: (1 - 5) lodging; family; gains; praise; Dhamma."

[116] 6. Praise. (Vaṇṇanāsutta). "Monks, a bhikkhuni is cast into hell if without reason she: (1) praises the unpraiseworthy; (2 dispraises the praiseworthy; (3) has faith in the unbelievable; (4) has no faith in the believable; (5) squanders things given in faith."

[117] 7. Envy. (Issukinīsutta). In this sutta items (3) and (4) in the previous sutta are replaced by 'envy' and 'miserliness'.

[118] 8. View. (Miccādiṭṭhisutta). In this sutta items (3) and (4) in sutta 116 are replaced by 'wrong view' and 'wrong purpose'.

[119] 9. Speech. (Miccāvācāsutta). In this sutta items (3) and (4) in sutta 116 are replaced by 'wrong speech' and 'wrong action'.

[120] 10. Effort. (Miccāvāyāmasutta). In this sutta items (3) and (4) in sutta 116 are replaced by 'wrong effort' and 'wrong mindfulness'.

13. Gilānavagga – 13. The Sick

[121] 1. (sutta). Once in Vesali the Buddha visited a home for the sick and sat near a sick monk. He then addressed the monks: "Even if a person is weak and frail he can reach emancipation of mind if he contemplates (1 - 5) repulsion for the body; distaste of food; non-delight in worldly things, impermanence in all phenomena; the perception of death. Thus even this monk can aspire to this emancipation."

[122] 2. Mindfulness. (Satisūpaṭṭhitasutta). "Monks, if a person were to develop five things: (1 - 5) establish mindfulness internally; repulsion for the body; distaste of food; non-delight in worldly things; impermanence in all phenomena; then he will gain the final knowledge in this very life, or if some substrate is left he will be a non-returner."

[123]. 3. Helper 1. (Paṭhamaupaṭṭhākasutta). "Monks, a sick person will not help himself if he (1 - 5) is immoderate in what is beneficial; does not take his medicine; does not disclose his symptoms; does not report progress of his condition; cannot patiently endure painful bodily feelings."

[124] 4. Helper 2. ( Dutiyaupaṭṭhākasutta). (sutta). "Monks, an attendant to a sick person cannot do his duty properly if he (1) cannot prepare medicine; (2) withdraws the beneficial and give the harmful; (3) offer his service for material reward not loving-kindness; (4) is disgusted at remove faeces, urine and the like; (5) unable to inspire the patient with Dhamma talk."

[125] 5. Health 1. (Paṭhamaanāyussāsutta). "Monks, good health does not spring if a bhikkhu (1 - 5) does what is harmful; does not observe moderation, does not eat appropriately; seeks alms at wrong time; is not chaste."

[126] 6. Health 2. (Dutiyaanāyussāsutta). This is the same as the previous sutta.

[127] 7. Living apart.. (Vapakāsasutta). "Monks, A bhikkhu is not fit to live within a Sangha group if he (1 - 5) is not content with any robe; with any alms; with any lodging; with any medicament; is lustful."

[128] 8. Ascetics happiness. (Samanasukhasutta). "Monks, An ascetic finds no happiness if he does not receive the four requisites (robes, alms food, lodging and medicines) and if he is dissatisfied with the spiritual life."

[129] 9. Sores. (Parikuppasutta). "Monks, the five who go to hell are for: (1 - 5) killing mother; killing father; killing an arhant; shedding the blood of a Tathāgata; creating a division in the Sangha."

[130] 10. Achievements. (Byasanasutta). "Monks, there are five losses: loss of (1 - 5): relatives; wealth; disease; virtue; view."

14. Rājavagga – 14. Kings

[131] 1. Rolling the wheel 1. (Paṭhamacakkāmuvattanasutta). "Monks, knowing five things a cakkavatti king rolls the wheel which cannot be undone. He knows five things: the good; the Dhamma; the measure; the times; and the ranks of the people. Corresponding to these the Tathāgata also knows five things when he rolls the Dhamma. Be knows: what is good; the Dhamma; the right measure; the proper time; and the assembly."

[132] 2. Rolling the wheel 2. (Dutiyacakkāmuvattanasutta). Same as the previous sutta except that the king is replaced by his eldest son and the Buddha by the venerable Sāriputta.

[133] 3. Dhamma king. (Dhammarājasutta). Here the Buddha explains to a monk how the five conditions given in the two previous suttas apply ot an ordinary bhikkhu. He says that the bhikkhu should know: "(1) which bodily action should be cultivated and which not; (2) which verbal action should be cultivated and which not; (3) which mental action should be cultivated and which not; (4) which livelihood should be adopted and which not; (5) which village or town should be resorted to and which not."

[134] 4. Right direction. (Yasssaṃdisaṃsutta). "Monks, an anointed warrior king should be: of pure descent on both sides; be rich with overflowing treasury and granary; have a strong army; have wise and intelligent ministers; be famous. Bhikkhus should be: (1) virtuous following the Patimokkha; (2) be learned; (3) be of energy to abandon the unwholesome and develop the wholesome; (4) be wise; (5) cultivate liberation of mind."

[135] 5. The target 1. (Paṭhamapattanāsutta). "Monks, the eldest son a a khattiya king should be (1 - 5) well-born; handsome; agreeable to his parents; agreeable to the people; trained for kingship. A bhikkhu seeking his goal of liberation should: (1 - 5) have faith in the Tathāgata; have good health; be honest and open to the teacher; have energy to develop the wholesome; be wise to discern the noble."

[136] 6. The target 2. (Dutiyapattanāsutta). (sutta). Here the qualities of the king's eldest son are those given in the previous sutta but this is followed by the qualities of the Tathāgata's qualities which are those given sutta 131.

[137] 7. Sleeping little. (Appaṃsupatisutta). "Monks, these sleep little: (1 - 5) a woman longing for a man; a man longing for a woman; a thief longing for loot; a king doing his business; a bhikkhu seeking release from bondage."

[138] 8. An over-eater. (Bhattādakasutta). "Monks, a king's elephant is an over-eater and badly behaved if he cannot endure: (1 - 5) forms; sounds; smells; tastes; touches. A bhikkhu is similarly badly behaved if he cannot patiently endure these very five things."

[139] 9. Endurance. (Akkhamasutta). Same as the previous sutta {in greater detail}.

[140] 10. Hearer. (sutta). "Monks, A royal elephant is worthy if he is: (1 - 5) a hearer listening to his trainer; a destroyer (of enemy in battle); a warder protecting his body in battle; an endurer of blows received; a goer following his driver's commands expeditiously. Similarly a bhikkhu is worthy if he is: (1 - 5) a hearer of the Dhamma; a destroyer of bad thoughts as they arise; a warder if he guards his sense organs; an endurer if he endures heat, cold, insects and so on; a goer if he travels from place to place."

15. Tikaṇḍakīvagga – 15. Tikandaki

[141] 1. The low born. (Avajānātisutta). "Monks, there are five kinds of low person: (1) one who gives but despises the receiver; (2) one who lives with another for a short period and then despises him; (3) one who gossips about someone praising or blaming another; (4) one who wavers with little faith or affection; (5) one who is stupid not knowing what is wholesome."

[142 2. A violator. (Ārabhatisutta). "Monks, there are these five kinds of person regarding the liberation of mind: (1) one who violates it but becomes remorseful; (2) one who violates it and does not become remorseful; (3) one who neither violates it nor becomes remorseful but does not understand it; (4) one who neither violates it, nor has any remorse nor understand it; (5) one who neither violates it, nor is remorseful but understands it as it really is."

[143] 3. Sārandada. (Sārandadasutta). Once in Vesali at the Sārandada shrine about five hundred Licchavi youths were discussing about the five treasures (elephant, horse, jewel, woman and householder) and why they were rarely seen in the world. Then the Buddha was passing by and he was invited to join in the conversation. The Buddha said: "You who are steeped in sense objects should consider a different set of treasures that are rarely seen in the world: (1 - 5) a Tathāgata; one who preaches the Dhamma; one who understands it; one who practices it; one who is grateful for it."

[144] 4. Tikandaki. (Tikaṇḍakīsutta). Once at the Tikandaki grove near Saketa the Buddha addressed the Bhikkhus: "It is good for a bhikkhu to periodically live: (1) seeing the repulsive in the non-repulsive, so as to curb lust; (2) seeing the non-repulsive in the repulsive, so as to curb hatred; (3) seeing the repulsive in both, so as to curb both lust and hatred; (4) seeing the unrepulsive in both; (5) equanimously comprehending both, so as to curb lust, hatred and delusion."

[145] 5. Hell. (Nirayasutta). "Monks, one is cast into hell for: (1 - 5) destroying life; taking what is not given; lusting after evil, sexual misconduct; taking liquor."

[146] 6. Friend. (Mittasutta). "Monks, you should not take as a friend a bhikkhu who: (1 - 5) does (civilian) work; inclined to judgement; hostile toward eminent bhikkhus; prone to lengthy wandering; unable to impart Dhamma. "

[147] 7. A bad person's gifts. (Asappurisadānasutta). A bad person's gifts are those: (1 - 5) given without deference; given without thinking; not given with his own hand; discarded stuff; given expecting some return. In the opposite case the gifts are worthy."

[148] 8. A good person's gifts. (Sappurisadānasutta). (sutta). "Monks, a good person's gifts are: (1 - 5) given in faith; given with deference; timely; given with pure intention; given without hur to self or others."

[149] 9. Periodic release 1. (Paṭhamasamayavimuttisutta). "Monks, a bhikkhu whose mind is periodically released falls away due to: (1 - 5) delight in work; delight in talk; delight in sleep; delight in company; not considering the exten of his release of mind."

[150] 10. Periodic release 2. (Dutiyasamayavimuttisutta). Same as previous sutta replacing the last two with 'delight in sense doors' and 'no moderation in eating'.

16. Sadhammavagga – 16. The good Dhamma

[151] 1. Rule of goodness 1. (Paṭhamasammatttaniyāmasutta). "Monks, One is incapable of achieving the rule goodness when listening to the good Dhamma if: (1 - 5) one ridicules the talk; one ridicules the speaker; one ridicules oneself; one is distracted; one is careless. In the opposite case one can achieve the rule of goodness."

[152] 2. Rule of goodness 2. (Dutiyasammatttaniyāmasutta). Same as the last sutta except the last two conditions are changed to: 'one is stupid' and 'one imagines that he has understood'.

[153] 3. Rule of goodness 3. (Tatiyasammatttaniyāmasutta). Same as Sutta 151 except that the five conditions are now: '(1 - 5) denigrates what is said; criticises what is said and finds faults; (3) is ill disposed toward the speaker; is stupid; imagines that one has understood'.

[154] 4. Decline of the good Dhamma 1. (Paṭhamasadhammasammosasutta). "Monks, the good Dhamma declines when bhikkhus do not respectfully: (1 - 5) listen to it; learn it; memorise it; examine it; understand it. In the opposite case the good Dhamma will not decline."

[155] 5. Decline of the good Dhamma 2. (Dutiyasadhammasammosasutta). Same as the previous sutta except that the bhikkhus with respect to the Dhamma do not: '(1 - 5) 'learn it; teach it; make others repeat it; recite it in detail; examine it'.

[156] 6. Decline of the good Dhamma 3. (Tatiyasadhammasammosasutta). Same as sutta 154 except that the bhikkhus: '(1 - 5) acquire the discourses badly; are difficult to correct; do not teach Dhamma to others; are luxurious and back sliding; create schisms in the Sangha'.

[157] 7. Wrong talk (Dukkhathāsutta). "Monks, it is wrong to give a talk on certain subjects to certain people because they may get angry, such as: (1) on faith to a faithless person; (2) on virtue to an immoral person; (3) on learning to a person of little learning; (4) on generosity to a miser; (5) on wisdom to an unwise person."

[158] 8. Fear. (Sārajjasutta). "Monks, A bhikkhu becomes fearful if he is (1 - 5) without faith; without virtue; of little learning; lazy; without insight."

[159] 9. Udayi. (Udāyīsutta). Once in Kosmbi venerable Ananda saw Udayin instructing a large crowd on Dhamma. He reported this to the Buddha, who said: "It is not easy to teach Dhamms. One doing so should first establish five things: (1 - 5) whether it is a progressive talk; whether it gives reasons; whether it is given out of compassion; whether it is not given for material gain; whether it harms the speaker or others."

[160] 10. Hard to get rid of. (Duppaṭivinodayasutta). "Monks, these five things once arisen are had to get rid of: (1 - 5) lust; hatred; delusion; discernment ; urge to travel."

17. Āgātavagga – 17. Malice

[161] 1. Removing malice 1. (Paṭhamaāgātapaṭivinayasutta). "Monks, five ways of removing malice are: (1 - 5) develop loving kindness; develop compassion; develop equanimity; disregard anyone resenting you; apply the law of kamma to the one resenting you."

[162] 2. Removing malice 2. (Dutiyaāgātapaṭivinayasutta). (sutta). Here venerable Sāriputta advices bhikkhus to remove malice against a person (1) with impure bodily but pure verbal behaviour; (2) with pure bodily but impure verbal verbal behaviour; (3) with both impure but occasionally has a placid mind; (4) with both impure but has no opportunity to show placidity of mind; (5) both pure with a placid mind.

[163] 3. Discussion. (Sākacchasutta). Here venerable Sāriputta repeats sutta 161 to the bhikkhus.

[164] 4. Living together. (Sājīvasutta). Here venerable Sāriputta repeats sutta 162 to the bhikkhus.

[165] 5.Asking questions. (Pañhapucchāsutta). Venerable Sāriputta said that questions are asked of another because the person asking is one of these: (1 - 5) is stupid; has evil desires; reviles the other; wants to learn; to test the person asked.

[166] 6. Cessation. (Nirodhasutta). "Once venerable Sāriputta said: "If a monk is accomplished in virtue, concentration and insight and also has cessation of perception and insight but does not reach final knowledge in this life he will be reborn as a mind-made deva (not one depending on solid food)". Venerable Udayin disagreed with Sāriputta and as they could not reconcile they went to see the Buddha and told him what happened.  The Buddha called Udayin a 'foolish and incompetent' person for challenging an elder monk. He then told Ananda that what Sāriputta had said was correct.

[167] 7. Reproof. (Codanāsutta). Venerable Sāriputta addressed the bhikkhus: "Those who wish to reproach another bhikkhu should speak (1 - 5) at the proper time; truthfully; gently; beneficially; not harmfully."

[168] 8. (sutta). In this sutta venerable Sāriputta repeats sutta 24 in this collection of the Fives given by the Buddha to the monks.

[169] 9. (sutta). Once venerable Ananda asked venerable Sāriputta how a bhikkhu could quickly apprehend what is wholesome. Sāriputta turned the question back on Ananda who answered: "To apprehend the wholesomeness of things the bhikkhu should be good at (1 - 5) meaning; the Dhamma; language; phrasing, and in the right sequence." Sāriputta then said that Ananda is skilled in these five things.

[170] 10. Bhaddaji. (Bhakddajisutta). Once in Kosambi the venerable Ananda asked venerable Bhaddaji: "What is the foremost (1 - 5) sight; sound; happiness; perception; state of existence ?" Bhaddaji answered that the foremost sight was Brahmā and for the other four he gave gods of four different heavens. Ananda said that this was what the common people thought but the real answers were: (1) seeing the destruction of the intoxications ((āsava); (2) hearing about it; (3) being happy about it; (4) perceiving it; (5) existing after their destruction.

18. Sārajjavagga – 18. Lay disciple

[171] 1. (sutta). "Monks, a lay follower is overcome with fear when he: (1 - 5) takes life; takes what is not given; indulges in sensual lusts; speaks falsely; drinks spirituous liquors causing inattention."

[172] 2. Self-confidence. (Visāradasutta). Here the same five things given in the pervious sutta causes lack of self-confidence in a lay follower.

[173] 3. Hell. (Niryasutta). Here the same five things given sutta 171 leads a lay follower to hell.

[174] 4. Hatred, (Verasutta). Here the Buddha tells Anāthapiṇḍika that the five things given in sutta 171 lead a follower to hell while abstaining from them leads to heaven.

[175] 5. Outcast.(Candālasutta). "Monks, a lay follower is an outcast if he is: (1 - 5) without faith; without morals; practices superstitious things; believes in luck not deeds; seeks gifts due to the sangha and does a service."

[176] 6. Rapture. (Pītisutta). Once the Buddha told Anāthapiṇḍika who was accompanied by 500 lay followers: "You have provided the bhikkhus with the requisites of robes, lodging and medicines. But you should not be content with that. You should seek the rapture which comes from dwelling in solitude." Then venerable Sāriputta commended the Buddha on his advice and said: "When an Ariyan disciple abides in seclusion then he avoids: (1 - 5) pain connected with sensuality; pleasure connected with sensuality; pain connected with the unwholesome; pleasure connected with the unwholesome; pain connected with the wholesome." The Buddha commended Sāriputta on what he had said.

[177] 7. Trade. (Vanijjāsutta). "Monks, a lay person should not engage in these trades: (1 - 5) weapons; human beings; meat; liquor; poison."

[178] 8. Kings. (Rājasutta). "Monks, kings do not punish a person for not killing but they do punish him if he kills another human being; similarly for other deeds like taking intoxicating drink; taking that which is not given; engaging in illegal intercourse with women; saying falsehood which cause loss to others."

[179] 9. The layman. (Gihisutta). Once in the presence of Anāthapiṇḍika and 500 lay followers the Buddha addressed venerable Sāriputta thus: "A lay follower can be assured of not being reborn in hell or as an animal or a preta (ghost), and be assured of the entry into the stream that leads to enlightenment if he undertakes the five rules of training and the adopts the four positions of ease. The five rules of training are: not destroying life. not taking what is not given, not engaging in sensual lust, not speaking falsely, and not drinking spirituous drinks. The four abodes of ease are: having full faith in the Buddha, pondering on the Dhamma, developing a benevolent mind, and giving gifts to the needy and the holy ones."

[180] 10. Gavesin. (Gavesīsutta). Once the Buddha and the bhikkhus were in a tract of Sal trees in Kosala when the Buddha smiled at a certain tree. When Ananda inquired the cause for the smile the Buddha related a story of his predecessor Kassapa Buddha who frequented that spot, which was then a great city, with his chief lay follower Gasvesin and his band of 500 men. Inspired by Kassapa and his teaching Gavesin gradually adopted the virtuous behaviour taught by Kassapa until he finally decided to ordain as a bhikkhu under Kassapa. His 500 men followed him all the way and became ordained. Then gradually through great exertion Bhikkhu Gavesin and his follow bhikkhus were able to gain full liberation. The Buddha exhorted his own Bhikkhus to emulate the example of Gavesin and his followers.

19. Araññvagga – 19. The Forest

[181] 1. Forest monks. (Āraññikasutta). "Monks, there are five ways of becoming a forest monk: (1 - 5) because of blindness and stupidity; because of evil desires; because of unbalanced mind; because the Buddha said it was good; for the sake of fewness of desires, for contentment and eliminaitng suffering, for solitude and simplicity. Of these the last mentioned is the best.

[182-190] 2.-10. (sutta). These suttas list various kinds of forest dwelling monks. They are the wearers of rag-robes; dwellers at the foot of a tree; dwellers in a cemetry; dwellers in the open; sitting practice meditators; users of any bed; one session practitioners; refuses of food supplied after hours; eaters of food only from the almsbowl.

20. Brahmaṇavagga – 20. Brahmins

[191] 1. The dog simile. (Soṇasutta). "Monks, these practices which were seen among ancient brahmins but no longer practiced are similar to practices among dogs: (1 - 5) going only to brahmin women, like dogs going to dogs not other animals; cohabiting with brahmin women only when in season, like dogs do; consorting with women only through mutual affection, as dogs do; not storing up wealth and grain as dogs do not do; seeking food only when they feel inclined, as dogs do. These five practices of ancient brahmins are not done by brahmins now."

[192] 2. Brahmin Dona. (Doṇabrāhmaṇasutta). The brahmin Dona came to the Buddha and asked why the Buddha did not honour old brahmins. The Buddha asked Dona if he was a brahmin. Dona said he was because of his ancestry and his learning of the brahmin mantras. The Buddha said that the ancient Brahmins spoke of five kinds brahmin: Brahmā-like, deva-like, bounded, unbounded, and the outcaste-brahmin. He then asked Dona to which class he belonged, and Dona said that he did not know any of these types. The Buddha then described the five types of brahmin as follows: (1) The Brahmā type stays celibate for 47 years, does not do any trade, begs for his food, dons the yellow robe, and earns his money from teaching dhamma. (2) the deva-type is initially like the former type but he marries a Brahmin woman solely for procreation after which he leaves the household life and becomes a mendicant. (3) The bounded brahmin is like the previous but after he has procreated sons he remains settled in his property so that he stops at the boundary of the ancient brahmins and does not proceed futher. (4) the unbounded type is like the preceding but he marries a woman of any caste and the marriage is not only for procreation but also for sensual pleasures. (5) The candala brahmin is like the preceding but he exercises some occupation to earn a living and has carnal relations with any kind of woman for pleasure as for procreation. Dona was impressed by this discourse and said that he would not measure even up to a candala brahmin and that he would become a lay follower of the Buddha.

[193] 3. Sangarava. (Saṅgāravsutta). Once the brahmin Sangarava asked the Buddha why mantras old or new do not occur readily to the mind now? The Buddha said: "This occurs when the mind is full of (1 - 5) sensual lust; ill-will; sloth and torpor; restlessness and worry; doubt". In each case he compared it to a man looking at a pool of water mixed with various colours and dyes and not seeing his reflection in it. He concluded that if the mind is not free of these imperfections he would recall the mantras, just like a man who sees his reflection in a pool of clear water.

[194] 4. Kāranapāli. (Kāraṇapālīsutta). Once when the Buddha was in Vesāli the brahmin Kāranapāli met the brahmin Piṅgiyānī coming from a visit to the Buddha, whom the brahmin praised highly. Then Kāranapāli asked why so much confidence was placed on the wisdom of the Buddha. Piṅgiyānī said that it was like: (1 - 5) a man savouring the best of tastes; a hungry man receiving a honey cake; the fragrance of pure sandalwood; a physician curing a sick person; a thirsty man coming across a pool of clear cool water." Then Kāranapāli said that he too will go for refuge to the Buddha.

[195] 5. Piṅgiyānī. (Piṅgiyānī sutta). Once in Vesāli 500 Liccavis were gathered around the Buddha all dressed in bright colours corresponding to their complexions but the Buddha outshone them all in glory. Then Piṅgiyānī rose and burst into song praising the Buddha. Then the Buddha said to the Licchavis: "There are five rare gems in the world: the appearance of (1 - 5) a Tathāgata; one who teaches the Dhamma and discipline of the Tathāgata; one who can understand it; one who can practice it; one who is grateful and thankful for it."

[196] 6. Dreams. (Mahāsupinasutta). "Monks, these five dreams appeared to me before my Enlightenment and I was a Bodhisatta: (1 - 5) the entire earth was my bed with the Himalays my pillow and my limbs resting on the four seas; a kind of grass arose from my navel and touched the sky; white worms with black heads crawled from my feet to the knees; four birds dropped at my feet and turned white; I climbed a mountain of dung without soiling my feet."

[197] 7. Rain. (Vassasutta). "Monks, the five obstacles to rain are: (1 - 5) the heat element in the upper sky becomes agitated and the clouds scatter; the air element becomes agitated and the clouds scatter; Rāhu the Asura king collects the (rain) water in his hand and drops it into the sea; the rain gods become heedless; humans do not follow the Dhamma."

[198] 8. Speech. (vācāsutta). "Monks, well-spoken and blameless speech is: (1 - 5) spoken at the proper time; truthful; gently spoken; beneficial; not blamed by the wise."

[199] 9. Family. (Kulasutta). "Monks, when virtuous people come ot their homes the householders are: (1 - 5) calmed; do things that lead to heaven; become less miserly; act to secure much wealth; encouraged to Dhamma."

[200] 10. Escape. (Nissāraṇīyasutta). "Monks, there are five seeds (dhātu) of escape: a mind (1 - 5) directed to renunciation; not directed to ill-will; not directed to harming; not addicted to forms; not addicted to personal existence."

21. Kimbilavagga – 21. Kimbila

[201] 1. Kimbila (Kimilasutta). Once when the Buddha was in Kimbila the venerable Kinbila asked the Buddha why the Dhamma does not last long after the Tathāgata's final nibbāna. The Buddha answered this was the case if the ordained and lay followers live without respect to: (1 - 5) the Teacher; the Dhamma; the Sangha; the training; to each other."

[202] 2. Hearing Dhamma (Dhammassavanasutta). "Monks, the five advantages in hearing the Dhamma are: (1 - 5) learning things not heard before; cleaning what one knows; settling doubt, straightening ones view; calming the mind."

[203] 3. The thoroughbred. (Assājānīyasutta). "Monks, the king's thoroughbred is worthy for its straightness, speed, gentleness, patience, and restraint. Similarly a monk is worthy for these qualities: (1 - 5) straightness; speed; gentleness; patience; mildness."

[204] 4. Power. (Balasutta). "Monks, the five powers are: (1 - 5) faith; shame;conscientiousness; fear of blame; insight.

[205] 5. Barrenness of mind. (Cetokhilasutta). "Monks, a bhikkhu's mental barrenness are perplexity about: (1 - 5) the teacher; the Dhamma; the Sangha; the training; fellow bhikkhus."

[206] 6. Bondage of mind. (Vinibhandasutta). "Monks, forms of mental bondage are: (1 - 5) lust for sensual pleasure; lust for body; lust for form; sloth due to over eating; aspiring for rebirth in a deva world."

[207]. Rice gruel. (sutta). "Monks, the advantages of rice gruel are: (1 - 5) satisfies hunger; allays thirst; regulates wind; cleanses the bladder; digests food residues."

[208] 8.Toothpicks. (Dantakaṭṭhasutta). "Monks, disadvantages of not using a toothpick are: (1 - 5) poor eyesight; bad breath; unpurified taste buds; mucus and phlegm affecting the food; no enjoyment of food. The opposite will give corresponding advantages."

[209] 9. Recitation. (Gītassarasutta). "Monks, if the Dhamma is recited in verse form with a strong intonation then: (1 - 5) the speaker may become infatuated by his voice; others may be infatuated; listeners may complain; concentration is impaired; others may imitate this style."

[210] 10. Muddled mind. (Muṭṭhassatisutta). "Monks, if one falls asleep with a muddled mind then: (1 - 5) he sleeps badly, wakes up badly; has bad dreams; devas do not guard him; impurities are emitted."

22. Akkosakavagga – 22. The abuser

[211] 1. Abuse. (Akkosakasutta). "Monks, A bhikkhu who abuses and reviles a fellow bhikkhu: (1 - 5) commits a parajika offence entailing expulsion; commits some other defined offence; contracts a severe illness; dies confused; goes to hell after death."

[212] 2. Quarrel maker. (Bhaṇḍnakārakasutta). "Monks, an argumentative and quarrelsome bhikkhu: (1 - 5) does not reach the unreachable goal; falls away from what he has reached; gets a bad reputation; is confused; after death goes to a bad destination or hell."

[213] 3. Morals. (Sīlasutta). "Monks, the disadvantages of immorality are: (1 - 5) losing ones wealth; bad reputation; has no confidence to approach a reputed assembly; dies in a confused state; after death goes to a bad destination or hell."

[214] 4. Being talkative. (Bahubhāṇisutta). "Monks, a man talking too much has these disadvantages: (1 - 5) talking falsely; talking maliciously; talking roughly; babbling; after death going to a bad destination or hell."

[215] 5. Impatience 1. (Paṭhamaakkantisutta). "Monks, an impatient man has these disadvantages: he (1 - 5) is displeasing to many people; has many enemies; has many faults; he dies confused; after death goes to a bad destination or hell."

[216] 6. Impatience 2. (Dutiyaakkantisutta). Same as previous sutta with the second and third disadvantages replaced by 'is harsh' and 'is remorseful'.

[217]. 7. No confidence 1. (Paṭhamaapāsādikasutta). "Monks, a person who does not inspire confidence has these disadvantages: (1 - 5) he blames himself; the wise dispraise him; an evil rumour of him arises; he dies confused; after death he goes to a bad destination or hell."

[218] 8. No confidence 2. (Dutiyaapāsādikasutta). "Monks, persons who do not inspire confidence have these disadvantages: (1 - 5) They do not gain confidence; they lose any confidence they have; the Teacher's teaching is not carried out; the next generation follows their example; their minds do not become placid."

[219] 9. Fire. (Aggisutta). "Monks, fire has these disadvantages: (1 - 5) it is bad for the eyes; it causes ugliness; it causes weakness; it creates fondness for company; it leads to vain talk."

[220] 10. Madhura. (Madhurāsutta). "Monks, The disadvantages of (the region of Madura) are: (1 - 5) uneven terrain; too much dust; fierce dogs; beastly yakkhas; difficulty of getting alms."

23. Dīgacārikavagga – 23. Long tours

[221] 1. Long tours 1. (Paṭhamadīghacārikasutta). "Monks, a person spending much time making long tours has these disadvantages: (1 - 5) he does not hear something new; he does not clarify what he has heard; he is not confident about what he has heard; he can contract a severe illness; he has no friends."

[222] 2. Long tours 2. (Dutiyaadīghacārikasutta). Same as the previous sutta with the first three disadvantages replaced by: 'does not reach the unreached', 'falls from the already reached' and 'is not pleased with what has been reached'.

[223] 3. Overstaying. (Atinivāsasutta). "Monks, (a bhikkhu) residing too long in the same place has these dangers: (1 - 5) accumulate too many goods; accumulates too many medicines; undertakes too many tasks becoming competent in them; forms unsuitable bonds with householders and monastics; on departing has too many concerns."

[224] 4. Miserliness. (Maccarīsutta). "Monks, a bhikkhu who resides too long in the same place has these dangers: he grudges sharing with other monks (1 - 5) lodgings; families who provide alms; his possessions; his fame; the Dhamma he preaches."

[225] 5. Visiting families 1. (Paṭhamakulūpakasutta). "Monks, a bhikkhu who visits families runs these dangers: it is wrong to (1 - 5) go without the permission of the other bhikkhus; sit privately with a woman; sit concealed with a woman; to teach Dhamma at length to a woman; to have sensual thoughts."

[226] 6. Visiting families 2. (Dutiyakulūpakasutta). "Monks, a bhikkhu who visits families runs these dangers: (1 - 5) he often sees women; develops companionship with them; develops intimacy with them; he finds an opening for lust; he becomes dissatisfied with the holy life and commits grave offences."

[227]. 7. Wealth. (Bhogasutta). "Monks, wealth is subject to these disadvantages: (1 - 5) fire; floods, the king, robbers; unloved heirs."

[228] 8. Late meals. (Ussūrabhattasutta). "Monks, families that prepare their meal late in the day have these disadvantages: (1 - 5) guests are not served in time; devas are not given oblations in time; ascetics and brahmins are not served in time; servants are inconvenienced; the food is not nutritious."

[229] 9. Snake 1. (Paṭhamakaṇhasappasutta). "Monks, there are these dangers in the black snake: (1 - 5) it is unclean; foul-smelling; frightful; dangerous; betrays friends. Women have also these same qualities. "

[230] 10. Snake 2. (Dutiyakaṇhasappasutta). Same as the previous sutta.

24. Āvāsikavagga – 24. Residential

[231] 1. In residence. (Āvāsikasutta). "Monks, a bhikkhu in residence will not become what he ought to be if he is: (1 - 5) not accomplished in manners or service; not learned; not given to seclusion; not a good speaker; unwise."

[232] 2. Pleasant. (Piyasutta). "Monks, a bhikkhu in residence will become pleasant and agreeable to his fellows if he (1 - 5) is a virtuous follower of the Patimokkha; is learned; is a good speaker; gains the four jhānas at will; gains the liberation of mind.

[233] 3. Graceful. (Sobhanasutta). "Monks, a bhikkhu in residence is graceful if he (1 - 5) becomes virtuous; can teach; is a good speaker; can inspire with Dhamma talk; can attains to the four jhānas."

[234] 4. Helpful. (Bahūpakārasutta). "Monks, a bhikkhu in residence is a great helper if he (1 - 5) is virtuous; is much leaned; can repair what is broken; can get laypeople to help on special occasions; can reach the four jhānas."

[235] 5. Compassionate. (Karunasutta). "Monks, a bhikkhu in residence is compassionate to householders if he (1 - 5) incites them to greater virtue; makes them live according to Dhamma; incites the sick to mindfulness when visiting them; urges householders to attend to visiting monks; eats whatever food is given to him."

[236] 6. Dispraise 1. (Paṭhamaavaṇṇārahasutta). "Monks, a bhikkhu in residence is cast in hell if (1 - 5) he praises one deserving dispraise; he dispraises one deserving praise; he suspect something not suspicious; be believes something meriting disbelief; he squanders what has been given in good faith. In the opposite case he is placed in heaven."

[237]. 7. Dispraise 2. (Dutiyaavaṇṇārahasutta). "Monks, a bhikkhu in residence is cast in hell if (1 - 5) he praises one deserving dispraise; he dispraises one deserving praise; he is miserly in regard to dwellings; he squanders which is given in faith. The opposite takes him to heaven."

[238] 8. Dispraise 3. (Tatiyaavaṇṇārahasutta). "Monks, a bhikkhu in residence is cast in hell if (1 - 5) he praises one deserving dispraise; he dispraises one deserving praise; he is miserly in regard to dwellings; he is miserly in regard to families; he is miserly in regard to gains. The opposite takes him to heaven."

[239] 9. Miserliness. 1. (Paṭhamamaccariyasutta). "Monks, a bhikkhu in residence is cast in hell if (1 - 5) he is miserly with regard to dwellings; he is miserly with regard to families; he is miserly with regard to praise; he squanders whih is given in faith. The opposite takes him to heaven."

[240] 10. Miserliness. 2. (Dutiyamaccariyasutta). "Monks, a bhikkhu in residence is cast in hell if (1 - 5) he is miserly with regard to dwellings; he is miserly with regard to families; he is miserly with regard to gains; he is miserly with regard to praise; he is miserly with regard to Dhamma. The opposite takes him to heaven."

25. Duccaritavagga – 25. Misconduct

[241] 1. Misconduct 1. (Paṭhamaduccritasutta). "Monks, There are these dangers in misconduct: a person (1 - 5) blames himself; is censured by the wise; gets a bad reputation; dies confused; is reborn in hell. In the opposite case the person goes to heaven.

[242-244] 2-4. The previous sutta is applied to misconduct in body, word, and thought.

[245-248] 5. These suttas deal with other forms of misconduct but with the last two clauses changed to 'turns away from good Dhamma' and 'set in good Dhamma'.

[249] 9. Cemetery. (Sivathikasutta). "Monks, the five disadvantages of the cemetery are: it is (1 - 5) impure; foul-smelling; dangerous; the abode of non-humans; a place of lamentation."

[250] 10. Confidence. (Puggalappasādasutta). "Monks, the disadvantages of placing confidence in a fellow bhikkhu are: (1 - 5) the bhikkhu may commit a transgression and be suspended from the Sangha; he may commint a transgression for whiich some other penalty may be imposed; he may leave for another region; he may disrobe; he may die."

26. Upasampadāvagga – 26. Aceptance to Order

[251] 1. Acceptor. (sutta). "Monks, The acceptance of a bhikkhu to the Order (Upasampadā) can be granted by a bhikkhu endowed with (1 - 5) the whole body of virtue; the whole body of concentration; the whole body of insight; the whole body of emancipation; the whole body of knowledge and vision of emancipation with no need to train (further)."

[252] 2. Novice. (Nissayasutta). Only fully accepted bhikkhus can appoint novice monks.

[253] 3. Helper. (Sāmaṇerasutta). A fully odained bhikkhu may have helper monks attending on him.

[254] 4. Miserliness. (Pañamacchariyasutta). "Monks, there are five forms of miserliness: (1 - 5) of one's lodging; of families; of gains; of fame; of Dhamma. "

[255] 5. Abandoning miserliness. (Maccariyaappahānasutta). The Buddha said that to abandon miserliness one must abandeon the five forms of miserliness given in the previous sutta.

[256] 6. First jhāna. (Paṭhamajhānasutta). "Monks, in order to abide in the first jhāna one must abandon miserliness in regard to dwellings, families, gains, praise, and Dhamma."

[257-263] 7-13. Second Jhana etc. (Dutiyajhānasutta ...). The Buddha said that without abandoining the five kinds of miserliness given in the previous sutta a bhikkhu cannot attain the second, third and fourth jhanas. Also the bhihhu is incapabe of realizing the fruit of stream-entry, the fruit of once-returning, the fruit of non -returning and the fruit of arahantship."

[264] 14. First Jhana. Repetition of sutta 246.

[265-271] 15-21. Second Jhana etc. Repetition of suttas 247-253.

The rest of the Book of Fives of the Aṅguttara Nikāya consist of repetitions of suttas already abstracted in this document. Accordingly they are not reproduced again.

Here ends the Book of Fives in the Aṅguttara Nikāya