Aṅguttara NikÉāya Book of Gradual Sayings

8. Aṭṭhkanipāta – 8. Book of Eights

[NOTE: All statements in these suttas, unless otherwise noted, are made by the Buddha addressing the monks at Jetavana in Sāvatthi. These are included withn quotation marks: "...". Sections within curly brackets {...} are comments notes and further explanations by the author of these abstracts. Other statements give general information usually within square brackets [...]. Each sutta in this Book deals weight items. They are usually numbered here (1) ... (8) though not in the original Pali]

1. Paṭhamapaññāsaka – 1. The first Fifty

1. Mettāvagga – 1. Loving-kindness

[1] 1. Loving-kindness. (Mettāsutta). "Monks, eight benefits derive from the liberation of mind by loving-kindness: (1 - 8) sleeping well; awakening happily; no bad dreams; (4) being pleasing to human beings; being pleasing to spirits; being protected by deities; (7) not being injured by fire, poison, and weapons; on death one may go to the Brahma world."

[2] 2. Wisdom. (Paññāsutta). "Monks, eight ways of getting wisdom are: (1 - 8) being dependent on a Teacher or fellow monk; set up moral shame and moral dread; withdraw from body and mind based on Dhamma; dwell restrained by the Patimokkha; learn much and remember it; develop wholesome qualities; no pointless talk with fellow sangha; contemplate on the transience of the aggregates."

[3] 3. Pleasing 1. (Paṭhamaappiysutta). "Monks, a displeasing and disagreeable bhikkhu has eight qualities: (1 - 8): praises other displeasing monks; criticizes pleasant monks; desires gains; seeks honour; (5) is morally shameless; is morally reckless; (7) has evil desires; holds wrong view."

[4] 4. Pleasing 2. (Dutiyaappiysutta). Same as previous suta.

[5] 5. World 1. (DutiyaPaṭhamalokadhammasutta). "Monks, the eight worldly conditions are: (1 - 8) Gain; loss; disrepute; fame; blame; praise; pleasure pain."

[6] 6. World 2. (Dutiyalokadhammasutta). This sutta explains in detail the eight conditions identified in the previous sutta.

[7] 7. Devadatta's fate. (Devadattavipattisutta). "Monks, Devadatta was cast into hell for an eon because he was overcome and obsessed by: (1 - 8) gain; loss; fame; disrepute; honour; lack of honour; evil desires; bad friendship. For this reason a bhikkhu should avoid these failings."

[8] 8. Uttara. (Uttravipattisutta). Once in Dhavajalika the venerable Uttara addressed the monks thus: "It is good for a bhikkhu from time to time to review the failings and achievements of others and of himself". A deva overheard him and reported this to Sakka, king of the gods. Sakka magically appeared before Uttara and asked the reason for his utterance. Uttara said: "Suppose there were a heap of grain in a certain place and people were carrying away baskets of it. When asked by others where they got the grain they would say from the heap at such-and-such place. Similarly the word of the Tathāgata is always the truth and is well spoken." Sakka then went to the Buddha and related what Uttara had said. The Buddha approved of it and said that it was a cardinal principle of the Dhamma.

[9] 9. Nanda. (Nandasutta). "Monks, anyone speaking of Nanda would rightly say that he is a clansman, strong, and graceful but prone to lust. To overcome this he should do the following: (1) guard the sense doors by observing the six directions and resolving that bad unwholesome states of longing and dejection do not occur; (2) eat moderately by meditating the food is taken not for pleasure but for bodily upkeep; and (3) be wakeful and mindful with clear comprehension."

[10] 10. Rejecting.. (Kāraṇḍvasutta). Once while in Campa a bhikkhu had committed an offence and when reproved by the other monks he evaded the issue and displayed anger, hatred and resentment. When apprised of this the Buddha said that the offending monk should be rejected giving the example of a barley field where a rot arises at the root of a plant and soon spreads to the whole plant and then would spread ot the whole field if the infected plant is not thrown out.

2. Mahāvagga – 2.

[11] 1. Veranja. (Verañjasutta). Once in Veranja a Brahmin approached the Buddha and made several statements about the Buddha to which the Buddha responded. The conversation went as follows:
Brahmin1. The samana Gotama does not salute brahmins who are old.
BuddhaThere is no one in the world of devas or humans to whom a Tathāgata should stand up or salute.
Brahmin2. Master Gotama lacks taste (arasarūpa)
BuddhaThe Buddha has cut off tastes for forms, sounds and other things that can be handled.
Brahmin3. Gotama lacks property.
BuddhaThis is so because the Tathāgata has abandoned all household things.
Brahmin4. Gotama affirms the theory of Inaction
BuddhaThe Buddha refrains from action relating to misconduct in deed, word and thought; he proclaims inaction relating to all evil conditions.
Brahmin5. Gotama is an annihilationist.
BuddhaThe Buddha annihilates all lust, hatred and infatuation. It is in this way that he is an annihilationist, not in the way Brahmins think.
Brahmin6. Gotama is an ascetic.
BuddhaI support mortification only for evil and sinful things, unlike other ascetics given to bodily mortification.
Brahmin7. Gotama does not believe in rebirth (apagabba).
BuddhaThe Tathāgata has abandoned renewed existence. But he sees other beings moving along according to their kamma.
Then the Buddha goes into a long disquisition on how he achieved enlightenment. After this Brahmin becomes a lay follower of the Buddha.

[12] 2. Siha. (Sīhasutta). Once the Buddha came to Vesali and his reputation as an Arahant spread among the Licchavis. Then General Siha, a follower of the Jains asked their leader Niganta Nataputta's permission to visit the Buddha. He was dissuaded thrice on the ground that the Buddha supported the doctrine of inaction. But Siha decided to visit the Buddha despite not being given permission. When he saw the Buddha he raised the issue of the theory of Inaction and some of the other matters raised by the Brahmin in the previous sutta. The Buddha gave a detailed explanation of his position in all the matters raised by Siha. Siha was convinced and after inviting the Buddha for his meal the next day he departed. Then he got the meal prepared even sending a servant to fetch meat from the market. The Buddha and the monks came to Siha's house the next day are partook of the meal. Meanwhile the Jains spread a commotion throughout the city saying that the Buddha had eaten meat specially killed for him. When the Buddha came to know of this he laid down the rule that a person consuming meat should not see, hear or even suspect that the animal had been killed specially for his consumption.

[13] 3. The thoroughbred. (Assājānīyasutta). "Monks, a horse worthy of the king should be: (1 - 8) well-born on both sides; eat whatever he is given; be repelled by faeces or urine; be mild and pleasant; show his special tricks only to the trainer; carry whatever load given; travel in a strait line; be strong until he dies."

[14] 4. Wild horses. (Assakhaḷuṅkasutta). "Monks, there are eight kinds of wild horses and eight kinds of bhikkhus. The kinds of wild horses are those when commanded to go forward do not obey the command even if eight degrees of pressure are exerted on them. The corresponding eight kinds of bhikkhus are those who when reproved for an offence do not heed it by: (1 - 8) claiming lack of memory; claiming that the reprover is a fool; accusing the reprover of committing the same offence; diverting the discussion; angrily accusing the reprover of being a wild horse; does whatever he wishes to do; does not admit to the offence; says not to make a fuss about him."

[15] 5. Stains. (Malasutta). "Monks, the following are stain: (1 - 8) non-recitation for hymn-reciters; upkeep for houses; laziness for beauty; heedlessness for a guard; miserliness for a giver; bad qualities for this world and the next."

[16] 6. Messengers. (Dūteyyasutta). "Monks, a bhikkhu is a worthy messenger if he is one who (1 - 8) listens; makes others listen; learns; makes others learn; understands; makes others understand."

[17] 7. Bondage 1. (Paṭhamabandanasutta). "Monks, a woman enslaves a man by (1 - 8) appearance; laughter; speech; song; tears; attire; garlands; touch."

[18] 8. Bondage 2. (Dutiyabandanasutta). A man enslaves a woman by the same methods listed in the previous sutta.

[19] 9. Paharada. (Pahārādasutta). Once in Verañjā the Asura king Paharada came to the Buddha and affirmed that the Asuras take delight in the ocean. Asked by the Buddha what the Asuras considered wonderful in the ocean Paharada said that it: (1 - 8) slopes; is stable; ejects corpses to the shore; absorbs waters from great rivers; the volume of water in it does not change; it has one taste that of salt; contains many precious substances; is the abode of great beings. Then the Buddha said that the Dhamma has also similar eight qualities.

[20] 10. Upostha day. (Uposatasutta). Once on an Uposata day the Buddha and the bhikkhus were seated in silence during the night. Then venerable Ananda during the first two watches of the night asked the Buddha to recite the Patimokka. But each time the Buddha remained silent. Then during the last watch of the night he again asked the Buddha. Then the Buddha said: "The assembly is not pure." Then venerable Mahāmoggallāna surveying the assembly saw that one person was wicked. He then asked this person three times to leave but he did not take heed. Finally Mahāmoggallāna led him out by the arm. Then the Buddha asked the monks to recite the obligations without him and that in future he will not participate when the monks recite the obligations.

3. Gahapativagga – 3. Householders

[21] 1. Ugga 1. (Paṭhamauggasutta). Once in Vesali the Buddha told the bhikkhus that Ugga of Vesali had eight wonderful qualities and left without further explanation. Then a bhikkhu went to Uggga and related what the Buddha had said. Ugga replied: "I do not know what the Buddha meant but I have had eight wondrous qualities: These are: (1) When I saw the Buddha a tranquillity overcame me. (2) When I listened to the Buddha I grasped the Dhamma. (3) When my third wife wanted to leave me for another man I arranged this. (4) I shared my family wealth with good persons. (5) I attend on bhikkhus respectfully. (6) I listen respectfully to Dhamma preached by bhikkhus. (7) When devas visit me I tell them that the Buddha's Dhamma is well expounded. (8) I have abandoned the five lower fetters". Later the bhikkhu related this conversation to the Buddha who applauded what Ugga had said.

[22] 2. Ugga 2. (Dutiyauggasutta). Once in Hatthigama the Buddha told the bhikkhus: "Ugga of Hatthigama has eight wondrous qualities." He then left. A monk then visited Ugga of Hatthigama and told him what the Buddha had said. This Ugga gave the same reply that Ugga of Vesali had given in the previous sutta including the same eight qualities, Later this monk visited the Buddha and repeated the conversation. The Buddha said that what Ugga of Hatthigama said was correct.

[23] 3. Hatthaka 1. (Paṭhamahattthakasutta). Once in Alavi the Buddha said: "Hatthaka of Alavi has seven wondrous qualities: he has faith, is virtuous, is conscientious, fears blame, is a great listener, is charitable and is wise." He then left, A monk visited Hatthaka and repeated what the Buddha had said. Hatthaka confirmed it.

[24] 4. Hatthaka 2. (Dutiyahattthakasutta). Once Hatthaka visited the Buddha with five hundred followers. The Buddha enquired how Hatthaka managed to get so many followers. Hatthaka then said: "I did so by applying the four bases for assemblies taught by the Buddha. These are: To one induced by a gift I give a gift; to on induced by endearing speech I talk to him so; to one induced by beneficent conduct I act so; to one induced by impartiality I am impartial." The Buddha commended him on what he said and later said the same to the other monks.

[25] 5. Mahanama (Mahānāmasutta). Once in Kapilavattthu the following conversation took place between the Sākyan Mahanama and the Buddha on the subject of the lay disciple:

MahanamaHow does a man become a lay disciple ?
BuddhaBy taking refuge in the Buddha Dhamma and Sangha.
MahanamaHow is one virtuous ?
BuddhaBy following the five precepts.
MahanamaHow does one promote ones welfare not that of another ? .
BuddhaBy achieving faith, virtue, renunciation, sight of bhikkhus, hearing and understanding Dhamma for his own self not encompassing others. .
MahanamaHow does one promotes ones and others welfare.
BuddhaDoing the same as in previous question and encompassing others as well.

[26] 6. Jivaka. (Jīvakasutta). In this sutta in Rajagaha Jivaka Komarabhaccaka asks the Buddha the same question as Mahanama does in the previous sutta and gets the same answers.

[27] 7. Powers 1. (Paṭhamabalasutta). "Monks, there are these eight powers, the power to: (1 - 8) cry by children; scold by women-folk; fight by thieves; rule by kings; contend by fools; suavity by the wise; scrutiny by the leaned; patience by ascetics."

[28] 8. Powers 2 (Dutiyabalasutta). Once the Buddha asked venerable Sāriputta: "What eight powers does the fully liberated bhikkhu have ?" Sāripitta replied: "(1) He sees that all compounded things are impermanent; (2) sees sensual pleasure as a charcoal pit; (3) inclines towards seclusion; (4) establishes the four foundations of mindfulness; (5-8) develops the four bases of psychic power; the five spiritual faculties; the seven factors of enlightenment; the noble eightfold path."

[29] 9. Untimely. (Akkhaṇasutta). "Monks, There are these untimely occasions when a Tathāgata has arisen: (1 - 8) to be born a hell being; to be an animal; to be an afflicted spirit; to be in a category of long-lived devas; to be in a foreign uncouth region; to have wrong view; to be unwise, to be stupid and obtuse; for the Dhamma not to be proclaimed."

[30] 10. Anuruddha. (Anuruddhasutta). Once when venerable Anuruddha was living among the Cetis he thought: "This Dhamma is for: (1 - 8) one who wants little; not for one who wants much; the contented not discontented; the secluded not fond of society; the energetic not lazy; one who has set up mindfulness; the composed not the excitable; the wise, not the unwise." The Buddha who was living in Sunsumaragiri divined this and using his magic powers appeared before Anuruddha. He then commended Anuruddha saying that his thoughts were those of a great person.

4. Dānavagga – 4. Giving

[31] 1. On giving 1. (Paṭhamadānasutta). "Monks, the ways of giving are: (1 - 8) (1) after injuring the recipient; from fear; as reciprocal gift; expecting a return gift; because it is good to give; the recipient cannot cook; out of habit; for mental pleasure."

[32] 2. On giving 2. (Dutiyadānasutta). (sutta). [Other] reasons for giving are faith, modesty, imitating the wise, it being divine, it is the way to the deva-world.

[33] 3. Grounds for giving. (Dānavatthusutta). "Monks, the grounds for giving are from: (1 - 8) desire; hatred; delusion; fear; family tradition; expecting good rebirth; mental placidity; mental ornamentation."

[34] 4. Field. (Khettasutta). "Monks, a field will not bear good yield after sowing if it (1 - 8) has mounds and ditches; is stony; is salty; is not well ploughed; has no inlets; has no outlets; has no irrigation channels; has no boundaries. Similarly gifts given to those who do not have the eight qualities of the noble path do not have good yields."

[35] 5. Rebirth due to gifts. (Dānūpapattisutta). "Monks, a person making a gift to an ascetic or holy man expecting to be reborn among the wealthy will succeed only if he is virtuous not vicious. Similarly for those wishing to be reborn in the heavens of the Four Great Kings, the Tavatimsa, the Yāma, the Tusita, that of creator gods, that of gods with power over others, and even the Brahma world."

[36] 6. Meritorious actin. (Puññakiriyavatthusutta). "Monks, the three bases for meritorious action are virtuous behaviour, giving, and mental development. The meritorious action based on giving can be for: (1) giving a small amount for which a person could be reborn in the human plane in an unfavourable condition; (2) a middling amount for which a person could be reborn in the human plane in a favourable condition; (3) a superior amount. for which a person could be born in any of the deva worlds depending on the quality of his giving."

[37] 7. Worthy man. (Sappurisadānasutta). "Monks, the gifts of the worthy man are : (1 - 8) pure; excellent; timely; allowable; carefully considered; often; with confidence ; with elation."

[38] 8. Worthy man. (Sappurissutta). "Monks, when a worthy man is born in a family it is good for: (1 - 8) the parents; the family; the domestic servants, the friends; the king; the deities; the Brahmins and ascetics."

[39] 9. Flowing on. (Abhisandasutta). "Monks, there are eight streams of merit that flow on from the following actions of a noble disciple: (1 - 8) taking refuge in the Buddha; same in the Dhamma; same in the Sangha; abandoning the taking of life, not taking what is not giving, no wrong speech, no sexual misconduct; no intoxicants."

[40] 10. Bad conduct (Ducaritavipākautta). "Monks, the following have bad consequences, sometimes even leading up to birth in hell: (1 - 8) Taking life; taking what is not given; sexual misconduct; false speech; divisive speech; harsh speech; idle chatter; taking intoxicants."

5. Uposathavagga – 5.Observance day

[41] 1. In brief. (Saṅkhittūposahasutta). "Monks, keeping the Uposatha day by a noble disciple with these thoughts is of great benefit: (1 - 8) Arahants avoid destruction of life so will I; they do not take what is not given, so will I; they practice chastity, so will I for this day; they abstain from false speech, so will I; they abstain from liquor, so will I; they do not eat at improper times, so will I; they abstain from dancing, so will I; they avoid luxurious beds, so will I."

[42] 2. In detail. (sutta). This sutta repeats what the Buddha said in the previous sutta. Then it goes on to state the length of a day in the various heavenly worlds compared to human (earth) years, and the life span of beings there. For instance in the Yāma heaven a day is equal to two hundred years for humans. The life span is 200 celestial years. Other heavens have even greater numbers compared to humans. The Buddha concludes by saying: "A virtuous person who observes the Uposata days with the eight factors and earns merit and goes to a heavenly world will be happy for a longer time there than here as a human. "

[43] 3. Visākhā. (Visākhāsutta). In this sutta the Buddha preaches sutta 42 to Visākhā, the mother of Migāra.

[44] 4. Vasettha. (Vāseṭṭhasutta). In Vesali the Buddha told the lay follower Vasettha that if he observed the Observance day with the eight factors it would be of great benefit to him. Vasettha asked if it will also benefit his family and relatives. The Buddha said that it will benefit even these tall Sal trees if they could observe the Uposata day."

[45] 5. Bojjha. (Bojjhasutta). Here the Buddha repeats sutta 42 to Anatapindika.

[46] 6. Anuruddha. (Anuruddhasutta). Once at Kosambi a number of female deities (devatā) appeared before venerable Anuruddha and said that they had great powers including ability to change colour. Anuruddha asked them to turn blue and they did so. But Anuruddha was not impressed, so they departed. Later Anuruddha visited the Buddha and told him of his experience and asked what women have to do to be born as such deities. The Buddha said that they should: (1 - 8) arise before and retire after their husband; respect and honour those her husband respects; be skilful in household chores; supervise the domestic servants; guard and protect the income; go to refuge to the Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha; be virtuous and follow the Five Precepts; be generous.

[47] 7. Visakha. (Visākhāsutta). Once the Buddha told the lay follower Visākhā the eight things which dutiful women should do given in the previous sutta.

[48] 8. Nakulamata. (Nakulamātasutta). Once in Sumsumāragiri the mother of Nakula approached the Buddha. The Buddha told her the eight conditions given in sutta 42.

[49] 9. This world here 1. (Paṭhamaidhalokikasutta). Once in Vesali the Buddha addressed Visākā Migāramātā thus: "A woman will win the present world if she does these: (1) She should diligently attend to her husband's chores. (2) She should manage the domestic workers. (3) She should be agreeable to her husband. (4) She should safeguard the husband's earnings. (5) She should have complete faith in the Tathāgata. (6) She should be virtuous following the Five Precepts. (7) She should be generous. (8) She should be wise."

[50] 10. (sutta). In this sutta the previous discourse to Visākhā is told to the bhikkhus.

Dutiyapaṇṇāsaka – Second Fifty

6. Gotamīvagga – 6. Gotami

[51] 1. Gotami (Gotamīsutta). This is the narrative of the estbalishment of the Bhikkhuni order (also given in the Vinaya Piṭaka). Mahāprjāpatī implores the Buddha thrice to set up a Bhikkhuni order. He refuses. Then Ananda intervenes and the Buddha agrees provided that 8 conditions are incorporated in the Bhikkhuthat ni vinaya. These are Bhikkhunis should: (1 - 8) pay homage to a bhikkhu howver junior he is; not spend the rains where there is no bhikkhu; should ask permission from the Sangha for holding the Uposata observances; after the rains should request correctiohn for any real or possible wrongs; should pay a half-month's prenalty for any grave offence; after probation should get permission from both Sanghas; not revile a bhikkhu; not abuse a bhikkhu. These are agreed to by Mahāprjāpatī and the Bhikkhuni order is estaboished.

[52] 2. Exhortation. (Ovadasutta). In Vesali the Buddha advised Ananda of the requirements of a bhikkhu to advise bhikkhunis. The Buddha said: "The bhikkhu should be: (1 - 8) virtuous; learned; know the both Patikokkhas; be a good speaker; be able to inspire the bhikkhunis; be agreeable to bhikkhunis; never have committed a grve offence against a bhikkhuni; have at least 20 years senior."

[53] 3. In brief. (Saṃkhittasutta). Once in Vesali Mahāprjāpatī asked asked the Buddha for a brief statement of the Dhamma. The Buddha said: "The Dhamma are things that lead: "(1 - 8) to dispassion not passion; to detachment, not bondage; to dismantling, not building up; to fewness of desires not many; to contentment not discontentment; to solitude, not company; to energy not laziness; to being easy to support not difficult to support,"

[54] 4. Dighajanu. (Dīghajānṇsutta). Once while among the Koliyans Digajanu approached the Buddha and asked for useful advice for houseolders like him. The Buddha said: "(1 - 8) Do your occupation properly; protect your wealty; have good friends; balance y0ur income and expenses; have faith in the Tathāgata; be virtuous following the Five Precepts; be generous; be wise."

[55] 5. Ujjaya. (Ujjayasutta). Here Ujjaya the Brahmin asked the same question as in the previous sutta, but in relation to Brahmins, and got the same answer.

[56] 6. Fear. (Bhayasutta). "Monks, sensual pleasure can also be designated as: (1 - 8) a peril; a suffering; a disease; a boil; a dart; a bond; a swamp; a womb."

[57] 7. Worthy of offerings 1. (Paṭhamaāhuneyyasutta). "Monks, for a bhikkhu to be worthy of offerings he should be: (1 - 8) virtuous; learned; have good friends; be of right view; obtain requisites without difficulty; recollect past abodes; develop the divine eye; destroy the intoxications."

[58] 8. Worthy of offerings 2. (Dutiyaāhuneyyasutta). Same as the previous sutta.

[59] 9. Persons 1. (Paṭhamapuggalasutta). "Monks, there are eight persons worthy of offerings. These are: (1 - 4) The stream-enterer; the once-returner; the non-returner; the arahant; as well as (5 - 8) those practicing for the realization of these four sates."

[60] 10. Persons 2. (Dutiyapuggalasutta). The same as the previous sutta.

7. Bhūmichālavagga – 7. Earthquakes

[61] 1. Liking. (Iccāsutta). "Monks, there are these kinds of bhikkhus living solitary who likes to gain requisites: (1 - 8) when the gains do not come he gravely repents; he acquires gains by strenuous effort but becomes intoxicated by them and falls away; he makes an effort to secure gains but fails and then becomes sorrowful; he gets gains without effort but he gets intoxicated by them; he rouses himself to secure gains but fails but is not disappointed; he succeeds in securing gains but yet becomes heedless; he gets gains without effort but does not become intoxicate thereby."

[62] 2. Sufficient. (Alaṃsutta). "Monks, these six are sufficient for a bhikkhu for himself and for others. (1) He should be capable of quickly apprehending wholesome teachings. (2) He should be able to retain these in mind. (3) He should investigate their meaning. (4) He should practice according to his understanding of the Dhamma. (5) He should be a good, clear, articulate speaker explaining the meaning of these teachings. (6) He should be able to instruct, encourages, inspire, and gladden his fellow bhikkhus."

[63] 3. In brief. (Saṃkhittasutta). A bhikkhu asked the Buddha to teach him the Dhamma in brief. The Buddha told him: "You should make your mind firm and free of unwholesome states; then develop your mind by loving-kindness; then through compassion, altruistic joy, rapture, and equanimity; then dwell contemplating body in body, feelings in feelings, mind in mind, phenomena in phenomena. These concentrations should be done whether standing, or sitting, or lying down." The bhikkhu then paid homage to the Buddha went away and doing what the Buddha had said finally achieved full liberation on mind.

[64] 4. At Gaya Head. (Gayāsīsasutta). In this sutta given at Gaya Head the Buddha recounted experiences he had before his Enlightenment. At first he saw lights (obhāsa) but no forms; then light and forms but did not converse with the devas. Later on he could do this and find out from where they came, what they ate, what was their life-span and many other details. But he did not get the enlightenment he was seeking. Only when he realized the eightfold path could he aspire to this knowledge.

[65] 5. Mastery. (Abhibhāyatanasutta). Here eight levels of mastery are defined depending on the kinds of external forms they are conscious of. For those internally conscious of body they are: (1) limited forms, any colour; (2) unlimited forms, any colour. For those internally unconscious they are: (3) limited, any colour; (4) unlimited, any colour; (5) forms that are blue; (6) forms that are yellow; (7) forms that are red; (8) forms that are white.

[66] 6. Emancipation. (Vimokkhasutta). "Monks, there are eight forms of emancipation: (1 - 8) Conscious of body seeing forms; unconscious of body seeing exterior forms; considering oneself "fair" ; sphere of infinite space; sphere of infinite consciousness; sphere of nothingness; sphere of neither perception nor non-perception; ending of perception and feeling."

[67] 7. Un-Aryan practice. (Ariyavohārasutta). "Monks, the eight un-Aryan practices are declaring: (1 - 8) as seen what is not seen; as heard what is not been heard; as felt what is not felt; as understood what is not understood; as not seen what is seen; as not heard what is heard; as not felt what is felt; as not understood what is understood."

[68] 8. Ariyan practice. (Ariyavohārasutta). This sutta gives the reverse of the eight un-Aryan practice given in the previous sutta.

[69] 9. Assemblies. (Parisāsutta). "Monks, the eight assemblies are: (1 - 8) Nobles; Brahmins; householders; ascetics; the Four Royal devas; the Thirty devas; Māras; Brahmas. I have visited and addressed all these assemblies."

[70] 10. Earthquakes. (Bhūmichālasutta). Once in Vesali the Buddha went to the Capala shrine along with venerable Ananda. Then the Buddha said: "This Capala shrine along with other shrines like Udena, Gotamaka and Sarandada are delightful. Whoever has developed the psychic powers could if he so wishes live a very long life-span {exceeding that of normal humans}. The Tathāgata is such a person." But Ananda remained silent. Two more times the statement was made and Ananda remained silent {that is he did not implore the Buddha to live for long time}. Then the Buddha dismissed Ananda who went away to sit under another tree. Then Māra approached the Buddha and said: "Now it is time for the Blessed One's Nibbāna." The Buddha declined this saying that he has to wait uniol his disciples were fully trained. Mara tried various ways to induce the Buddha to pass away now, but the Buddha said that this will not happen for three months from then. Then a great earthquake took place which startled Ananda who asked the Buddha the cause for earthquakes. The Buddha said there were eight causes: (1 - 8) Natural causes due to alignment of the earth; caused by an ascetic with psychic powers; when a bodhisatta leaves the Tusita heaven to enter the womb of his mother to be; when the bodhisatta emerges from the mother's womb fully conscious; when the Tathāgata becomes enlightened; when the Tathāgata declares the Dhamma; when the Tathāgata renounces his life-span; when the Tathāgata finally passes away.

8. Yamakavagga – 8. The pairs

[71] 1. Faith 1. (Paṭhamasaddhāsutta). "Monks, a bhikkhu who is endowed with these eight qualities is lovely and perfect: (1 - 8) faith; virtue; learning; good Dhamma speaker; not elated by possessions; is stirred to effort; not become heedless; not fallen from the Dhamma.  Even if one of these is lacking he does not qualify."

[72] 2. Faith 2. (Dutiyaaddhāsutta). This is the same as the previous sutta.

[73] 3. Mindfulness of death 1. (Pṭhamamaraṇassatisutta). Once in Nadika the Buddha exhorted the bhikkhus to develop mindfulness of death. Then the Buddha asked the monks how they would develop this mindfulness. The first one said: "May I live for a single day and night to hear the Buddha's Dhamma". The others successively reduced the time they wished to live for one day, half a day, time to eat an alms meal; eat half an alms meal, swallow one morsel of food, to take one in-breath and out-breath. But the Buddha said that the monks should live just long enough to destroy the intoxications.

[74] 4. Mindfulness of death 2. (Dutiyamaraṇassatisutta). Same as the previous sutta with some changes in the reflections on death by the bhikkhus.

[75] 5. Accomplishments 1. (Paṭhamasampadāsutta). "Monks, there are these accomplishments, to wit accomplishment in (1 - 8) initiative; protection; good friendship; balanced living; faith; virtue; generosity; wisdom."

[76] 6. Accomplishments 2 (Dutiyasampadāsutta). Same as previous sutta with the accomplishments described in greater detail.

[77] 7. Liking. (Iccāsutta). This is the same as Sutta 61, this time given by Venerable Sāriputta.

[78] 8. Sufficient. (Alaṃsutta). "This is the same as Sutta 62, this time given by venerable Sāriputta.

[79] 9. Decline. (Parihānasutta). "Monks, the eight conditions which lead to failure in training are delight in : (1 - 8) worldly activity; gossip; sleeping; sensuality; eating; ompanionship; proliferation."

[80] 10. Indolence. (Kusītārambhavatthusutta). "Monks, the grounds for laziness of a bhikkhu are: (1 - 8) Shirking work; tiredness due to work done; fear of travelling; having travelled feeling need to rest; not getting alms on the alms-round; getting alms easily; feeling ill; feeling weak after illness."

9. Sativagga – 9. Mindfulness

[81] 1. Mindfulness. (Satisampajaññasutta). "Monks, when there is no (1) mindfulness there is no moral shame and dread. Then there is no (3) restraint of the sense faculties. This leads to absence of (4) virtuous behavior and (5) right concentration. As a result ther is no (6) knowledge and vision of things as they really are. This leads to (7) disenchantment and dispassion and finally to (8) the knowledge and vision of liberation. However with mindfulness the opposite will happen." The Buddha gave the analogy of a tree without branches or leaves.

[82] 2. Punniya. (Puṇṇiyasutta). Once the venerable Punniya visited the Buddha and asked: "Why does the Tathāgata sometimes preach Dhamma and sometimes not ?" The Buddha answered that the Tathāgata will not preach even to a bhikkhu with faith "if he does not visit the Tathāgata; does not sit down to listen; does not ask questions; does not listen attentively; does not keep it in mind; does not test its truth; and does not obey it. However if this is not the case the Tathāgata will preach the Dhamma".

[83] 3. Roots. (Mūlakasutta). "Monks, if wanderers of other sects ask what is the root of all things, their origin and similar questions you should answer that all things are rooted in desire, their origin is attention; contact gives rise to them; they converge in feeling. Thereafter they lead to concentration, mindfulness, wisdom and finally to emancipation".

[84] 4. Robber (Corasutta). "Monks, a robber quickly comes to an end when he (1 - 8) attacks when not attacked; steals without leaving anything behind; kills a woman; rapes a young girl; robs the king; operates in his neighbourhood; is not skilled in hiding thr spoils."

[85] 5. Equal (Samaṇasutta). "Monks, other terms that could used to describe the Tathāgata are (1 - 8) an ascetic; the Arahant; a Brahmin; (3) the healer; the Master of knowledge; the stainless one; the knower; the liberated one."

[86] 6. Fame. (Yasasutta). Once the Buddha and the monks were touring Kosala and came to the Brahmin village of Iccanangala. The Buddha took residence in the nearby forest. The Buddha's reputation had preceded him and the inhabitants of the place assembled in large numbers at the entrance to the forest to see the Buddha offer him homage. They created such a commotion that the Buddha asked his attendant the venerable Nagita what it was all about. Nagita said that the Buddha's fame had reached the people that they had gathered before the forest to offer him homage. The Buddha said: "What is fame and homage to me who without trouble can reach the bliss of renunciation, solitude, peace, and enlightenment. What is there to accept the vile and slothful pleasures of worthless honour and praise ?". The efforts of Nagita for the Buddha to meet this unruly group failed.

[87] 7. Alms bowl. (Pattanikujjanasutta). "Monks, a bhikkhu can turn down the alms bowl to a lay person if he: (1 - 8) brings loss to monks; harms them; evicts them; reviles them; causes dissention in the Sangha; speaks dispraise of the Buddha; the Dhamma; the Sangha." In the opposite case the bowl could be restored.

[88] 8. Disapproval. (Appasādapavedanīyasutta). "Monks, a bhikkhu can be disapproved if he: (1 - 8) brings loss to a householder; brings harm on him; reviles him; causes disunity among householders; dispraises Buddha; the Dhamma; the Sangha; is seen in evil places." In the opposite case he should be approved.

[89] 9. (Paṭisāraṇīyasutta). "Monks, Vinaya proceedings can be taken against a bhikkhu who: (1 - 8) prevents laypeople from acquiring gains; harms them; insults them; divides laypeople; speaks dispraise of the Buddha; (6) the Dhamma; (7) the Sangha; (8) does not fulfil legitimate promises to laypeople."

[90] 10. Right behaviour. (Sammāvattanasutta). "Monks, a bhikkhu charged with serious misdemeanour should not: (1 - 8) give full ordination; give dependence; have a novice attend upon him; exhort bhikkhums; (5) even if agreed upon exhort bhikkhunls; (6) accept any office in the Sangha; (7) be placed in any chief position; (8) be given rehabilitation. "

10. Rāgavaagga – 10. Passions

This Chapter starts with saying that to avoid passions monks should follow the eightfold path. Even though this chapter is only a couple of pages long it technically deals with hundreds of suttas almost all of which consist of a single term. Accordingly this chapter is not abstracted in this work.