Aṅguttara Nikāya ? Book of Gradual Sayings

6. Cakkanipāta – 6. Book of Sixes

[NOTE: All statements in these suttas, unless otherwise noted, are made by the Buddha addressing the monks at Jetavana in Sāvatthi. These are included withÉin quotation marks: "...". Sections within curly brackets {...} are comments notes and further explanations by the author of these abstracts. Other statements give general information usually within square brackets [...]. Each sutta in this Book deals with six items. They are usually numbered here (1) ... (6) though not in the original Pali]

1. Paṭhamapaññāsaka – 1. The first Fifty

1. Āhuneyyavagga – 1. Worthy of Gifts

[1] 1. Worthy 1. (Paṭhamaāhuneyyasutta). "Monks, a bhikkhu is worthy of gifts, hospitality, offerings, salutation, being the best field of merit, if he is equanimous in experiencing a (1 - 6) sight; sound; smell; taste; touch; thought."

[2] 2. Worthy 2. (Dutiyaāhuneyyasutta). In addition to those given in the previous sutta a worthy bhikkhu has the psychic power of replicating his image, going though solid objects, flying through the air, the divine eye, the divine ear, recollection of previous births, seing the rebirth of others.

[3] 3. Faculties. (Indriyasutta). "Monks, for emancipation of mind a worthy bhikkhu should develop and reside in the faculties of (1 - 6) faith; energy; mindfulness; concentration; insight; destruction of the intoxications."

[4] 4.Powers. (Balasutta). "Monks, for emancipation of mind a worthy bhikkhu should develop and reside in the powers of (1 - 6) faith; energy; mindfulness; concentration; insight; destruction of the intoxications."

[5] 5. Throughbred 1. (Paṭhamaājānīyasutta). "Monks, for a throughbred to be worthy of a king it should endure: (1 - 6) forms; sounds; smells; tastes; touches; have beauty ; bebeautiful".

[6] 6. Throughbred 2. (Dutiyaājānīyasutta). Same as previous sutta with the sixth factor changed to 'strenght and speed'.

[7] 7. Throughbred 3. (Tatiyaājānīyasutta). This sutta states that a worthy bhikkhu should have the six qualities of a thoroughbred given in the previous sutta.

[8] 8. Unsurpassed. (Anuttariyasutta). "Monks, the unsurpassed things are the recollection of the (1 - 6): Buddha; Dhamma; Sangha; virtue; generosity; deities."

[9] 9. Recollection. (Anussatiṭṭhānasutta). The six factors given in the previous sutta are also called subjects of recollection.

[10] 10. Mahānāma. (Mahānāmasutta). Once in Kapilavatthu the Sāhyan Mahānām asked the Buddha: "How should an Ariyan disciple who has won the truth dwell?". In his answer the Buddha gave six ways in which such a person should dwell, concluding each with the refrain 'Among the unbalanced the Ariyan disciple is balanced, among the afflicted his is unafflicted". These are the six: (1) He should constantly recollect the virtues of the Buddha as given in the gātha "etipiso bhagabā...". (1) He should constantly recollect the virtues of the Buddha as given in the gātha "etipiso bhagavā...". (2) He should constantly recollect the virtues of the Dhamma as given in the gātha "svākhāto bhagavatā...". (3) He should constantly recollect the virtues of the Sangha as given in the gātha "supṭipanno...". (4) He should constantly reflect on his own virtues so that his mind is elated. (5) He should give liberally with non-stinginess. (6) He should recollect the devas.

2. Sāraṇīyavagga – 2. Consideration

[11] 1. Consideration 1. (Paṭhamasāraṇīyasutta). "Monks, a bhikkhui can be considerate towards fellow bhikkhus by (1 - 6) bodily loving kindness acts; verbal loving kindness acts; mental loving kindness acts; sharing gains; common virtuous behavious; common emancipating views."

[12] 2. Consideration 2. (Dutiyasāraṇīyasutta). The requirements in the previous sutta lead a bhikkhu endearment and bring honour, concord, unity, and singleness of heart.

[13] 3. Escape. (Nissāraṇīyasutta). "Monks, as bhikkhu has developed the six factors of escape if he can say that he has aschieved liberation of mind by: (1 - 6) loving kindsness; compassion; altruistic joy; equanimity; signlessness, discarding the notion of 'I am'."

[14] 4. The fortunate. (Bhaddakasutta). Once venerable Sariputta addressed the bhikkhus thus: "Monks, a bhikkhu is unfortunate if he takes delight in: (1 - 6) worldly work; talk; sleep; company; companionship, vain fancies. If he avoids these he faces a lucky fate and a good death."

[15] 5. Remorse. (Anutappiyasutta). Venerable Sāriputta told the monks that a bhikkkhu will die with regreat if he does the six th8ings given in the previous sutta.

[16] 6. Nakula. (Nakulasutta). Once at Susumāragiri the father of Nakula was ill and dying then Nakula's mother told him: "Do not die with the thought that after your death (1 - 6) that I will not be able to support the family because I can; that I will take another husband because I will not; that I will not visit the Buddha and the monks as I will do so; that I will not follow my virtuous practice because I will; that I will not attain serenity of mind as I will; that I will give up the Dhamma and practice because I will not." Hearing these words the illness of Nakula's father abated and he got cured. He then visited the Buddha who told him that it was for his good that his wife had exhorted him as she did.

[17] 7. What is good. (Soppasutta). Once in Sāvtthi the Buddha and several elder monks came to the service hall. After sitting in silence for some time they departed to their lodgings but the novice monks fell asleep into the late night. Seeing this with his divine eye the Buddha came back to the service hall and exorted the novice monks thus: "Have you seen a King or any of his officials right down to a village headman neglect their duties for the pleasures of rest and sloth ?" They said that they had not. Then the Buddha exorted the novice monks to train themselves thus: "We will guard the sense doors, be moderate in eating, be wakeful, know what is good, and will dwell intent on developing the qualities conducing to enlightenment throughout the night".

[18] 8. The fish monger. (Maccabandhasutta). Once the Buddha travelling on a highway in Kosala with the monks saw a fishmonger selling fish he had caught. The Buddha then left the road with the monks and sitting under a tree asked the monks: "Have you seen a fisherman or a butcher selling the animals that they have killed come to great wealth to be able to ride a horse, or an elephant or a chariot ?". They said that they had not. The Buddha agreed, and said that such people gloat on the animals they have killed, and after death will be reborn in a plane of misery, even in hell."

[19] 9. Mindfulness of death 1. (Paṭhamamaraṇassatisutta). Once in Nadike the Buddha exhorted the bhikkhus to be mindful of death and inquired how many of the bhikkhus assembled there practiced this mindfulness and how they did it. Six bhikkhus responded that they did so by being mindful of the Buddha's teaching even for: (1) just for a day and night; (2) just for a day only; (3) just for th time it takes eat an alms meal; (4) just for time to eat four mouthfuls of the meal; (5) just for the time to eat one mouthful of the meal; (6) just the for time it takes for a single in-and-out breath. The Budddha then called such practice heeedless practice. For the real practice of the mindfulnes of death the bhikkhu should attend to his teaching continuously until the intoxications are eliinated.

[20] 10. Mindfulness of death 2. (Dutiyamaraṇassatisutta). "Monks, minfulness of death is of great benefit. At the end of the day the bhikkhu should reflect that he may die because of: (1 - 6) a snake bite; a fall; the agitation of the bile; the agitation of the phlegm; the agitation of the wind. He should then reflect if there is anything unwholesome in him and if there are work to get rid of them. He should then enjoy of the wholesome things in him. In this way mindfulness of death can be cultivated."

3. Anuttarīyavagga – 3. The unsurpassed.

[21] 1. Sāmagāma. (Sāmagāmasutta). One night at Sāmagāma a deva approached the Buddha and said: "Three things that lead to the decline of a bhikkhu are worldly activity, talk and sleep". The Buddha agreed. Next morning the Buddha summoned the bhikkhus and said that even the devas know of your failings. He then added three more to the list: delight in company, evil speaking and friendship with bad men. He said that because of these six things many bikkhus fail.

[22] 2. The unfailing. (Aparihāniyasutta). In this sutta the Buddha tells the monks that not engaging in the six things mentioned in the previous make the bhikkhus not to fail in their quest.

[23] 3. Fear. (Bhayasutta). "Monks, sense desires are called (1 - 6) fear; suffering; disease; wound; and a bond. They all lead to sense desires.

[24] 4. Himalaya (Himavantasutta). "Monks, a bhikkhu may cleave even the mighty Himalaya with six qualities so why would not rude ignorance do the same. The six are concentration: (1 - 6) its start; its duration; its ending; fitness for it; its area; and its resolution.

[25] 5. Recollection. (Anussatiṭṭhasutta). "Monks, a noble disciple has these six recollections: (1- 6) the Tathāgata as given in the 'etipiso bhagavā...' stanza; the Dhamma as given in the 'svākhāto...' stanza; the Sangha as given in the 'supatipañño...' stanza; his own virtues; his own generosity."

[26] 6. Mahākaccāna. (Mahākaccānasutta). This is the same as the previous sutta but given by Mahākaccāna to the bhikkhus with the sixth item changed from 'generosity' to 'the devas'.

[27] 7. Times 1. (Paṭhamasamayasutta). A bhikkhu came to the Buddha and asked at what times should a bhikkhu see a teacher who knows about the mind. The Buddha replied: "A bhikkhu should see such a teacher when is mind is obsessed by any of these six things and he does not know how to escape there from: (1 - 6) sensual lust; ill-will; sloth and torpor; dullness and worry; restlessness and remorse; doubt."

[28] 8. Times 2. (Dutiyasamayasutta). Once in Isipatana the same question answered by the Buddha in the previous suttta arose in a discussion amongst several elder bhikkhus after they had eaten their alms meal. Several answers were given until venerable Mahākaccāyana repeated the same discourse given by the Buddha in the previous sutta.

[29] 9. Udayi. (Udayīsutta). Once the Buddha asked venerable Udayi how many subjects of recollection there are that a monk should constantly do. After some silence he said that the monk should reflect on his past births. The Buddha did not commend this answer and asked the same question of Venerable Ananda who said that there were five subjects: (1) the first three jhānas; (2) the perception of light and darkness; (3) reflection on the body upwards from the soles and downwards from the hair; (4) the cemetery reflections; (5) the fourth jhāna. The Buddha commended Ananda for his reply and added the sixth recollection which was mindfulness when walking, being seated, and sleeping.

[30] 10. The unsurpassed. (Anuttariyasutta). "Monks, there are these six unsurpassed things: (1) The unsurpassed sight of the Tathāgatagata or a disciple of his. (2) The unsurpassed sound of a discourse of the Tathāgata or one of his disciples. (3) The unsurpassed gain of having fixed confidence and faith in the Tathāgata or one of his disciples. (4) The unsurpassed training in the higher virtues and discipline proclaimed by the Tathāgata or one of his disciples. (5) The unsurpassed serving of the Tathāgata or one of his disciples. (6) The unsurpassed recollection of the Tathāgata or one of his disciples."

4. Devatāvagga – 4. The devas

[31] 1. Training (Sekhasutta). "Monks, The things that lead to failure in training are interest in: (1 - 6) worldly activity; talk; sleep; unguarded sense doors; immoderate eating."

[32] 2. No decline 1. (Paṭhamaparihānasutta). Once a deva came to the Buddha and said that the six things that does not lead to the decline of a monks are reverence for: the Teacher; the Dhamma; the Sangha; training; heedfulness; and hospitality.

[33] 3. No decline 2. (Dutiyaparihānasutta). In this sutta the Buddha relates to the bhikkhus the incident given in the previous sutta.

[34] 4. Mahāmoggallāna. (Mahāmoggallānasutta). Once this thought came to venerable Mahāmoggallāna: "How many devas know 'We have won the stream and are sure of Enlightenment; we are not destined for the downfall' ". At that moment a bhikkhu called Tissa died and was reborn a Brahma. Mahāmoggallāna using his psychic powers went to the Brahma world and posed his question to Tissa. Tissa answered that the Four Great Deva kings know this. But when he was questioned about the other devas Tissa said that only those devas with faith in the Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha and have cultivated the virtues have this knowledge. Mahāmoggallāna then returned to the earth.

[35] 5. Constituents of wisdom. (Vijjābhāgiyasutta). "Monks, the six parts of wisdom are the perception of: (1 - 6) impermanence; suffering; non-self; renunciation; dispassion; ending."

[36] 6. Roots of disputes. (Vivādamūlasutta). "Monks, the roots of disputation between bhikkhus are: (1 - 6) anger and hostility; denigration; envy; craftiness and deception; evil desires; holding tenaciously to one's own view."

[37] 7. Generosity. (Chāḷaṅgadānasutta). Once in Sāvatthi the female lay follower Veḷukaṇḍki was preparing a sixfold offering to the Sangha. The Buddha saw this with his divine eye and told the bhikkhus: "The lay disciple Veḷukaṇḍki is preparing a sixfold offering for the Sangha. Three of the six factors relate to the donor. These are: the donor's joy before giving; the confidence of mind while giving; and elation after giving. The other three factors relate to the recipient. These are: the recipient's lack of lust; lack of hatred; and lack of delusion. The merit of such an offering is as incalculable as the volume of water in the ocean."

[38] 8.Self initiative. (Attakārīsutta). Once a brahamin came to the Buddha and said: "I hold the view that there is neither self-initiative nor the initiative of others". The Buddha said: " I have not heard such a thing." He then convinced the brahmin that the six elements of (1 - 6) instigation; persistence; exertion; strength; continuation; force; exist. He then showed how because of these there is both self agency as well as the agency of others. This convinced the brahmin who said that he would become a lay follower of the Buddha.

[39] 9. Origination. (Nidānasutta). "Monks, there are three causes for the origin of (bad) kamma: (1) greed; (2) hatred; (3) delusion, and three causes for the origin of (good) kamma: (4) non-greed; (5) non-hatred; (6) non-delusion. Bad kamma leads to rebirth in animal, ghostly and hellish realms. The opposite with good kamma."

[40] 10. Kimbila. (Kimilasutta). Once venerable Kimbila asked the Buddha why the good Dhamma does not last long after the final nibbāna of the Buddha. The Buddha said: "This will happen if the Buddhist community does not live without reverence fot: (1 - 6) the Teacher; the Dhamma; the Sangha; the training; heedlessness; good will."

[41] 11. Log of wood. (Dārukkhandasutta). Once when venerable Sāriputta was descending from the Gijjhakūṭa mountain with the monks they came across a log of wood. Then Sāriputta said: "A bhikkhu with psychic power can see in this piece of wood the four elements earth, water, fire and air. All these elements are in this piece of wood."

[42] 12. Nagita. (Nagitasutta). Once the Buddha and the monks on tour in Kosala came to Iccanagala and rested in the wood there. The brahmins of Iccanagala came to see the Buddha and made a commotion at the entrance to the wood. The Buddha asked his attendant monk Nagita what the noise was, and was told that the brahmins had come to pay homage with offerings because of the Buddha's fame. The Buddha then said: "What use is fame and homage to me. I like forest-dwelling. A monk dwelling in an unsuitable place could be disturbed, or fall asleep, or lose concentration, or be tempted with donations of alms food and the requisites. But a forest monk could be free of these to engage in concentration. Even while going on the highway I would not like to see anything before me or after me."

5. Dhammikavagga – 5. Dhamma

[43] 1. Elephant. (Nāgasutta). Once the Buddha with venerable Ananda was at the Eastern Gate of Sāvatthi when King Pasanedi's bulky royal elephant came through grandly decorated. Then venerable Udayin asked: "Do people say 'an elephant is truly an elephant' only in the case of a bulky elephant ?" The Buddha answered that people also do the same for a large: (1 - 6) elephant; horse; bull; serpent; tree; or human being. But I say so only in the case of someone who does no evil by body, speech and mind."

[44] 2. Migasālā. (Migasālāsutta). Once the lay follower Migasālā asked venerable Ananda: "When my father Purna who was celibate and lived the holy life died the Buddha said that he was a once returner and had gone to Tusita heaven. But when my uncle Isidatta who enjoyed sensual pleasures and did not live the holy life died the Buddha said the same thing. How should we understand the Dhamma ?" Ananda said that one should accept what the Buddha had said. Later Ananda recounted this incident to the Buddha, who said: "The measure of a man can be determined only by the Buddha or one like him. Foolish people like Migasālā cannot do this. There are six persons: (1 - 6) a mild person who has not attained temporary liberation who after death goes down; a mild person who has gained liberation who after death goes to distinction; a harsh person who is not liberated and is greedy who declines after death; a harsh person who has obtained liberation who goes to distinction; a harsh person who is not liberated and engages in wrong speech who declines after death; a harsh person who has obtained temporary liberation who goes to distinction. But only a Buddha can make these measurements. So others should not pass judgement."

[45] 3. Debt. (Iṇasutta). "Monks, poverty causes people to get into debt which leads to suffering such as: (1 - 6) not enjoying sensual pleasures for those so inclined; having to get into debt; having to pay interest; being reproved; being prosecuted; being imprisoned. Similarly bhikkhus suffer when: (1 - 6) they have no faith; no moral shame or dread; develop evil desires; gets reproved by other monks; cannot indulge in forest dwelling; cannot concentrate."

[46] 4. Mahācunda. (Mahācundasutta). Once venerable Mahācunda addressed the monks at Sahajāti in the Ceti country making these points: "(1) Some Dhamma-adepts criticize meditators questioning why and how they meditate and that they meditate without regard for the many people. (2) The meditators criticise the Dhamma-adepts saying that they are puffed-up talkers and they do not practice for the welfare of the many. (3) The Dhamma-adepts praise only their kind, not the meditators. (4) The meditators praise only their kind, not the Dhamma-adepts. (5) If you are a Dhamma-adept train yourselves to praise the meditators. (6) If you are a meditator train yourselves to praise the Dhamma-adepts."

[47] 5. Directly seen 1. (Paṭhamasandiṭṭhikasutta). Once the wanderer Moliyasivaka asked the Buddha: "It is said that the Dhamma is directly seen. How is it directly seen, in this life and for the future ?" The Buddha questioned the wanderer asking if he knew when the following was within him or not: (1 - 6_) greed; hatred; delusion; a state connected with greed; a state connected with hatred; a state connected with delusion. The wanderer said that he would know them if they existed in him. Then the Buddha said: "Well then when you see and know this, that is Dhamma for this life, for the other world, asking 'Come-and-see', with consequences, and understood by the wise for this life and the future."

[48] 6. Directly seen 2. (Dutiyasandiṭṭhikasutta). The same as the previous sutta given to another wanderer who asked the same question.

[49] 7. Khema. (Khemasutta). Once the Buddha was dwelling at Sāvatthi and the venerables Khema and Sumana were living close by. They visited the Buddha and Khema asked: "When an Arahant is fully liberated the thought comes to him that there is someone better or equal or inferior to me". The Buddha agreed and Khema departed. Then Sumana asked: "When an Arahant is fully liberated the thought comes to him that there is no one better or equal or inferior to me". The Buddha agreed and Sumana departed. Then the Budha addressed the monks: "Some clansmen talk about final liberation but do not try to reach it. Some foolish men boast about it. They will meet with distress later. They cannot be compared to the true arahant who has destroyed birth, lived the holy life, and become free of the fetters."

[50] 8. Control of the senses. (Indiriyasaṃvarasutta). "Monks, (1 - 6) lack of sense control leads to lack of virtue; this leads to lack of right concentration; this leads to lack of true knowledge and insight; this leads to lack of aversion and dispassion; this leads to lack of emancipated knowledge and insight. It is like a tree without branches.

[51] 9. Ananda. (Anandasutta). Once venerable Ananda asked venerable Sāriputta: "How does a bhikkhu learn a new teaching without forgetting old teachings and put them into practice ?" Sāaiputta asked Ananda to answer his own question and Ananda said: "A bhikkhu (1 - 6) learns the teachings; teaches it to others; makes the others repeat it; explains it in detail; ponders over it; spends the rains in a residence with elder monks". Sāriputta said that Ananda is a good exemplar of all this.

[52] 10. Nobleman (and others).. (Khattiyasutta). Once the brahmin Janussoni asked the Buddha five things with respect to six kinds of people. The things asked were their (i) aim, (ii) quest, (iii) support, (iv) intent, and (v) goal. The six kinds of people and the answers given by the Buddha for each kind of person were as follows: (1) Nobleman: (i) wealth, (ii) wisdon, (iii) power, (iv) earth, (v) dominion. (2) Brahmin: (i) wealth, (ii) wisdom, (iii) mantras,(iv) sacrifices, (v) world. (3) Householder: (i) wealth; (ii) wisdom, (iii) craft, (iv) work, (v) work's end. (4) Thief: (i) robbery, (ii) theft, (iii) house, (iv) darkness, (v) not to be seen. (5) Woman: (i) husband, (ii) adornment, (iii) son, (iv) absence of rival, (v) dominion. (6) Recluse: (i) forbearance, (ii) wisdom, (iii) virtue, (iv) nothing, (v) Nibbāna.

[53] 11. Heedfulness. (Appamaādasutta). Once a brahmin asked the Buddha: "Is there a single thing that will bring good in this life and in the future life ?" The Buddha said: "Yes there is, it is heedfulnesss." He then gave several similes such as that the elephant's foot print is the largest of all animals, and five other similes.

[54] 12. Dhammika. (Dhammikasutta). Once venerable Dhammika was living in his native monastery where he quarrelled with other monks and visitors. The lay people asked him to leave. He went to other monasteries but the same happened several times. He then resolved to visit the Buddha who was then dwelling at the Gijjhakuta near Rajagaha. Addressing Dhammika as a brahmin the Buddha gave several similes. One was of a bunyan tree whose resident deva did not do his duty with the result the tree did not bear fruit. Then Sakka came and upbraided the deva to do his duty and the tree recovered. The Buddha then advised Dhammika to do his duty. Asked what he should do the Buddha advised him to train himself not to have hatred to other monks or visitors saying that "he who protects himself also protects others".

2. Dutiyapaṇṇāsaka – 2. The second fifty

6. Mahāvagga – 6. The great chapter.

[55] 1. Sona. (Soṇasutta). Once the Buddha was at Gijjhakuta while venerable Sona was at Sītavana. Then Sona thought: "I have exerted with great energy but I have not still eliminated the āsava (intoxicants). Maybe I should give up the effort and return to the lay life and enjoy my family's wealth." The Buddha discerned this thinking by his iddhi powers and instantly appeared at the Sītavana. He then told Sona: "When the strings of a lute are too tight or too loose it will not produce good music." He then disappeared. Sona understood the parable and relaxing his efforts eliminated the intoxicants and became an Arahant. He then visited the Buddha at Gijjhakuta and told him: "A person by the exercise of effort can become an Arahant without passion, hatred, delusion, and developing detachment, harmlessness, craving, and grasping. But people may think that he has done this only by faith." The Buddha said: "Do not think so. It requires much effort".

[56] 2. Phagguna. (Paggunasutta). Once venerable Phagguna was lying gravely ill. Then Ananda and the Buddha visited hi. The Buddha asked Phagguna if he was bearing up, and was told that he was not and that he was in great pain. The Buddha then preached a Dhamma sermon to him, and the two departed. Soon after Phagguna died and Ananda conveyed this to the Buddha. He asked the Buddha if Phagguna had died with his faculties purified. The Buddha said that a bhikkhu whose mind is not liberated from the five lower fetters, but at the time of his death he hears the Dhamma from the Buddha or his disciple, and he ponders it and understands it, his faculties get purified. This was the case with Phagguna.

[57] 3. Six classes. (3. Chaḷabhijātisutta). Once when the Buddha was at Gijjhakuta venerable Ananda came to him and said: "Pūraṇa Kassapa has identified six classes: (1 - 6) Black (butchers, robbers, fishermen, ...); Blue (monks, deed-theory followers, ...); Red (Jains, loin-cloth wearers); Yellow (white clad householders, naked ascetics, ...); White (wandering ascetics, ...); Purest White (himself, Makkhali Gosala, ...)." The Buddha said that this was a foolish classification and then he gave his own six classes in which the basic difference is between those born to a black state (poor, deformed, ugly. low-caste, ...) and those born to a white state (rich, well-endowed, beautiful, high-caste, ...). In terms of these he distinguished six classes: "(1 - 6) Black class (a person remaining in the black state); Black class producing a white state (through engaging in good conduct); Black class leading to nibbāna (a person born into the black state but who becomes a monk and reaches his goal); White class producing a black state (a person born to the while class engaging in misconduct of body, speech and mind); White class producing a white state (a person born white and makes no further progress or regress); Purest white class (here a well-born person born to the white class renounces his wealth becomes a monk and reaches his goal of Nibbāna)."

[58] 4. Intoxicants, (Āsavasutta). "Monks, bhikkhus can be considered worthy if they have got rid of the intoxicants by means of by: (1 - 6) control (restraint of the six sense faculties); use (proper use of robes and other requisites); endurance (of stings and bites from animals, discomfort from inclement weather etc. ); avoidance (of wild animals, bad friends, etc.); suppression (of evil thoughts etc.); and growth of mindfulness, concentration and other good qualities."

[59] 5. Grave kamma. (Dārukammasutta). Once in Nādika a wood-seller visited the Buddha and the Buddha asked him: "Does your family give alms to monks ?" The wood-seller replied: "Yes, but only to forest-gone monks, rag wearers and Arahants". The Buddha replied: "As you are a householder enjoying sense pleasures you will not be able to tell who is an Arahant and who is not. There are these six kinds of monks: (1) A forest-gone monk who is vain, talkative and not heedful; he is not praiseworthy. (2) a monk living on the outskirts of a village but has loose sense faculties; he is blameable, otherwise he is praiseworthy. (3) An alms-seeker who is restless with uncontrolled sense faculties is blameable, otherwise he is praiseworthy. (4) Same with a monk invited home for a meal. (5) Same with a rag-wearing monk. (6) Same with a monk wearing householder-provided robes. But if you give alms to any monk with a confident mind then you will be reborn in a good destination even a heavenly world."

[60] 6. Hatthi. (Hatthisāriputtasutta). Once several elder monks were discussing Abhidhamma at the Deer Park in Isipatana when venerable Citta Hatthisāriputta kept on interrupting them. Venerable Mahakotthita asked Citta to wait until the discussion is over. But Citta's friends objected to censuring Citta. This lead to a discussion between Mahakotthita and Citta together with his friends. The issue was whether the mind of a person could be discerned by another. Mahakhotthita said that a monk even if he has won the jhānas could be corrupted if he kept worldly company and so could return to the household life. He said that he had discerned Citta's mind through his (Mahakhottita's) higher powers and also by being told so by the devas. At this Citta gave up the training and returned to the household life. Then Citta's friends went to the Buddha and told him what had happened. The Buddha then said that Citta will again return to the training. Shortly afterwards Citta returned to the training and through strenuous effort reached his goal and became an Arahant. {The Pali text of this sutta is obscure and the abstract given here is conjectural.}

[61] 7. In the middle. (Majjesutta). Once in the Deer Park in Isipatana several elder monks were discussing the following statement attributed to the Buddha: "Understanding both ends, the wise one chooses the middle. He is a great man as he has gone beyond the seamstress". They all agreed that the "seamstress" refers to cravings, and the question was what were the two extremes. The following answers were given by six bhikkhus: "(1 - 6) 'start and end of contact'; 'the past and the present'; 'pleasant and unpleasant feeling'; 'name and form'; 'the internal and the external sense bases'; 'the origin and cessation of personal existence'". The monks then went to seek the opinion of the Buddha. The Buddha said: "Contact is the first end, its arising is the second, its ceasing is in the middle, and craving is the seamstress."

[62] 8. Knowledge about a man. (Purisaindriyañāṇasutta). Once the Buddha and the monks on a tour of Kosala came to a town called Dandakappaka and they dispersed to different lodgings. Then one monk came to venerable Ananda and asked: "When the Buddha said that Devadatta was destined for hell for an eon did he really mean it." Then Ananda went to the Buddha and related what had happened. The Buddha said: "This monk is either a novice or is fool."  He then explained the ways in which a Tathāgata gets his knowledge about a man's destiny. He may have some good and some bad but in the case of Devadatta he was totally bereft of any good. That is why he made the pronouncement that he had done about Devadatta."

[63] 9. Simplified discourse. (Nibbedhikasutta). "Monks, this is a simplified discourse on the Dhamma. One should understand these six, their source, their origin, their diversity, their result, their cessation, and the way to their cessation: (1 - 6) Sensual pleasure (which comes from the five organs of sense); feelings (which are pleasant, unpleasant or neutral); perceptions (which arise from forms, sounds, smells, tastes, bodily and mental phenomena); Āsava) or intoxicants (which lead to hell and other states of existence); kamma (which is volitional); and suffering (of varying degrees)."

[64] 10. Lion's roar. (Sīhanādasutta). "Monks, the Tathāgata has six powers by virtue of which he can utter the lion's roar. These are the Tathāgata knows: (1 - 6) the essential from the non-essential, the possible from the impossible; the past, present and future of the working of kamma; the jhānas and other meditative attainments; his manifold past habitations; through the divine eye how beings progress in Samsāra; and how to obtain full liberation in this very life by the destruction of the intoxicants."

7. Devatāvagga – 7. The devas

[65] 1. Non-returner. (Anāgāmiphalasutta). "Monks, if a bhikkhu give up these six things he can be a non returner: (1 - 6) Lack of faith; lack of moral shame; lck of moral recklessness; laziness; confused-mindedness; and lack of wisdom."

[66] 2. Arahantship. (Arahattasutta). "Monks, it is not possible to become an arahant if one does not give up: (1 - 6) Sloth; torpor, restlessness, remorse, lack of faith, and heedlessness."

[67] 3. Friends. (Mittasutta). "Monks, a bhikkhu with bad friends and companions, and follows them then he cannot fulfil his dhamma duty, hence be a trainee, hence develop virtuous behaviour, hence abandon lust for forms and the formless."

[68] 4. Delight in company. (Saṅgaṇikārāmasutta). "Monks, a bhikkhu cannot find the delight in loneliness and seclusion if he is given to delight in company and gatherings. Nor will he get right view nor right concentration, nor abandon the fetters not realize Nibbāna."

[69] 5. A deva.(Devatāsutta). Once late in the night a deva approached the Buddha and said: "A bhikkhu will not fall away if he (1 - 6) revers the Teacher; reveres the Dhamma; reveres the Sangha; reveres the training; is easy to correct; and has good friends." The next morning the Buddha told the monks what he had experienced, and venerable Sāriputta repeated the six conditions stated by the deva.

[70] 6. Concentration. (Samādhisutta). "Monks, a monk without a high degree of concentration, without calm and one-pointedness of mind, cannot attain the various psychic powers of replicating oneself, divine eye, divine ear, recalling previous births, read others' mind and see how kamma works."

[71] 7. The witness. (Sakkhhibhabbasutta). "Monks, a bhikkhu cannot realize a particular state if he does not understand what leads to (1 - 6) deterioration; stabilization; distinction; penetration; and is not zealous; or helpful."

[72] 8. Strength. (Balasutta). "Monks, to attain strength in concentration a bhikkhu should be able to: (1 - 6) attain it; maintain it; emerge from it; practice it carefully; practice it persistently; be suitable for it."

[73] 9. First jhāna 1. (Paṭhamattajjhānasutta). "Monks, To gain the first jāna a monk should be: (1 - 6) free of : sense-desires; ill-will; sloth and torpor; flurry and worry; doubt; and lack of wisdom."

[74] 10. First jhāna 2. (Dutiyattajjhānasutta). Same as the previous sutta.

8. Arahattavagga – 8. Arahantship

[75] 1. Suffering. (Dukkhasutta). "Monks, with these thoughts a bhikkhu lives in suffering in this life and goes to a bad desitination after death: (1 - 6) sensuality; ill will; harming; sensual perception; perception of ill will, and perception of harming."

[76] 2. Arahantship. (Arahattasutta). "Monks, one cannot realize arahantship without giving up: (1 - 6) Conceit; underrating; overrating; complacency; stubbornness; and instability."

[77] 3. Higher. (Uttarimanussadhammasutta). "Monks, one cannot realize human excellence with: (1 - 6) forgetting mindfulness; lacking self-possession; unguarded sense-doors; lacking moderation in eating; deceitfulness; and flattery."

[78] 4. Happiness. (Sukhasomanassasutta). "Monks, to live happy and content a bhikkhu should delight in: (1 - 6) Dhamma; growth; renunciation; solitude; being free of ill-will; and in non-diffuseness."

[79] 5. Achievement. (Adhigamasutta). "Monks, to attain hitherto unattained skills in Dhamma a monk should be skilled in : (1 - 6) entering; leaving; approaching; wishing to attain the unattained; preserving what has been atttained; and persevering."

[80] 6. Greatness. (Mahantattasutta). "Monks, to achieve greatness and growth in right things a bhikkhu should have much: (1 - 6) clear sight; application, zest; dissatisfaction; bearing of burden; and drive across to the beyond."

[81] 7. Hell 1. (Paṭhamanirayasutta). "Monks, one is cast in hell if one: (1 - 6) takes life; takes what is not given; lives carnally; lies; has evil desires; has wrong views."

[82] 8. Hell 2. (Dutiyanirayasutta). "Monks, one is cast in hell if one: (1 - 6) lies, slanders, is harsh, babbles, is greedy, is reckless."

[83] 9. Foremost. (Utttariyasutta). "Monks, a bhikkhu will miss the foremost if he is without faith, fear of blame, indolent, lacks insight and hankers after life."

[84] 10. Day and night. (Rattidivasasutta). "Monks, if a bhikkhu dese these day and night growth cannot be expected: (1 - 6) desires much; not satisfied with the requisites; fretful; dissatisfied; discontented; is without faith or virtue; is indolent; lacks mindfulness and insight."

9. Sītivagga – 9. The Cool

[85] 1. Cooolness. (Sītibhāvasutta). "Monks, if a monk does these he cannot realize the cool: (1 - 6) does not check his mind; does not exert his mind; does not gladden his mind; does not heed his mind; is bent on low things; finds delight in life."

[86] 2. Obstructions. (Āvaraṇasutta). "Monks, even when listening to the Dhamma a bhikkhu does not do right if he is encumbered by(1 - 6) kamma, by defilement, is without faith, is without desire, and lacks insight.'

[87] 3. Exclusion. (Voropitasutta). "Monks, a person is excluded from the right way if (1 - 6) he kills his mother, his father, an arahant, sheds the blood of a Tathāgata, creates a schism in the Sangha, and is unwise and stupid."

[88]. Listening. (Sussuūsatisutta). "Monks, when the Dhamma and discipline is taught by a Tathāgata a bhikkhu does not enter the right way if he(1 - 6) does not wish to listen, does not listen, does not understand, gets the wrong meanng, discards the meaning, and does not agree with what is said."

[89] 5. Giving up. (Appahāyasutta). "Monks, one cannot achieve right view if he(1 - 6) has a wrong view of life, has doubt, believes in rite and ritual, has passion, hate, and infatuation.

[90] 6. Abandoning. (Pahīnasutta). Same as sutta 89.

[91] 7. Incapable. (Abhabbasutta). Same as sutta 89.

[92] 8. Impossible 1. (Paṭhamaabhabbaṭṭhānasutta). "Monks, it cannot be that one with right view will (1 - 6) live without respect to the Teacher, the Dhamma, the training, and be one who falls back."

[93] 9. Impossible 2. (Dutiyaabhabbaṭṭhānasutta). "Monks, it cannot be that one with right view will accept amything: (1 - 6) as permanent, as happiness, as self, do a wrong act, fall back on rite and ritual."

[94] 10. Impossible 3. (Tatiyaabhabbaṭṭhānasutta). "Monks, it cannot be that one with right view will: (1 - 6) kill his mother, his father, an arahant, draw the blood of the Tathāgata, creae a schesm in the Sangha, point to another Teachre."

[95] 11. Impossible 4. (Cattutaabhabbaṭṭhānasutta). "Monks, it cannot be that one with right view will attribute weal and woe to oneself, or to another, or to both, or to chance. He knows causation and causally arisen phenomena.

10. Ānisaṃsavagga – 10. Benefits

[96] 1. Manifestation. (Pātubhāvasutta). "Monks, these manifestations are rare in the world: (1 - 6) a Tathāgata; a teacher of the Dhamma; rebirth as a noble one; being endowed with unimpaired sense faculties; being intelligent and astute; having the desire for the Dhamma."

[97] 2. Benefits. (Ānisaṃsasutta). "Monks, the six advantages of stream-winning are: (1 - 6) certainty of Dhamma; no falling away; reduced suffering; non-impartible knowledge; causation rightly discerned.

[98] 3. Impermanance. (Aniccasutta). "Monks, a bhikkhu who considers any conditioned thing as permanent will realize (1 - 6) the Dhamma; the right path; stream-entry; once-returning; non-returning; Arahantship."

[99] 4. Suffering. (Dukkhasutta). Same as the previous sutta replacing 'Impermanance' with 'Suffering'.

[100] 5. Not-self. (Anattasutta). Same as sutta 98 repacing 'Impermanence' with 'Not-self'.

[101] 6. Nibbāna. (Nibbānasutta) Same as sutta 98 replacing 'Impermanence' with 'Nibbāna'.

[102] 7. Without reserves. (Anavatthitasutta). "Monks, a bhikkhu will realize impermanence without reserve if (1 - 6) he considers all conditioned phenomena as not lasting; not take delight in worldly things; rise above the world; his mind flows towards nibbāna; he abandons the fetters."

[103] 8. Upholding. (Ukkhittāsikasutta). "Monks, to perceive suffering in all conditioned things a monk should uphold: (1 - 6) disenchantment; abandon the world; see nibbāna as peaceful; uproot the underlying tendencies; do his task; serve the Teacher."

[104] 9. Non-identification. (Attammayasutta). Same as the conditions to realize non-self given in sutta 100.

[105] 10. Existence. (Bhavasutta). "Monks, bhikkhus should abandon the three kinds of existence in the spheres of sense, form and the formless by undertaking the appropriate training in the higher virtue, the higher mind and the higher wisdom."

[106] 11. Craving. (Taṇhāsutta). "Monks, bhikkhus should abandon the three kinds of craving, sensual craving, craving for existence and craving for non-existence by abandoning conceit, arrogance and the sense of inferiority."

11. Tikavagga – 11. Triads

[107] 1. Lust. (Rāgasutta). "Monks, these are the three and how to abandon them: (1) Lust. Cultivate the unattractive. (2) Hatred. Cultivate loving-kindness. (3) Delusion. Cultivate wisdom."

[108] 2. Misconduct. (Ducaritasutta). "Monks, these are the three and how to abandon them: (1) Bodily misconduct. Abandon such conduct. (2) Verbal misconduct. Abandon such conduct. (3) Mental misconduct. Abandon such conduct."

[109] 3. Thinking. (Vitakkasutta). "Monks, these are the three and how to abandon them: (1) Sensual thoughts. Cultivate thought of renunciation. (1) Sensual thoughts. Abandon them. (3) Thoughts of harming. Cultivate thoughts of harmlessness.

[110] 4. Perceptions. (ṣaññāsutta). Same as previous sutta replacing 'thought' with 'perception'.

[111] 5. Elements. (Dhātusutta). Same as previous sutta 109 replacing 'thought' with 'element'

[112] 6. Gratification. (Assādasutta). "Monks, these are the three views and how to abandon them: (1) View of gratification. Replace with view of impermanence. (2) View of self. Replace with view of non-self. (3) Wrong view. Replace with right view."

[113] 7. Discontent. (Aratisutta). "Monks, these are the three and how to abandon them: (1) Discontent. Replace with altrustic joy. (2) Harmfuolness. Cultivate hjarmlessness. (3) Wrong Conduct. Replace with conduct according to Dhamma."

[114] 8. Contentment. (Santuṭṭhitāsutta). "Monks, these are the three and how to abandon them: (1) Non-contentment. Practice the opposite. (2) Lack of clear comprehension. Practice the opposite. (1) Strong desires. Practice the opposite."

[115] 9. Incorrigibility. (Dovacassatāsutta). "Monks, these are the three and how to abandon them: (1) Being difficult to correct. Cultivate the opposite. (2) Bad Friendship. Cultivate good friends. (3) Mental distraction. Develop mindfulness."

[116] 10. Rest lessness. (Uddhaccasutta). "Monks, these are the three and how to abandon them: (1) Restlessness. Develop serenity. (2) Non-restraint. Abandon it. (3) Heedlessness. Develop Heedfulness."

12. Sāmaññvagga – 12 Asceticism.

This final chapter consists of a large number of suttas [116 - 661]. Most of them consist of a little more than the mention of the bare title. They are dealt with elsewhere in this Nikāya. Accordingly they are not abstracted in this document.

Here ends the Aṅguttara Nikāya of the Sutta Piṭaka.