Aṅguttara Nikāya – Book of Gradual Sayings

9. Navakanipāta – 9. Book of Nines

NOTE: All statements in these suttas, unless otherwise noted, are made by the Buddha addressing the monks at Jetavana in Sāvatthi. These are included within quotation marks: "...". Sections within curly brackets {...} are comments notes and further explanations by the author of these abstracts. Other statements give general information usually within square brackets [...]. Each sutta in this Book deals with nine items. They are usually numbered here (1) ... (9) though not in the original Pali.

1. Paṭhamapaññāsaka – 1. The first Fifty

1. Sambodhivagga – 1. The Awakening

[1] 1. The awakening. (Sambodhisutta). "Monks, if wanderers of other sects ask the proximate causes of awakening (Enlightenment) of a bhikkhu you should answer: (1 - 9) good friends and companions; virtue under restraint of Patimokkha; fewness of desires; energy for abandonment of unwholesome qualities; wisdom to understand the arising and the passing away of dhammas; abandoning lust; developing loving kindness; developing mindfulness of breathing; developing the perception of impermanence."

[2] 2. Support. (Nissayasutta). A certain monk asked the Buddha: "What supports does a bhikkhu have ?" The Buddha replied: "He has these supports: (1 - 9) faith; moral shame; moral dread; energy; wisdom to develop the wholesome; reflecting on things used; on things endured; on things avoided; on things dispelled."

[3] 3.Meghiya. (Meghiyasutta). Once when the Buddha was at Calika he gave his attendant venerable Meghia permission to strive at a mango grove that Meghia had found. While striving there Meghia was overcome by thoughts of sensuality, ill will, and harming. He went back and asked the Buddha the causes for this. The Buddha said: "Success in striving depends first on five factors: (1 - 5) having good friends and comrades; being virtuous restrained by the Patimokkha; hear talk on fewness of desires and on solitude; rousing energy regarding wholesome qualities; developing wisdom regarding the rising and passing away of dhammas. Based on these five factors he should develop the four perceptions of (6 - 9) unattractiveness to abandon lust; loving-kindness to abandon ill will; mindfulness to cut off evil thoughts; impermanence to eradicate the conceit of 'I am'."

[4] 4. Nandaka (Nandakasutta). Once in Sāvatthi the Buddha wanted to exhort the monks and went to the assembly hall. But venerable Nandaka was giving a long exhortation to the monks inside. He waited outside until this was over and then made his presence known. Nandaka apologised for not being aware that the Buddha was waiting outside. The Buddha then said that a bhikkhu could either talk on Dhamma or maintain silence. To do the former he should be: (1 - 9) endowed with faith; be virtuous; have internal serenity; have higher wisdom of insight into phenomena; teach Dhamma that is good in all respects; reveal the perfect spiritual life; show that the Dhamma is deep and penetrated with wisdom; present it in a way that bhikkhus can attain it; show how final liberation can come from listening to the Dhamma whether for learners or for arahants."

[5] 5. Powers. (Balasutta). "Monks, A bhikkhu can develop four powers and having done so he can overcome five fears. The powers are: (1 - 4) wisdom to recognize and develop wholesome qualities; energy to abandon unwholesome qualities; blamelessness in bodily, verbal and mental actions; sustaining a favourable relationship. As a result of these powers the bhikkhu can transcend the fear of (5 - 9) loss of income; disrepute; timidity in assemblies; death; a bad rebirth."

[6] 6. Association. (Sevanāsutta). Venerable Sāriputta addressed the bhikkhus thus: "Persons and things like robes, lodgings, places to go for alms, and lodgings are to be regarded in two ways either to be associated with or rejected. Thus a person who is evil should not he followed, requisites hard to get should be avoided. In the opposite case they should be accepted. If associating with a man, or using a robe, or going for alms to a certain place leads to an increase in evil and a decline in the good then they should be avoided; in the opposite case they should be associated with or used."

[7] 7. Sutava. (Sutavāsutta). Once in Gijjhakuta near Rajagaha the wanderer Sutva said this to the Buddha: " I have heard it said that an Arahant who has destroyed the intoxicants cannot take life, steal, have sexual intercourse, tell lies, or enjoy household pleasure. Have I heard rightly?" The Buddha said: "You have heard rightly. An Arahant is incapable of: (1 - 9) depriving a living being of life; taking what is not given; engaging in sexual intercourse; speaking falsehood; storing things up in order to enjoy sensual pleasures; rejecting the Buddha; rejecting the Dhamma; rejecting the Sahgha; rejecting the training. "

[8] 8. Sajjha (Sajjhasutta). Same as the previous sutta except that the interlocutor of the Buddha is the wanderer Sajjha.

[9] Persons. (Puggalasutta). "Monks, there are nine kinds of persons: the Arahant, the non-returner, the once-returner, the stream winner and the four practicing for these four positions. The ninth is the worldling."

[10] 10. Worthy of gifts. (Āhuneyyasutta). Here nine persons are said to be worthy of gifts. The first eight are the same as in the list in the previous sutta. The ninth is (one's own) clansman.

2. Sīhanādavagga – 2. The Lion's roar

[11] 1. Lion's roar. (Sīhanādasutta). Once in Savatthi venerable Sāriputta received permission from the Buddha to leave Sāvatthi after the rains and go to the countryside. Then a certain monk claimed that Sāriputta had offended him (by not taking his permission to leave). The Buddha summoned both to his presence . Meanwhile venerables Mahāmogggallaāna and Ananda spread the news that Sāriputta was going to utter the lion's roar and bid them to attend the meeting. At that meeting Sāriputta gave several parables to show that he had no ill-will towards anyone. The first of these is that the earth contains many impurities but that does not make the earth itself impure. Other comparisons related to water, fire, air, a duster, a scavenger, a trained bull, a person at whom some dirt is thrown, a man carrying a bowl of impurities. Hearing this speech the monk who had complained begged forgiveness for his transgression. The Buddha asked Sāriputta to pardon "this foolish man", which he readily did.

[12] 2. With residue left. (Saupādisesasutta). Once venerable Sāriputta happened to come across a discussion by some wanderers at which the topic was that anyone dying with some residue (of bad kamma) still left cannot avoid rebirth as an animal, a ghost or in hell. He left without any comment and reported the matter to the Buddha. The Buddha said: "These wanderers are wrong. These nine persons who die with a residue left will not suffer the said fate. They are: (1 - 9) a person with virtue and concentration but only modrate wisdom; one who has destroyed the five lower fetters; one who attains nibbana without exertion; one who attains nibbana through exertion; one who goes to the Akanittha realm; one who destroys the three fetters with greed, hatred, and delusion; a once returner; a family wanderer who is reborn three times to familits before ending all suffering; a sevent times- at-most attainer."

[13] 3. Koṭṭita. (Koṭṭhitasutta). Once the venerable MahāKoṭṭhita asked venerable Sāriputta these nine questions relating to the holy life: "Will I experience in the future what I now experience ? Is it the converse of this? Is it to experience as pleasant what is painful ? Is it the converse of this? Is it to avoid the kamma of deeds not yet ripened ? Is it to experience deeds not yet done? Is it to make something serious a mere trifle? Is it the converse of this ? Is it to avoid experiencing what must be experience ? Is it the converse of this?" All these questions Sariputta answered in the negative. Then when asked for what the holy life is lived Sariputta answered: "It is to know, see, attain, realize, and penetrate the Four Noble Truths."

[14] 4. Samiddhi. (Samiddhisutta). Once venerable Sāriputta questioning venerable Samiddhi extrated from the latter the following information: "(1 - 9) Name-and-form is the basis of all purposive thinking; the elements make them diverse; they originate from contact; they converge in feeling; they are led by concentration; mindfulness presides over them; they are supervised by wisdom; liberationiss at their core; but they end in death". Then Sāriputta congratulated Samiddhi on his views.

[15] 5. Foulness. (sGaṇḍautta). "An old festering wound yeilds many repulsive things. Out of it will ooze out foul matter with foul stench. In a similar way is the body. It is made up of the four great elements; it originates from mother and father; it is built by food; it is impermanent; it breaks up; and finally disperses. Whateer comes from its orifices is foul." It has nine wound orifices, nine natural orifices. Whatever flows out from them is impure, foul-smelling, and disgusting. Thus bhikkhus should be disgusted with the body."

[16] 6. Perceptions. (Saññāsutta). "Monks, there are these perceptions, the perception of: (1 - 9) unattractiveness; death; repulsiveness of food; nondelight in the entire world; impermanence; suffering; non-self; abandoning; dispassion.

[17] 7. Families. (Kulasutta). "Bhikkhus should not approach a family that (1 - 9) does not rise up agreeably; does not pay homage; does not offer a seat; hide what they have; give little; give coarse things; give without respect; do not listen to Dhamma; do not savour the flavour of what is said. In the opposite case they are worth approaching. 

[18] 8. Observance day.. (Navaṅguposathasutta). "Monks, the observance day is fruitful if it is held with nine factors. These are to reflect that the Arahant: (1 - 9) does not destroy life; does not take what is not given; abstains from sexual intercourse; abstains from false speech; abstains from liquor; eats only once a day before noon; abstains from dance, music and shows; abstains from use of high beds; regards beings in all quarters with a mind of loving-kindness".

[19] 9. Devas (Devatāsutta). In this sutta the Buddha related to the bhikkhus of a visit that a number of devas made to him late in the previous night. Some of these devas had bodies of a lower order which they attributed to their not welcoming ascetics and not heeding the Dhamma in their former earthly life. But those devas who had the right things in this egard were reborn with superior bodies. The Buddha then advised the monks to meditate.

[20] 10. Velāma. (Velāmasutta). Once the lay follower Anathapindika visited the Buddha and when questioned by the Buddha said that he gave alms to bhikkhus but often they were of a lower quality. The Buddha said that the quality of the alms food would not matter so long as it was given with a good mind and by ones own hand. The Buddha then related the story that once he was born as an an extremely rich brahmin called Velāma, who gave magnificent gifts to hundreds of householders. Similarly he gave gifts to recluses and monks some of whom were once-returners, non-returners, arahants, pacceka-buddhas and even the Tathagata. The merit from gifts give to any one of these categories was a hundred times greater than than that given to the preceding type of monk.

3. Sattāvāsavagga – 3. Spheres of beings

[21] 1. Threefold. (Tiṭhānasutta). "Monks, In three ways people o Uttarakuru surpass the Tavatimsa gods and the people of Jmbudvipa: non-selfishness, life-span and living conditions. Tavatamisa gods expel others in celestial life span, celestial beauty and celestial happpiness. The Jambusvipa people surpass the others in heorism, mindfulness and spiritualiy."

[22] 2. Wild horses. (Asssakaluṅkasutta). "Monks, there are three kinds of wild horse: those that are best in speed, or best in gracefulness or best in in build. Similarly there are three kinds of men: one with speed but not beauty and build; one with speed and beauty but not build; one with with all three. This is the bhikkhu who0 has destrayed the intoxications. "

[23] 3. Craving (Taṇhāmūlakasutta). "Monks, craving leads to seeking, this leads to gains, this to judgments, this to desire and lust, these to attachment, this to possessiveness, this to miserliness, this to safeguarding, and this finally leads to taking up of rods and weapons,"

[24] 4. Beings. (Sattāvāsasutta). "Monks, there are nine spheres of beings: (1 - 9) beings different in body and perception (humans and some gods); different in body and same in perception (Brahma's assembly); same in body different in perception (some devas); same in body and perception; non-percipient with no experiece; those perceiving infinity of space; beings with infinity of consiousness; perceiving the base of nonthingness; those belonging to sphere of neither perception or non-perception".

[25] 5. Wisdom. (Paññāsutta). "Monks, a bhikkhu is well furnished wisdokmwhen he knows his mind is : (1 - 9) without lust; is without hatred; is without delusion; is not infatuated; is not subject to animosity; is not subject to confusion; is not subject to return to the sense-sphere; is not subject to return to the form-sphere; is not subject to return to the formless-sphere."

[26] 6. The stone pillar. (Silāyūsutta). Once in Rajagaha venerables Chandikaputta and Sāriputta stated differently how Devadatta taught the Dhamma. Chandikaputta said that Devadatta had taught that when the mind if full of thoughtfulness the bhikkhu is fully liberated. Sariputta stated that Devadatta was wrong in saying this and that he should have stated that the mind of the bhikkhu should satisfy the nine conditions given by the Buddha in the previous sutta for his mind to be liberated.

[27] 7. Hatred 1. (Paṭhamaverasutta). Once the Buddha preached thus to the householder Anathapindika: "There are five fears and hatreds. These are : (1 - 5) the taking of life; taking what is not given; sexual misconduct; speaking falsely; indulgence in liquor. On the other hand there are four factors of stream-entry: (6 - 9) having unwavering confidence in the Buddha; similarly in the Dhamma; similarly in the Sangha; possessing unbroken virtues of the nobles ones. Those who have destroyed the five fears and hatreds and cultivated the four factors of stream entry can claim: 'I am guaranteed not to be reborn in as an animal, as an afflicted spirit, or reborn in the realm of misery even in hell' ."

[28] 8. Hatred 2. (Dutiyaverasutta). In this suttta preaches the sermon preached in the previous sutta to the bhikkhus.

[29] 9. Resentment 1. (ÿghātavatthusutta). "Monks, there are nine grounds for resentment if a bhikkhu thinks (1 - 9) he has harmed me; he will harm me; he acted to the harm of one near and dear to me; he is acting in the same way; he will act in the same way; he will benefit someonce I did not like; he will benefit one displeasing to me; he acts for the benefit of one displeasing to me; he will act for the.benefit of one displeasing to me."

[30] 10. Resentment 2. (dutiyaÿghātavatthusutta). Same as the previous sutta with each thought supplement by "wherein lies the gain to him from this".

[31] 11. Gradual ending. (Anupubbanirodhasutta). Monks, these nine have progressive endings (leading to the sudcceeding thing): (1 - 9) first jhana; second jhana; third jhana; fourth jhana; the base of the infinity of space; the base of the infinity of consciousness; the base of nothingness; the base of neither-perception-nor-non-perception; the cessation of perception, the ending of p-erceptions."

4. Mahāvagga – 4. Great chapter

[32] 1. Abidings 1. (Anupubbavihārasutta). This sutta is a restatement of the nine stages of mjeditation given in the previous sutta (sutta 31).

[33] 2. Abidings 2. (Anupubbavihārasamāpattisutta). This is anhother statement of the nine abidings given in suttas 31 and 32.

[34] 3. Nibbāna. (Nibbānasutta). Once at Rajagaha the venerable Udayin asked venerable Sāriputta: "What is the happines that is not sensed (as in Nibbāna) ?" Sāriputta answered: "It is simply the happiness the results from cutting off the five cords of sensual pleasure." He then goes on to describe the pleasure a monk in solitary meditation gets by doing this. He then goes on to describe the progressive steps the monk can accomplish by following the nine steps given in suttas 30 - 33.

[35] 4.Parable of the cow. (Gāvīupamāsutta). In this sutta the Buddha gives the parable of a mountain cow not used to lush level pastures. This cow wants to eat these grasses but does not know how to as she is only used to the rough mountain grass. The Buddha then compares a foolish bhikkhu to such a cow . He wants to meditate and get its fruuits but does not know how to do so. The Buddha then gives the steps that a monk should follow, as given in the previous suttas 30-33, if he is to enjoy the final fuit of Nibbāna.

[36] 5. Jhāna. (Jhānasutta). "Monks, I say the desruction of the intoxicants (āsava) depends on the first jhāna, the second, the third, the fourth, infinite space, infinite consciousness, nothingness, the sphere of neither perception nor non-perception. A bhikkhu free of sense desires can traverse these states." The Buddha then compares such a monk to an archer sho by steadfast pradtice becomes a master marksman.

[37] 6. Ananda. (Anandasutta). Once at Kosambi venerable Anaanda addressed the monks: "It is amazing how the Buddha starting with the sense impressions was able to find the way to the elimination of suffering, to nibbana". Then venerable Udayin questioned Ananda: "Is it while one is actually percipient or while one is non-percipient that one experiences the path from the organ of sense to its base ?" Ananda answered that one has to be percipent. Otherwise there would be the organs but no sensing (and no way to kamma good or bad). He then referred to a similar question asked of him at Saketa by the bhikkhuni Jatilagahiya, She had asked whther concentration which not controlled b concious effort but left free is stable or not. Ananda had then answered that it would not be stable.

[38] 7. Lokāyatikas. (Lokāyat8ukasutta). Once two Lokāyatika brahmins questioned to the Buddha thus: "Purāna Kassapa and Niganṭha Nāṭaputta claim that they are all-knowing and omniscient. Which of them is telling the truth ?" The Buddha replied: "I will teach you Dhamma. If someone were to live a hundred years eating, drinking, attending to calls of nature and sleeping he may walk about but will not reach the end of the world without which there is no release from suffering. If another were to meditate reaching the first jhāna he too would still not hve left the world. But if he were to continue with his meditation reaching the other jhānas, the spheres of infinite space, infinite consciousness, nothingness, neither perception nor non-perception then he would have come to the world's end and abide there,"

[39] 8. The devas. (Devasurasaṅgāmasutta). In this sutta the Buddha compares the war between the gods and the asuras with the struggle between a bhikkhu seeking emancipation and Māra. In the first Deva-Asura war the Asuras were defeated and fled. But they came for a second and a third round of fighting until each retreated to their own cities and decided not to fight each other. Similarly a bhikkhu on reaching the first jhāna after overcoming sense desires (and temptations of Māra) decides to dwell alone and have no dealing with Māra. But Māra continues to distract him forcing him to enter the other jhānas and the othr sphers beyond that. But these do not stop M#257;ra until he reaches the sphere of neither perception nor non-perception. This puts a darkness around Māra making the bhikkhu invisible to him. This enables the bhikkhu to escape from the world by desroying the intoxications (āsava).

[40] 9. Bull elephant. (Nāgasutta). In this sutta the Buddha uses the analogy of a bull elephant. When this elephant is living with the elephant herd he finds the grasses and branches he feeds on is also used by other elephants in the herd, the water holes become muddy because of the number of elephants resorting to them. So he decides to live alone and feed peacefully on undisturbed grasses and branches, and to resort to clear water holes. Similarly a bhikkhu living among a crowd of other monks, nuns, their disciples, householders, public officials and others thinks that it is better for him to live in a lonely place like a forest or cave. He does this and going undisturbed through the meditation from the jhānas to the sphere of neither perception nor non-perception he reaches his goal.

[41] 10. Tapussa. (Tapussasutta). Once while living among the Mallas at Uruvelakappa the Buddha after his meal went to the great forest asking Ananda to wait for him. Then Tapussa came to Ananda and said: "We laymen enjoy sense pleasures while monks get pleasure from renunciation. Is this the difference between monks and laymen ?" Ananda suggested that they go to the Buddha to get his views on this and did so. The Buddha said that it was so. He then and related his own experience in gaining enlightenment. He first thought that mundane pleasures were a distractin and embarked on in a course of intense meditation. He went through the four jhānas, then the spheres of infinite space, infinite consciousness, nothingness, neither perception nor non-perception, and the ending of perception and feeling. He said: "I saw by wisdom that the intoxications were completely destroyed and I went through the nine abidings both backwards and forwards. Then my mind was released and I attained perfect awakening."

5. Sāmaññavagga – 5. Similarities

[42] 1. The noose. (Sambādhasutta). The suttas in this Chapter deal with what the deva Pañcālacanda told venerable Udayin who questioned Venerable Ananda in Kosambi about them. In this sutta The deva had said: "The Buddha found how to escape from the noose. What is this noose?" Ananda answered: "It is the sense impressions created the five objects of sense, The bhikkhu escapes by developing the mediations from the the four jhānas through the sphers of infinite space, infinite consciousness, nothingness, neither perception nor non-perception to the ending of perception of feeling, and finally to the elimination of the intoxications thourgh wisdom."

[43] 2. Body-witness (Kāyasakkhisutta). Udayin: "What did the deva mean by 'Body witness' ?" Ananda replied it is the bhikkhu going through the meditative states given in the previous sutta.

[44] 3. Wisdom. (Paññāvimuttassutta). Udayin: "What did the deva mean by 'Liberated by wisdom' ?" Ananda gave the same answer as in sutta 43.

[45] 4. Freed both ways. (Ubatobgāgavimuttasutta). Udayin: "What did the deva mean by 'Freed in both ways' ?" Ananda gave same answer as in sutta 43.

[46] 5. Directly visible Dhamma. (Sandiṭṭhikadhammavimuttisutta). Udayin: "What did the deva mean by 'Directly visible Dhamma' ?" Ananda gave same answer as in sutta 43.

[47] 6. Directly visible Nibbāna. (Sandiṭṭhikanibbṇnasutta). Udayin: "What did the deva mean by 'Directly visible Nibbāna' ?" Ananda gave same answer as in sutta 43.

[48] 7. Nibbāna. (Nibbānasutta). Udayin: "What did the deva mean by 'Nibbāna' ?" Ananda gave same answer as in sutta 43.

[49] 8. Final Nibbāna. (Parinibbānasutta). Udayin: "What did the deva mean by 'Final Nibbāna' ?" Ananda gave same answer as in sutta 43.

[50] 9. By three means. (Tadaṅgasutta). Udayin: "What did the deva mean by 'Freed in three means' ?" Ananda gave same answer as in sutta 43.

[51] 10. Here and now. (Diṭṭhadhammanibbāṇnasutta). Udayin: "What did the deva mean by 'Freed here and now' ?" Ananda gave same answer as in sutta 43.

6, Khemavagga – 6. Security

[ In this Chapter the conversation between Udayin and Sāriputta on what the deva Pañcālacanda given in the previous Chapter continues ...]

[52] 1. Security. (Khemasutta). Udayin: "What did the deva mean by 'Security' ?" Ananda gave same answer as in sutta 43.

[53] 2. Becoming secure. (Khemapattasutta). Udayin: "What did the deva mean by 'Becoming secure' ?" Ananda gave same answer as in sutta 43.

[54] 3. The Deathless.Amatasutta). Udayin: "What did the deva mean by 'the deathless' ?" Ananda gave same answer as in sutta 43.

[55] 4. Become deathless. (sutta). "Udayin: "What did the deva mean by 'Become dethless ' ?" Ananda gave same answer as in sutta 43.

[56] 5. The Fearless. (sutta). "Udayin: "What did the deva mean by 'The Fearless' ?" Ananda gave same answer as in sutta 43.

[57] 6. Become fearless. (Amatapattosutta). "Udayin: "What did the deva mean by 'Become fearless ' ?" Ananda gave same answer as in sutta 43.

[58] 7. Tranquility. (Passaddhisutta). "Udayin: "What did the deva mean by ' Tranquility' ?" Ananda gave same answer as in sutta 43.

[59] 8. Gradual tranquility. (Anupubbapassaddhisutta). "Udayin: "What did the deva mean by 'Gradual trnquility ' ?" Ananda gave same answer as in sutta 43.

[60] 9. Ending. (Nirodhasutta). "Udayin: "What did the deva mean by 'Ending ' ?" Ananda gave same answer as in sutta 43.

[61] 10. Gradual ending. (Anupubbanirodhasutta). "Udayin: "What did the deva mean by ' Gradual ending' ?" Ananda gave same answer as in sutta 43.

[62] 11. Possible and impossible. (Abhabbautta). "Monks it is not possible to achieve arahantship without putting away these nine things: (1 - 9) Passion; hatred; illusion; anger,; enmity; hypocrisy; malice; envy; avarics. It is possible if thesse are put away. "


7.Satipaṭṭhānavagga – 7. Mindfulness

[63] 1. The five precepts. (Sikkhādubbalyasutta). "Monks, the training is weaken by these: killing; taking what is not given, sexual misconduct. falsehood, taking intoxicantgs. Abstaining from them is a factor in arising of mindfulness."

[64] 2. Hindrances. (Nīvarasutta). "Monks, the hindrances are sensuality, ill-will, sloth, restlessness and doubt. Abstaining from them is a factor in arising of mindfulness."

5 [65] 3. Sensual desire. (Kāmaguṇasutta). "Monks, the five strands of sensual desire are generated from the five organs of sense such as the eye. Controlling them is a factor in arising of mindfulness."

[66] 4. The aggregates. (Upādānakkhandasutta). "Monks, the aggregates are grasping after forms, feelings, perceptions, activites and consiousness. Controlling them is a factor in arising of mindfulness."

[67] 5. The lower fetters. (Oramghāgiyasutta). "Monks, these are personality view, doubt, rite and ritual, sensuality and malevaletnce. Abstaining from them is a factor in arising of mindfulness"

[68] 6. Destinationss. (Gatisutta). "Monks, These are: hell, animal-birth- birth as hungry ghosts, humans, and devas. Avoiding them is a factor in arising of mindfulness"

[69] 7. Stinginess. (Macchariyasutta). "Monks, stinginess can arise from not sharing of lodgings, donors, gains, fame, and Dhamma, Not being stingy is a factor in arising of mindfulness."

[70] 8. Upper fette (Uddambgāgiyahsutta). "Monks, these are lust for form, lust for the formless, conceit, restlessness, and ignorance. Avoiding them is a factor in arising of mindfulness."

[71] 9. Mental barrenness. (Cetokilasutta). "Monks, a bhikkhu shows mental barrenness if he is perplexed about the Teacher, the Dhamma, the Order, the taining, his fellow bhikkhus. Putting these away is a factor in arising of mindfulness."

[72] 10. Mental bonda (Cetovinibhandasutta). "Monks, mental bondage arises if a bikkhu is not completely free of passion, desire, fondness, thirst, fever, and craving. Not being free of these is a factor in arising of mindfulness."

8. Samappadāvagga – 8. Right Effort

[73] 1. The training. (Sikkhāsutta). "The five precepts (taking life and so on) are a setback to the training. They could be put back by the right efforts to abandon existing unwholesome qualities and the to devolope wholesom qualities."

[74-82] 2-10. These nine suttas restate the hindrances given in suttas 64 to 72 as strivings to abandon these same hindrances.

9. Iddhipādavagga – 9. Psychic power

[83-92] These suttas repeat the right efforts given in Chapter 8 as aids to the gaining of psychic powers.

10. Rāgapeyyāla – 10 Pasions rep[etoition. Psychic power

The suttas in this chapter repeat the names of suttas given previously in this book of the Nines.