Majjhima Nikāya
Devadaha Vagga

SUTTAS M 101 - M 110


CONTENTS

M 101 DevadahasuttaDiscourse at Devadaha
M 102 PañchattayasuttaDiscourse on the Threefold-Five
M 103 KintisuttaDisputes in the Sangha
M 104 SāmagāmasuttaDiscourse at Sāmagāma
M 105 Sunakkhattasutta Discourse to Sunakkhatta
M 106 AṇañjasappāyasuttaDiscourse on Beneficial Imperturbability
M 107 GāṇakamoggallānasuttajānisuttaDiscourse to Gāṇakamoggallāna
M 108 GopakamoggallānasuttaDiscourse to Gopaka-Moggallāna
M 109 MahāpuṇṇmasuttaGreater Discourse during the Full Moon
M 110 CūḷapuṇṇmasuttaLesser Discourse during the Full Moon

M 101. Devadahasutta
Discourse at Devadaha


[1-3] In a Sakya village called Devadaha the Buddha addressed the bhikkhus and said that the teaching of the Nigantas [Jains] is this: "Whatever a person feels are the results of earlier actions. They can be nullified by present austerities, and if nothing new is done there is no [karmic] accumulation for the future. With no future accumulation action is destroyed. This lead to the destruction of unpleasantness, this leads to the destruction of feelings and all unpleasantness ends". The Buddha then said that he had asked some Nigantas if this was their teaching and they had said "Yes". Then he had asked them the following questions:
  1. 'But friends, do you know that you existed in the past, and that you did not not exist?'
  2. 'And do you know that you did evil actions in the past, and that you did not not do them?'
  3. 'And do you know that you did such-and-such evil actions in the past?'
  4. 'And do you know that so-and-so much stress has been exhausted, or that so-and-so much stress remains to be exhausted, or that with the exhaustion of so-and-so much stress all stress will be exhausted?'
  5. 'But do you know what is the abandoning of unskilful mental qualities and the attainment of skilful mental qualities in the here-&-now?'
The Nigantas had answered all these questions with a "No, friend". Then the Buddha gave an account of his conversation with the Nigantas. As reported by the Buddha this went as follows:

BUDDHA You admit that you do not know the answers to the questions asked. Then how do you know that the teaching given is correct?
NIGANTAS  [4] Our teacher Niganta Nātaputta is omniscient and he has told us that that we have done demerit in the past and that this demerit could be cancelled by current austerites and that if we do not accumulate new demerit then we have come to an end of unpleasantness.
BUDDHA [5] Friend Niganthas, Five things can turn out in two ways: Faith, liking, unbroken tradition, reasoning by analogy, agreement through pondering views. What kind of faith ..., liking .., tradition ..., reasoning ... agreement through pondering views do you have for your teacher with regard to the past?
NIGANTAS (no reply)
BUDDHA [6] When there is severe striving and exertion, do you feel severe pains and with no severe exertion no severe pin?
NIGANTAS Yes, friend.
BUDDHA Then you cannot say that pain you now feel is caused by something in the past.
NIGANTAS (no answer

[7-8] Then the Buddha said that he asked the following questionjs from the Nigantas and they replied "No, friend" to each one of them:
  1. 'Can an action to be experienced in the here-&-now be turned, through striving & exertion, into an action to be experienced in the future life?'
  2. 'Can an action to be experienced in the future life be turned, through striving & exertion, into an action to be experienced in the here-&-now?'
  3. 'Can an action to be experienced as pleasure be turned, through striving & exertion, into an action to be experienced as pain?'
  4. 'Can an action to be experienced as pain be turned, through striving & exertion, into an action to be experienced as pleasure?'
  5. 'Can an action ripe to be experienced be turned, through striving & exertion, into an action not ripe to be experienced?'
  6. 'Can an action not ripe to be experienced be turned, through striving & exertion, into an action ripe to be experienced?'
  7. 'Can an action greatly to be experienced be turned, through striving & exertion, into an action barely to be experienced?'
  8. 'Can an action barely to be experienced be turned, through striving & exertion, into an action greatly to be experienced?'
  9. 'Can an action to be experienced be turned, through striving & exertion, into an action not to be experienced?'
  10. 'Can an action not to be experienced be turned, through striving & exertion, into an action to be experienced?'

The Buddha then said that the Nigantas have admitted that none of the changes he had postulated could happen.

[9] Then the Buddha drew 10 conclusions from what the Nigantas had admitted to show why the Niganta teaching was faulty. These are as follows:
  1. If beings experience pleasure & pain based on what was done in the past, then obviously the Niganthas have done bad things in the past, which is why they now feel the consequences.
  2. If beings feel pleasant and unpleasant on account of creation by a god, indeed, the Nigantas were created, by an evil god, that they feel such feelings now.
  3. If beings feel pleasant and unpleasant on account of accidental birth, indeed, the Nigantas had had an evil accidental birth, that they feel such acute and severe unpleasant feelings now
  4. If beings feel pleasant and unpleasant on account of noble birth, indeed, the Nigan.tas had had an evil noble birth, that they feel such acute and severe unpleasant feelings now.
  5. If beings feel pleasant and unpleasant on account of the method adopted here and now, indeed, the Nigan.tas have adopted an evil method here and now, that they feel such acute and severe unpleasant feelings now.
  6. If beings feel pleasant and unpleasant, because of previous actions, the Nigantas are to be blamed.
  7. If beings feel pleasant and unpleasant, not because of previous actions, the Nigantas are to be blamed.
  8. If beings feel pleasant and unpleasant because of the creation of a god Nigantas are to be blamed. If beings feel pleasant and unpleasant, not because of the creation of a god the Nigants are to be blamed.
  9. If beings feel pleasant and unpleasant because of an accidental occurrence, Nigants are to be blamed.
  10. If beings feel pleasant and unpleasant, not because of an accidental occurrence, the Nigants are to be blamed.
[NOTE: At this point the refutation of the Niganta beliefs end. The rest of the sutta deals with how a noble person exerts efforts that become fruitful. This is the course that is repeated in many suttas and is greatly abridged here.]

[10-14] The noble person should not load himself with pain nor wiith pleasure but develop an attitude of dispassion. The parable of a man in love with a woman who finds the woman favourably disposed to another man, thus giving him grief is given. The moral is to develop equanimity which is recommended for the noble person. He is also asked to get rid of unsillful mental attitudes just as a fletcher will carefully straiten his arrows for future use. When a Tathagata appears he listens to his preaching and thinks of going forth from the household life. Later he gives up his wealth and becomes a bhikkhu.

[14-19] Now the bhikkkhu follows the discipline of the monk. He abstains from destroying life, taking what is not given, adopts a celibate life-style, abandons false speech and gossip, abandons harming plants, eats only once a day, abstains from music, dance, garlands and a whole lot of other things. Next he develops sense restraint controlling eye, ear, nose and body. Mental faculties are controlled by developing awareness and he abides in a secluded dwelling. Then the hindranes (covetousness, anger, sloth and torpor, restlessness and worry, and doubt) are dispelled . Then he completes the four jhānas and the three knowledges (tevijjā). These three are the recollection of previous births, knowledge of the working of kamma, and finally the destruction of the āsavas (taints, corruptions, influxes, etc). This completes the full course of action taught by the Tathagata.

[20] The Buddha then gives ten grounds on which the Tathagata can be rightfully praised. There are:
  1. If beings experience pleasure & pain based on what was done in the past, then the Tathagata has done good things in the past, as he feels pleasure free from desires.
  2. If beings experience pleasure & pain based on the creative act of a supreme god, then the Tathagata has been created by an excellent supreme god.
  3. If beings experience pleasure & pain based on sheer luck, then the Tathagata has admirable luck.
  4. If beings experience pleasure & pain based on birth, then the Tathagata has had an admirable birth.
  5. If beings experience pleasure & pain based on efforts in the here-&-now, then obviously the Tathagata has admirable efforts in the here-&-now.
  6. If beings experience pleasure & pain based on what was done in the past, the Tathagata deserves praise. Even if not, he still deserves praise.
  7. If beings experience pleasure & pain based on the creative act of a supreme god. Even if not, he still deserves praise.
  8. If beings experience pleasure & pain based on sheer luck, the Tathagata deserves praise. Even if not, he still deserves praise.
  9. If beings experience pleasure & pain based on birth, Tathagata deserves praise. Even if not, he still deserves praise.
  10. If beings experience pleasure & pain based on efforts in the here-&-now, the Tathagata deserves praise. Even if not, he still deserves praise.

Summary Analysis
The first part of this sutta ([1]-[9]) is devoted to the Jain religion. The Buddha begins a discussion with some Jains but no names or places are given. This is different to the dialogues with Jains in suttas like the Upali Sutta. The Jain teaching is summarized as the present life being the consequence of the pervious one and the bad kamma brought over from it has to be cancelled ny austerities now. But Buddhism too asserts that past kamma explains some but not all of the present. But neither the Jains nor the Buddhists can remember their past life. So much of the criticism made of Jains on this falls (partly) on the Buddhists as well. The rebirth theory is the weakness in both teachings.

The second part ([10]-[20]) gives the path of the bhikkhu from the perfection of moral virtue (sīla) to the the three knowleges (tevijjā) and final liberation). This is repeated in many sutta.
The Jain teaching is criticised on ten points [9] and the excellence of Gotama given in ten points [20]. The former is loaded aainst the Jais and the latter in favour of Gotama. There is also the curious refence to the creator God (issaro) of theistic religion as against the usual reference to gods (devā).

M 102. Pañchattayasutta
Discourse of the Threefold Five

[NOTE:
This sutta gives the Buddha's critique of views held by some recluses and Brahmins about some metaphysical concepts like the 'self' (atta). The recluses are not named and the three-fold division relates to their views on the future, the past and the present. In these a five-division is given. Only a bare mention of the views ise given. A more detailed exposition of such views is given in the Brahmajāla Sutta in the Dīgha Nikāya. This Abstract deals with the barest minimum of the somewht incomprehensible sutta].

[21]-[26] A. Views about the Future.
  1. A healthy perceptive self after death. The Self can be material immaterial, The perception can be single or various, limited or unlimited. The Tathagata knows these. The also knows of perceptions which are incomparably pure in the highest order, and also knows of the sphere of nothingness too. He also knows the cessation of determinations, knowing the escape from this, the Thus Gone One overcame the coarse perceptions.
  2. A healthy non-perceptive self after death. These revile the former becasue perception, is an ailment, an abcess, an arrow, this non perception is peaceful and exalted. There is no growth and development without matter, feelings, perceptions, determinations and consciousness, it is not a possibility. There is the cessation of determinations. The Thus Gone knowing the escape overcame it
  3. A healthy neither perceptive nor non-perceptive self after death. The Tathagata knows them and also knows of these perceptions which are incomparably pure in the highest order, and the sphere of nothingness too, which is limitlessly imperturbable Thus the Tathagata overcame them.
  4. Annihilation, destruction and the non existence of the conscience (being). These fear the self, loathe it, and run round that same self. This is compounded and coarse, there is a cessation of determinations. The Thus Gone One seeing the escape, overcame it.
  5. Extinction here and now. This should not be attained before realizing nibbāna. I declare these should not be achieved with determinations. but come to the end of determinations. The Tatagata seeing the escape, overcame it.

[27]-[29] B. Views about the Past..
  1. The self and the world are eternal. They should by themselves realize this pure view without a faith, a liking, hearsay ... is not a possibility. When there is something realised by themselves, there should be a certain amount of purity in those who proclaim it. There is a cessation of determinations. Knowing this the Tathagata seeing the escape and overcame it.
  2. The self and the world are not eternal, or the self and the world are eternal and not eternal, or the self and the world are neither eternal nor non eternal. That they should by themselves realize this pure view without a faith... is not a possibility. When there is something realized by themselves, there should be purity in those proclaiming it. There is a cessation of determinations. Knowing this the Tathagata seeing the escape overcame it.
  3. The self and the world are limited, the self and the world are unlimited, the self and the world are limited and unlimited, the self and the world are neither limited nor unlimited. That they should by themselves realize this pure view without a faith... is not a possibility. When there is something realized by theselves, there should be purity in those proclaiming it. There is a cessation of determinations. Knowing this the Tatagata seeing the escape overcame it.
  4. The self and the world are of one perception, are of various perceptions, are of a limited perception, are of unlimited perception. That they should by themselves realize this pure view without a faith... is not a possibility. When there is something realized by themselves, there should be purity in those proclaiming it. There is a cessation of determinations. Knowing this the Tathagata seeing the escape overcame it.
  5. The self and the world, is completely pleasant, is completely unpleasant, is pleasant and unpleasant, is neither unpleasant nor pleasant. That they should by themselves realize this pure view without a faith... is not a possibility. When there is something realized by themselves, there should be purity in those proclaiming it. There is a cessation of determinations. Knowing this the Tathagata seeing the escape overcame it.

[30]-[33] C. Views about the Present.
  1. Gives up views about the past and future, not intending any sensual bonds, abides in joy secluded, thinking this is peaceful and exalted. This joy born of seclusion ceases and displeasure and unpleasantness arises to him. When this ceases that joy born of seclusion arises to him. The Tathagata knows this. Knowing this the Thus Gone One seeing the escape overcame it
  2. Gives up views about the past and views about the future, not intending any sensual bonds, overcomes the joy of seclusion, and abides, in immaterial pleasantness thinking, this abiding in immaterial pleasantness, is peaceful and exalted. This joy born of seclusion ceases and displeasure and unpleasantness arises to him. When this ceases that joy born of seclusion arises to him. The Tathagata knows this. Knowing this the Thus Gone One seeing the escape overcame it
  3. Gives up p views about the past and views about the future, not intending any sensual bonds, overcomes the joy of seclusion, overcomes immaterial pleasantness, and abides in neither unpleasant nor pleasant feelings thinking, this abiding in neither unpleasant nor pleasant, is peaceful and exalted. This joy born of seclusion ceases and displeasure and unpleasantness arises to him. When this ceases that joy born of seclusion arises to him. The Tathagata knows this. Knowing this the Thus Gone One seeing the escape overcame it.
  4. Gives up up views about the past and views about the future, not intending any sensual bonds, overcomes the joy of seclusion, overcomes immaterial pleasant feelings, and overcomes neither unpleasant nor pleasant feelings and thinks I'm appeased, I'm extinguished, I do not hold. This joy born of seclusion ceases and displeasure and unpleasantness arises to him. When this ceases that joy born of seclusion arises to him. The Tathagata knows this. Knowing this the Thus Gone One seeing the escape overcame it.


M 103. Kintisutta
Disputes in the Sangha

[34-36] Once when the Buddha was living at Kusināra he addressed the bhikkhus: "Bhikkhus, do you think, the recluse Gotama proclaims this Teaching to gain, robes, morsels and dwellings?" They replied "Venerable sir, it occurs to us, the Blessed One proclaims the Teaching out of compassion. Therefore you should train thus: The Teacher has proclaimed such as the four establishments of mindfulness, the four right endeavours, the four psychic powers, the five mental faculties, the five powers, the seven enlightenment factors and the noble eightfold path. When training united and without a dispute, two bhikkhus could have a dispute about the higher Teaching, about the words and their meaning. Then the two Senior most monks, one on each side, should be informed: 'These venerable ones have a dispute on something which is different in meaning and different in words. If it is something difficult to understand, it should be borne as something difficult to understand. The Teaching and the Discipline should be consulted.' "

[37-38] The Buddha continued: "If it occurs to you, that the two in dispute interpret it in the same way, but the words are different then the senior monk in one side should be told so and he should know that the meaning is the same and the words are different, you should not dispute on this. The senior monk on the other side too should also be told the same and he should know that the meaning is the same and the words are different, you should not dispute on this."

[39] The Buddha continued: "Bhikkhus. when you train thus, a certain bhikkhu breaks a rule and comes to a transgression, he should not be blamed, but the situation should be examined. We should see whether this person is not foolish, is not with anger and ill will, whether he can be easily corrected, and can be raised from demerit and establish in merit, without annoyance to me. If this is possible, it is goods. Bhikkhus, if it occurs to you, this person is foolish, angry, with ill will, can be corrected hurting him, and it is possible for me to raise him from demerit to merit then the hurt done to him is insignificant. If it occurs to you, this person difficult to be corrected, yet it is possible for me to raise him from demerit to merit, without annoyance to him but with annoyance to me. The annoyance to me is insignificant, the good done to him would be much. If it occurs to you, this person is foolish, is with anger and ill will, difficult to be corrected, yet it is possible for me to raise him from demerit to merit, hurting him and with annoyance to me. If it occurs to you, this person is foolish, is with anger and ill will, difficult to be corrected. It is not possible to correct this person, raise him from demerit to merit, then such ones should be ignored and left alone "

[40] The Buddha continued: "If to a certain bhikkhu, a malicious thought arises, with anger aversion and disinterest in the holy life this should be told to senior bhikkhu. Then the others should ask that bhikkhu if he raised him from demerit to merit? That bhikkhu replying correctly should reply. 'I approached the Blessed One, heard this Teaching from the Blessed One, and told it to that bhikkhu. He hearing that Teaching raised himself from demerit to merit. Bhikkhus, when saying it thus you do not praise yourself nor do you disparage others and do not come to be blamed for anything. "

The Blessed One said thus and those bhikkhus delighted in the words of the Blessed One.

Summary analysis
This sutta is not on doctrine but on Vinaya discipline. The dispute related was on words and not meaning of the holy text that is why it was easily resolved with the intervention of the senior monks. We do not know the outcome if the dispute was on the meaning of a dhamma principle. Similarly the dispute relating to transgression appears to be on a minor one. More serious transgression may even involve expulsion from the order.

M 104. Sāmagāmasutta
Discourse at Sāmagāma

[41-42] Once the Buddha was living at Sāmagāa shortly after Niganta Nātaputta had died in Pāvā. This led to a division between the Jain recluses and between Jain lay supporters. Ven Cundna who had spent the rains at Pāvā gave this news to Ven Ananda. Then Cunda and Ananda approached the Buddha and after giving him the news Ananda said: "After the demise of the Blessed One, may there be no dispute, for the good and welfare of many".

[43] The Buddha then asked: "Ananda, do you see any instance in this Teaching where two bhikkhus could dispute, such as in the four establishments of mindfulness, the four right endeavours, the four psychic powers, the five mental faculties, the five powers, the seven enlightenment factors and the eightfold path?". Ananda answered: "Ven. sir, in this Teaching I do not see an instance where two bhikkhus could dispute (in these doctrines).". Then the Buddha gave the following Discourse:

[THE BUDDHA'S DISCOURSE AT SAMAGAMA (abridged) ]

Those persons who live as though obedient to the Blessed One now, will arouse a dispute on account of the hard livelihood because of the higher code of rules, it will be not for the well being of many. Such a dispute is negligible. If the dispute is about the path and method, it will be for the unpleasantness of many.

[44-45] These six are the causes for a dispute. These are the bhikkkhu (1) becomes angry and bears a grudge, (2) is merciless with hypocrisy, (3) is jealous and selfish, (4) is crafty and fraudulent, (5) is with evil desires and wrong view, and (6) holds fast to worldly matters.

[46] There are four judicial issues (adhjikaraṇāni). These are questions of disputes, questions of censure, questions of misconduct and questions of duties. There are seven ways of dealing with them:
  1. [47] Settlement in presence of the wrong-doer. The acccused presents his case to the bhikkhus. They examine his arguments and settles the dispute.
  2. [48] Majority vote of Chapter. If the previous method fails the matter should be brought before a larger gathering of bhikkhus. A majority vote of the chapter is needed for the settlement which may involve the expulsion of the offender.
  3. [49] Appealing to the conscience. The offending is asked to recall the alledged offence and if he admits the matter should be setttled. Otherwise his conscienfe should be disciplined. In this way too the matter could be settled.
  4. [50] The acquittal on grounds of restored sanity. This is applicable where the offender pleads metal aberrtion. Or the offfender may say I did it out of delusion and do not remember it, He could be acquitted on grounds of restored sanity.
  5. [51]Agreement by a promise. A bhikkhu accused or not accused of an offence, recalls and declares it. He should say to an elderly bhikkhu: 'Venerable sir, I have done an offence and confess it.' If he promises future restraint the dispute coould be settled.
  6. [52] The settlement with evil desires The bhikkhus blamed may not recall a grave offence. But on prodding he may recall lesser offences. He should be encoraged to admit to graver offences. By this process his evil desires which let to the offences could be settle.
  7. [53] Covering up the whole thing. This could be done for the good of the Community especially if it will come to the knowledge of the lay followers. This is called settling a dispute by covering it up with grass.

[54] The Buddha concludes the sutta by giving six things that promote unity, gladness and friendship, and dispel disputes. These are that the bhikkhu should be (1) established in bodily actions of loving kindness, (2) established in verbal actions of loving kindness, (3) established in mental actions of loving kindness, (4) share equally all rightful gains like morsel food, (5) become equal in all virtues, (6) share the noble view that rightfully destroys unpleasantness.

Ananda delighted in the words of the Buddha.

Summary Analysis
This sutta is entirely devoted to th settlement of disputes amongst the Sangha. It should properly belong to the Vinaya Piṭaka.

M 105. Sunakkhattasutta
Discourse to Sunakhatta

[55-56] Once when the Buddha was living at Vesāli several bhikkhus were declaring their attainment of perfection (i.e. claiming that they had achieved arhatship). Sunakkhatta, a Liccavi man brought this to the attention of the Buddha. The Buddha said that while many make this claim rightfully there are others who do so out of conceit. To the latter the Teaching should be given whereupon Sunkkhkatta said that this is the time to give the Teaching. The rest of the Sutta is the Teaching that the Buddha gave Sunakkhatta. [NOTE: A summary of the Buddha's discourse is now given till the end of this Abstract.]

[57-59] There are five strands of sense pleasure, eye, ear, nose, tongue and body all arouse fondness and sense desires. Someone keen on worldly things (lokāmisādhimutta) does not pay attention to calmness (tadanudhamma). The man intent on calmness is detached from worldly bonds.

[60] A person seeking the sphere of nothingness (ākiññcañññāyatana) goes beyond calmness and seeks the company of others intent on nothingness. The man intent on nothingness is detached from calmness.

[61] A person seeking the sphere of neither perception nor non-perception (nevasaññānāsaññāyatana) goes beyond calmness and seeks the company of others intent on neither perception nor non-perception. The man intent on neither perception nor non-perception is detached from nothingness.

[62] A person seeking the nibbāna goes beyond the sphere of neither perception nor non-perception and seeks the company of others intent on nibbāna . The man intent on nibbāna is detached from neither perception nor non-perception.

[63-64] A certain bhikkhu might think: "Craving is the arrow poisoned with ignorance and beset with interest, greed and anger. I have dispelled this arrow and am rightfully intent on nibbāna." Thus he becomes conceited, this is not suitable for one intent nibbāna. He yokes himself to seeing unsuitable sights, sounds, smells, and touches. He thinks unsuitable thoughts, as a result his mind becomes corrupt overcome with greed and he comes to death or deathly unpleasantness.

A man shot with a poisoned arrow is taken to a surgeon who strives for the arrow and pulls it out with an instrument and advises him how to treat the wound corretly , what food to partake and so on. But the man does not follow this advice with the result that he dies. Something similar to this happens to the conceited bhikkhu who wrongfully thinks that the arrow of craving has been dispelled.

[65] In this simile wound is a synonym for the six internal spheres, poison is a synonym for ignorance, arrow is a synonym for greed, striving is a synonym for mindfulness, instrument is the synonym for the noble one's wisdom, surgeon is a synonymn for the Tathagata.

Tthe bhikkhu controlled in the six doors of mental contact, knows that attachment the root of sorrow (upadhi dukkhassa mūla) seeing this the bhikkhu knows that with attachment neither the body nor the mind will be settled. Sunakhatta delighted in the words of the Buddha.

Summary Analysis
This sutta on the right way to claim arahtship differs somewhat from the usual way it is stated. Thus there is no reference to the Jhānas but the successive states achieve through them is stated. Thus there is the progress from calmness to nothingness then to neither perception nor non-perception and finally to nibbāna. This implies that the third knowledge (the destruction of the cankers) is achieved. But the first two knowledges, the recollection of past births and the workings of the law of kamma are not mentioned. This might support the view of those that the Buddha's original message did not rely on the concept of re-birth.

M 106. Aṇañjasappāyasutta
Discourse on Beneficial Imperturbability.

[66-67] The Buddha is addressing the monks at Kammasadhamma in the Kuru country. The Sutta begins with a discourse to the monks followed by a conversation with Ananda. The intial discourse is as follows:

"Sensuality is impermanent, useless, false, stupid and deceptive. It is prattle and foolish talk. The noble desciple rejects sensuality . This is the first practise to reach imperturbability ( āneñjasappaya. Then the disciple realises that sensuality now and hereafter arises from the nature of the four constituents of things. This is the second practice of imperturbability. Then comes the realisation that all forms of imperturbability  is inconstant, and whatever inconstant is not worth relishing. This is the third practice of iimperturbability .

[68-70] "Next comes the realization that perceptions of sensuality and the associated perceptions of imperturbability cease in the sphere of nothingness. This realisation is the first requirement to reach the stage of nothingness (ākiñcaññāyatana). Then the disciple goes into a forest or empty dwelling and realises that the self and anything pertaining to it is empty. This is the second requirement to reach the sphere of nothingness. Next he realizes 'I have no greed, hate or delusion for anyone nor does have anyone have these for me'. This is the third requirement to reach the sphere of nothngness. The disciple next realises that all perceptions of sensuality, perceptions of imperturbability  and even the perception of nothingness end if the dimension of neither perception nor non-perception is realized. This realization is the requirement to that dimention of of neither perception nor non-perception."

[71] Then the following conversation took place between Ananda and the Buddha:

ANANDA  There is the case, lord, where a monk, having practiced in this wants to discard whatever has been produced will he gain equanimity, will he be totally unbound, or not?"
BUDDHA A certin monk may be and another might not
ANANDA What is the cause, what is the reason, whereby one might and another might not?
BUDDHA The monk who reaches equanimity, relishes it, welcomes it, remains fastened to it, his consciousness is dependent on it and he clings to it). I say this monk is not totally unbound.
ANANDA Being sustained, where is that monk sustained?
BUDDHA The dimension of neither perception nor non-perception.
ANANDA Then, indeed, being sustained, he is sustained by the supreme sustenance."
BUDDHA [72] He is sustained by the supreme sustenance. For this the dimension of neither perception nor non-perception is the supreme sustenance. But there is the case where a monk, having obtained equanimity does not relish it, does not welcome it, does not remain fastened to it. As he does not relish that equanimity, does not welcome it, does not remain fastened to it, his consciousness is not dependent on it, does not cling to it. Without clinging/sustenance, Ananda, a monk is totally unbound.
ANANDA [73] It's amazing, lord. It's astounding. For truly, the Blessed One has declared to us the way to cross over the flood by going from one support to the next. But what is the noble liberation?"td>
BUDDHA There is the case where a disciple of the noble ones comes to perceptions of the imperturbable; perceptions of the dimension of nothingness; perceptions of the dimension of neither perception nor non-perception. This is deathless: the liberation of the mind through lack of clinging and sustenance.
      Now I have taught the practice conducive to the imperturable. I have taught the practice conducive to the dimension of nothingness. I have taught the practice conducive to the dimension of neither perception nor non-perception. I have taught the way to cross over the flood by going from one support to the next, the noble liberation. Whatever a teacher should do seeking the welfare of his disciples, out of sympathy for them, that have I done for you. Over there are the roots of trees; over there, empty dwellings. Practice jhāna, Ananda. Don't be heedless. Don't later fall into regret. This is our message to you all."

That is what the Blessed One said. Gratified, Ven. Ananda delighted in the Blessed One's words.

Summary Analysis
This is another sutta that emphasises the stages from imperturbability  to the final deathless (nibbāna). The sīlas, jhānas and the knowledges do not have their usual emphasis.

M 107. Gāṇakamoggallānasutta
Discourse to Gāṇakamoggallāna.

[74] While the Buddha was staying at the Pubba Monastery at the Migāra Palace in Sāvatthi the Brahmin Ganakamoggallāna approached him and said: "In this palace the steps lead up gradually, so too are the Brahmans trained gradually in study, archery, and also in calculation. Is there a gradual training in the Dhamma and discipline?"

[75] The Buddha said that in the Dhamma disciple too there is a graduated path. He then outlined the stages of the training, as follows:
  1. Morality. Here the monk is instructed to follow the code of discipline (the Pātimokkha). He should have right behaviour and posture and see perit in the slightest fault.
  2. Sense Control. Here the monk is trained to control the eye, ear, nose , tongue, body and not be entranced by the sense date they give.
  3. Moderation in Eating. When the disciple has guarded the sense doors the Tathagata says: 'Come ye monk, be moderate in eating'. Food is not taken for fun, indulgence, charm or beautification but to sustain the body to further the Brahmacariya.
  4. Vigilance. This should be exercised thoughout the day, while walking or sitting. The lion posture should be adopted while sleeping and on wking cleanse the mindof obstructing thoughts.
  5. Mindfulness. This means that the monk has to do whatever he is doing mindfully with clear consciousness.
  6. [76] Overcoming hindrances. Here the monk is advised to got to a remote place 9roo to a tree, mountain slope, glen, cave, cemetery or even a heap of straw. There sitting cross-legged, with back erect, he gets rid of covetousness for the world, gets rid of ill-will, gets rid of sloth and torpor, he gets rid of restlessness and worry, and finally gets rid of doubt. Then with these five hindances gone he fills his mind with their opposites.
  7. [77] Jhāna. This is the next step in the training. They are described in the standard formula: 'aloof from pleasures of the senses, aloof from unskilled states of mind, enters and abides in the first meditation which is accompanied by initial thought and discursive thought, is born of aloofness and is rapturous and joyful. By allaying initial thought and discursive thought, his mind subjectively tranquilized and fixed on one point, he enters and abides in the second meditation which is devoid of initial thought and discursive thought, is born of concentration and is rapturous and joyful. By the fading out of rapture, he dwells with equanimity, attentive and clearly conscious, and experiences in his person that joy of which the ariyans[7] say: 'Joyful lives he who has equanimity and is mindful,' and he enters and abides in the third meditation. By getting rid of anguish, by the going down of his former pleasures and sorrows, he enters and abides in the fourth meditation which has neither anguish nor joy, and which is entirely purified by equanimity and mindfulness'.
The Buddha concluded with "Brahman, such is my instruction for those monks who are learners. For the perfected ones who are liberated these things conduce both to their abiding in ease here and now as well as to their mindfulness and clear consciousness. This is the path to enlightenment; the Tathagata is the only instructor".

[78] The the Brahmin Ganakamoggallāna said: "Good Gotama, the sons of clansmen, who have left the household and become homeless out of faith not crafty and fraudulent, not trained deceivers, should live with good Gotama. Gotama's advice is the highest of the Teachings of today. Now I understand good Gotama, i now I take refuge in good Gotama, in the Teaching and the Community of bhikkhus. May I be remembered as a lay disciple who has taken refuge in good Gotama, from today until end of life".

Summary Analysis
This is another exposition of the Buddha's path fit for a new comer to the Teaching like the Brahman in this sutta. While it does not contain many of the frills it contains the substance of a teaching repeated several times during the Buddha's long teaching career.

M 108. Gopakamoggallānasutta
Discourse to Gopaka-Moggallāna.

[79] Once after the Buddha's death Ven Ananda was living at Rajagaha when Ajatasattu was the King of Magadha. Ananda setting out on his alm's round felt that it was too early so he set out to visit the Brahmin Gopakamogallāna who was at a workplace doing some work for the King. The Brahmin asked Ananda if there was any monk endowed like the Buddha. Ananda replied that there was none because the Buddha had discovered the unknown path but now many bhikkhus have followed that path and are endowed with the same attributes. Just then the King's Chief Minister Vessakāra coming to see the Brahmin on the work in progress, saw Ven. Ananda there and asked what the conversation was about. He was told what had been said.

[80] Then the following conversation took place:

VESSAKARA  Master Ananda, is there any one monk appointed by Master Gotama saying 'He will be your arbitrator after I am gone,' to whom you now turn?
ANANDA No, There is no one monk appointed by the Blessed One
VESSAKARA .Then is there any one monk authorized by the Sangha and appointed by a large body of elder monks [with the words], 'He will be our arbitrator after the Blessed One is gone,' to whom you now turn?".
ANANDA No, brahman. There isn't any one monk appointed by the Blessed One who will be our arbitrator after he is gone,'to whom we now turn."
VESSAKARA Being thus without an arbitrator, Master Ananda, what is the reason for your concord?
ANANDA It is not the case that we are without an arbitrator. We have an arbitrator. The Dhamma is our arbitrator."
VESSAKARA Now how is the meaning of what you have said to be understood?
ANANDA [81] There is a training rule laid down by the Blessed One a Patimokkha that has been codified. On the uposatha day, all of us gather together in one place. The Patimokkha is recited. Then if a monk remembers an offense or transgression, we deal with him in accordance with the Dhamma. We do not deal with that monk. Rather, the Dhamma is what deals with us.
VESSAKARA "Is there any one monk you now honor on whom you live in dependence?
ANANDA Yes there is such a one.
VESSAKARA Now how is the meaning of what you have said to be understood?
ANANDA [82] There are ten inspiring qualities expounded by the Blessed One. In whoever among us those ten qualities are found, we now honor him; honoring him, we live in dependence on him. The ten are: (1) He lives in acordance with the Patimokkha. (2) He is learned in the teaching, (3) He is content with robes, alms food and medicines given. (4) He attains the four jhānas whenever he wants. (5) He has the super-normal powers. (6) He has the Divine Eye. (7) He is aware of the minds of others. (8) He recollects past lives up to one hundrend thousand and the cosmic eons. (9) He understands how beings are reborn according to their kamma. (10) He has destroyed wants (āsavā).
VESSAKARA
to General
Upananda
[83] What do you think, general? Do these venerable ones honor what should be honored, respect what should be respected, revere what should be revered, venerate what should be venerated?
UPANANDA Of course they honor what should be honored, respect what should be respected, revere what should be revered, venerate what should be venerated. For if not on whom would they live in dependence?"
VESSAKARA Where are you staying now, Master Ananda?"
ANANDA I am now staying at the Bamboo Grove,
VESSAKARA I trust that the Bamboo Grove is delightful, quiet, remote from human beings, and appropriate for retreat.
ANANDA Certainly because of guardians and protectors like yourself.
VESSAKARA [84] Once, when Master Gotama was staying near Vesali I went to him and there he spoke in a variety of ways on mental absorption. Master Gotama was both endowed with mental absorption & made mental absorption his habit. In fact, he praised mental absorption of every sort."
ANANDA It wasn't the case that the Blessed One praised mental absorption of every sort, nor did he criticize mental absorption of every sort.
VESSAKARA And what sort of mental absorption did he not praise?
ANANDA Someone dwells with his awareness overcome by sensual passion (etc.). Making that focal point, he absorbs himself with it, it besorbs, resorbs, & supersorbs him. What the Blessed One praised is absorption of someone withdrawn from sensuality (etc.)
VESSAKARA It would seem that Master Gotama criticized the mental absorption that deserves criticism, and praised that which deserves praise. Well, now I must be going. Many are my duties, many the things I must do."

With that the Brahmin Vesskara left. Then Ananda answered the question that Gopakamoggallāna had raised and showed that it had in fact been answered during his conversation with Vessakāra.

Summary Analysis
This discourse is mostly on authority in the Buddhist Community. There is no hierarchy which the Buddha appointed unlike the situation now in many Buddhist countries. On the doctrinal side there is the distinction between absorption or meditation of the right kind and the wrong kind. In fact much of what passes as meditation even amongst self-styled Buddhists is of the wrong kind.

M 109. Mahāpuṇṇmasutta
Greater Discourse during the Full Moon

[85-86] Once while the Buddha wa living at the Pubbārāama monstery in Sāvatthi on a full moon night he was sittinig outside with the monks. Then an unnamed monk entered into a conversation with the Buddha as follows:

MONKAre not these the five clinging-aggregates, i.e., form... feeling... perception... fabrications... consciousness as a clinging-aggregate.
BUDDHAYes, they are the clinging-aggregates
MONKBut in what, lord, are these five clinging-aggregates rooted?
BUDDHAThese five clinging-aggregates are rooted in desire.
MONKIs clinging the same thing as the five clinging-aggregates, or is clinging separate from the five clinging-aggregates?
BUDDHAClinging is neither the same thing as the five clinging-aggregates, nor is it separate from the five clinging-aggregates. Just that whatever passion & delight is there, that's the clinging there.
MONKMight there be diversity in the desire & passion for the five clinging-aggregates?
BUDDHAThere might, monk. There is the case where the thought occurs to someone, 'May I be one with such a form... feeling... perception... fabrications... such a consciousness in the future. This is how there would be diversity in the desire & passion for the five clinging-aggregates."
MONKTo what extent does the designation 'aggregate' apply to the aggregates?
BUDDHAWhatever form... feeling... perception... fabrication... consciousness is called the aggregate this is the extent to which the term 'aggregate' applies to the aggregates.
MONKLord, what is the cause, what the condition, for the apperance of the aggregate of form... feeling... perception... fabrications... consciousness?
BUDDHAThe four great elements are the cause, the condition, for the appearance aggregate of form. Contact is the cause, contact the condition, for the appearance of the aggregates of feeling, perception and fabrications. Name-&-form is the cause, name-&-form the condition, for the appearance of the aggregate of consciousness.
MONK[87] Lord, how does self-identity view come about?
BUDDHAThere is the case, monk, where an uninstructed, person who has no regard for noble ones (etc.) assumes form to be the self, or the self as possessing form, or form as in the self, or the self as in form. He assumes the same about feeling... perception ... fabrications ... consciousness. his, monk, is how self-identity view comes about.
MONKLord, how does self-identity view no longer come about?
BUDDHA"There is the case where a well-instructed disciple of the noble ones who has regard for noble ones (etc.) does not assume form to be the self, or the self as possessing form, or form as in the self, or the self as in form. He does not assume the same for feeling ... perception ... fabrications ... consciousness. This, monk, is how self-identity view no longer comes about."
MONK[88] What, lord, is the allure of form? What is its drawback? What is the escape from it? What is the allure of feeling... perception... fabrications... consciousness? What is its drawback? What is the escape from it?
BUDDHA Whatever pleasure & joy arises dependent on form: that is the allure of form. The fact that form is inconstant, stressful, subject to change: that is the drawback of form. The subduing of desire & passion, the abandoning of desire & passion for form: that is the escape from form. The same for feeling... perception... fabrications... consciousness.
MONK[89] Knowing in what way, seeing in what way, is there with regard to this body endowed with consciousness, and with regard to all external signs no longer any I-making, or my-making, or obsession with conceit?"
BUDDHAOne sees any form whatsoever past, future, or present; internal or external; blatant or subtle; common or sublime; far or near every form, as it actually is with right discernment: 'This is not mine. This is not my self. This is not what I am.' The same applies to any feeling whatsoever... any perception whatsoever... any fabrications whatsoever... any consciousness whatsoever. Knowing in this way, seeing in this way, there is with regard to this body endowed with consciousness, and with regard to all external signs no longer any I-making, or my-making, or obsession with conceit.

[90] Then this thought arose to a certain bhikkhu. "Indeed, then matter, feelings, perception, formations, and consciousness are void of self. How could the self be touched, by actions, done void of a self?"

The Buddha thought that this was a trick question to outsmart the Teacher's message. So he re-iterated his position: "Any consciousness whatsoever that is past, future, or present; is to be seen as it actually is with right discernment as: 'This is not mine. This is not my self. This is not what I am.' Seeing thus, the instructed disciple grows disenchanted with form, disenchanted with feeling, disenchanted with perception, fabrications, and consciousness. Disenchanted, he becomes dispassionate. Through dispassion, he is fully released.

That is what the Blessed One said. Gratified, the monks delighted in the Blessed One's words. And while this explanation was being given, the minds of sixty monks, through no clinging (not being sustained), were fully released from fermentations.

M 109. Cūḷapuṇṇmasutta
Lesser Discourse during the Full Moon

[NOTE: This sutta is a discourse comparing a bad man (asappurisa) with a good man (sappurisa) It was given by the Buddha on a full moon day at Pubbārāma in Sāvatthi to the monks.]

[91] This deals with the bad man describing him on ten grounds.
  1. Recognition. A bad man cannot recognize another bad man, nor can he recognize a good man.
  2. Qualities. A bad man is endowed with unworthy qualities? He has no faith, no shame and remorse. He has learned little, is forgetful and without wisdom.
  3. Devotion. The bad man becomes friendly with those without faith, shame, remorse, with little learning, forgetful and without wisdom.
  4. Thoughts. The bad man has unworthy thoughts. He thinks to trouble himself, thinks to trouble others and thinks to trouble both.
  5. Musings. The bad man is one with unworthy musings. He muses to trouble himself, muses to trouble others and muses to trouble both.
  6. Words. The bad man uses bad words. He tells lies, talks maliciously, talks roughly, and talks frivolously.
  7. Actions. The bad man is one with unworthy actions. He destroys living things, takes what is not given and misbehaves sexually.
  8. Views. The bad man is one with unworthy views? He is of the view that there are no results for gifts, sacrifices and offerings, there are no rssults for good and bad actions. There is no this world, no other world, no mother, no father.There are no beings that arise spontaneously, no recluses and brahmins in the world, who have come to the right path, realizing this world and the other world, by themselves, declare it.
  9. Gifts. The bad man makes an unworthy offering. He gives an offering disrespectfully, does not give with his own hands, does not give it honourably, gives it as though throwing it, gives it without faith in results.
  10. Destination. After death is born in unworthy states. It is either birth in hell or in an animal womb.
[92] This deals with the good man describing him on the same grounds as his bad counterpart.
  1. Recognition. A good man recognizes another good man, and he can also recognize a bad man.
  2. Qualities. He is endowed with worthy qualities.
  3. Devotion. The good man makes friends with those who have faith, shame, remorse, much learning, aroused effort mindfulness and wisdom.
  4. Thoughts. The good man is a worthy one with worthy thoughts. He does not think to trouble himself, others and both.
  5. Musings. The good man is the worthy one with worthy musings. He does not muse to trouble himself, others and either.
  6. Words. The good man is the one with worthy words. He does not, tell lies, talk maliciously, talk roughly, and talk frivolously.
  7. Actions. The good man is the one with worthy actions. He does not, destroy living things, take what is not given and misbehave sexually.
  8. Vews. The good man is with the view, there are results for gifts, sacrifices and offerings, for good and bad actions. There is this world, the other world, mother, father. There are beings that arise spontaneously, there are recluses and brahmins in the world, who, come to the right path, realize this world and the other world, by themselves and declare it.
  9. Gifts. The good man makes worthy offerings. He makes an offering respectfully, gives it with his own hands, gives it honourably, gives it thoughtfully, gives it knowing there are results for giving.
  10. Destination. The good man is reborn as the noblest of gods or the noblest of men.
The Blessed One said thus and the bhikkhus delighted in the words of the Blessed One.

Summary analysis.
This sutta seems to assume society is made of good people or bad people. The fact is that it is made of people with good qualities and bad qualities, both in the same person. The balance may differ between persons. Also rebirth is seen as occurring in heavens, hells or as animals. Most Buddhists think re-birth will be in this world but in a higher or lower position than at present depending on kamma. Of course rebirth is ne of the conundrums in Buddhism.