Majjhima Nikāya
Rāja Vagga

SUTTAS M 81 - M 90

CONTENTS

M 81 GhaṭikārasuttaDiscourse on Ghaṭihāra
M 82 Raṭṭapālasutta   With Raṭṭapāla
M 83 MakhādevasuttaDiscourse about Makhādeva
M 84 MadhrasuttaDiscourse at Madhura
M 85 Bodhirājasutta Discourse with to Prince Bodhi
M 86 AṅgulimālasuttaDiscourse with Aṅgulimāla
M 87 PiyajātikasuttaDiscourse on Born of Affection
M 88 BhātikasuttaDiscourse on the Warm Cloth
M 89 DhammacetiyasuttaDiscourse on Testimony to Dhamma
M 90 KaṇṇakatthalasuttaAt Kaṇṇakatthala

M 81. Ghaṭikārasutta
Discourse on Ghatikara

[282] Once when the Buddha accompanied by Ananda was touring Kosala he stepped out of the path at a certain place and smiled. When asked the reason for his smile he said that formerly the Buddha Kassapa sat there and had a meal. Ananda asked Gotama too to sit there so that the two Buddhas would have sat at the same spot. Then the Buddha told a story relating to the time of Kassapa.

[283-286] The place where the Buddha stopped was then a chief village (gāmanigamo)) called Vebhalinga and in it lived a potter called Ghatikara who was a supporter of Kassapa. He and his apprentice Jotipala were going to bathe in a river near where Kassapa lived and and Ghattikara tried to persuade Jotipala to visit Kassapa. At first Jotipala refused but later agreed to see Kassapa. Jotipala was convinced by Kassaps's Dhamma talk and urged Ghatikara to join the Buddha's Order. But Ghatikara said that his parents were blind and he was the only one to look after them. Then Jotipala decided to become a follower of Kassapa and received the going forth and the higher ordination from Kassapa the Buddha.

[287-288] Soon after Kassapa went to Isipatana near Benares. The king at the time was named Kiki. Hearing that Kassapa had come to Isipatana he visited him in great splendour and invited Kassapa and the Community of monks to come for a meal to the Palace. When the meal was ready Kassapa and the bhkkhus went to the palace. They were received by the King who served them with their meal. After the meal was over the King invited Kassapa to spend the rainy retreat in his capital of Benares. But Kassapa told him that he had already made arrangements to spend the rains retreat elsewhere, and so could not accede to the King's request. This disappointed the King greatly and he asked Kassapa if there was some other more pleasing supporter. It was then that Kassapa told the King about Ghatikara the potter of Veblinga, giving him high praise. Kassapa said that Ghatikara had faith in him and the Dhamma and the Community. He kept the precepts, and has overcome doubts about unpleasantness, about the arising of unpleasantness, its cessation and the path leading to this. He looks after his blind parents. He has destroyed the five lower bonds to the sensual world, he will be born spontaneously, will not proceed from that world and will extinguish in that same birth.

[289-292] Kassapa then recounted several incidents about Ghatikara. Once when he visited Ghatikara's house for alms he was away but his blind parents asked him to come in and serve himself from the pots. This greatly please Ghatikara when he came to know of it. At another time when Kassapa's chamber leaked he asked the bhikkhus to get grass from Ghatikara house even if has to be take frrm his thatched roof. This they did and when Ghatikara learned of it he was greatly pleased. It did not rain for three months during which time the house stood roofless. The King then ordered that 500 cartloads of rice be sent to Ghatikara.

At the end of the sutta Ananda asks Gotama what was the fate of Jotipala. Gotama then told that he was himself in a past birth.

Analytical Summary.
This sutta contains nothing of doctrinal interest. But it raises questions about the authenticity of legends which many take literally. Kassapa is said to have been the Buddha previous to Gotama. The dispensation of a Buddha is said to got into several tousands of years. In fact Kassapis said to have lived for two thousand years! So the incidents related would have happened some tens of thousands of years before the Buddha. But the persons and places are the same as those in Gotama's time. Historically the Aryans came to India only about 1500 years before the Buddha. So there could not have been an Aryan Jotipala to do the things he is said to have done in this narrative.

M 82. Raṭṭapālasutta
With Raṭṭapāla

[293-294] The Buddha and the monks while touring the Kuru country arrive at Tullkotthita. The people there meet the Buddha who gives them an account of the Dhamma. One of those who heard him was Rattapala the son of the chief Brahmin of the city. Rattapala wanted to go forth leaving the household life when the Buddha reminded him that the permission of the parents was a condition for going forth and ordination in the Buddha's Oder.

[295-298] The parents of Rattapala refused to give permission, whereupon Rattapala lay down on the ground vowing that he would not eat or drink or rise from the ground until permission was given for him to leave the household life. His friends too sought to dissuade him but finally they got the permission from the parents on coition that Rattapala should instruct them and return at least once after the going forth. Gotama returned to Savatthi while Rattapala after his ordination abiding in seclusion was able to reach his goal and become an arhat,

[299-300] Rattapala went to the Buddha and asked permission to instruct his parents which was given. Then Rattapala returned to Tullkoptthita and took residence in King Koravya's deer park. Next day he went on the alms round in the town but when he came to his former house he was not recognized as to who he was and instead of alms he got abuse. Then a slave woman of the house was about to throw out stale food and Rattapala asked that it be given to him. The girl recognized him as Rattapala and told this to Rattapala's mother and the father heard it. The father went looking for him and found him eating the stale food. He invited Rattapala for a meal the next day which Rattapala accepted. The father then returned home and piled up all his treasure and asked Rattapala's former wives to be ready.

[301-302] When Rattapala came the next day the father showed the wealth and said that all this would be his if he decided to give up the mendicant life and return. But Rattapala said that the wealth should be thrown into the Ganges as it was a source of misery. Then his former wives interceded and their pleas too were rejected. He said that it would satisfy fools but not one seeking the further shore. A hunter may set a trap but the deer will not be caught having eaten the bait they would go away. So he returned to the deer park and sat down under tree.

[303-307] King Koravya was planning a deer hunt but being informed that Rattapala was there decided to visit him. [NOTE: Then follows a long discussion between the King and Rattapala. This is reported in different ways in the different versions of the Pali Canon. Only a brief summary will be given here.]

The King said that people go forth into the holy life for four reasons of decrease: by decay (in old age), by illness, of wealth, and of relations. Rattapala did not have any of these causes of decrease, so why go forth now. Rattapala replied that the Buddha has given four reasons: (1) The world is subject to change (upaniyyati loko addhuvo); (2) to a self wielding power the world is not to be attained (atāṇo loko anabhissaro); (3) destitute is the world leaving everything one goes (assako loko, sabbaṃ pahāya gamanīya); insatiated is the world, everything is subject to craving (ūno loko atitto taṇhādāso). It is for these reasons he said that he left  the world.

The King is forced to admit that he too is now decayed and cannot do battle as when he was young; that he too suffers from illness; that he to seeks to cling to the five strands of sense pleasure, and that he too would like to conquer other countries. But now he cannot do these things. The sutta concludes with a stanza said by Rattapala.

Summary Analysis
Most of this sutta is a straightforward narrative of Rattapala, the son of a rich Brahmin family, who wants to go forth and join the Buddha's commuinity and was dissuaded by his parents, kith and friends. Even after he joined the order there were attempts to lure him back to the household life. It is only at the very end in his interview with the King does he give his reasons for his action.

 

 

 

M 83. Makhādevasutta
Discourse about Makhādeva

[308] Once the Buddha was in Makhadeva Orchard in Mithila when he smiled at a certain place. When Ananda asked the cause for the smile the Buddha said that long ago at this very place a King called Makhadeva ruled. He told his barber to tell him when he noticed a grey hair on his head. This happened many100,000 years after.

[309] The King summoned his heir and told him that a grey hair had appeared on his head and he is going into homeless-ness. You too should do the same. If this tradition is broken it will be the end of this dynasty. He then gave a village as a gift to the barber and went into homelessness. He then pervaded the world with thoughts of loving kindness, compassion, and equanimity. He lived for 48,000 years and was born in the Brahma world.

[310] Makadeva's son did the same and was born in the Brahma world.

[311] Makadeva's grand-son too did the same, as did 48,000 warrior kings after him. Nimi was the last king of that cycle and during his time the eight precepts were observed by the brahamins on the holy days.

[312] Then the gods of the Thirty-Three heaven had this thought: "It is great gain to the people of Vidheha tht King Nimi rules righteously". Then Sakka king of the gods asked the gods if they wished to see King Nimi. When they agreed he went instantly to the where King Nimi was and said: "The gods of the Thirty Three praise you highly. I will send you the heavenly Chariot please mount it". King Nimi agreed.

[313] Then Sakka asked the charioteer Matali accordinglly. Matali then took the divine chariot to King Mimi and asked if he wanted to be taken through where doers of evil get their rewards or through where the doers of good get their rewards, Nimi said through both and this was done. The gods of the Thirty Three welcomed King Nimi what said qwhat they thought about him. They asked if the King wanted to see their splendour. But the King simply said: "Useless, sir, send me back to Mithila, there I will lead the righteous life together with the brahmin householders."

[314] Then Sakka ordered Matali to take the King back to Milthia. Then the King ruled for severel hundreds of thousand of years and called his barber and gave him prcise the instruction that King Mahadeva had originally given to his barber. Then after many hundreds of thousands of years the baraber noticed a grey hair and told the King Nimi accordingly. Then he summoned his eldest son, gave him the same instruction.

[315] Then King NImi gave a village to the barber and went forth to homelessness in the same mango orchard. After many years of practicing thoughts of metta, compassion and equanimity he died and reappeared in the world of Brahma.

But Nimi's son Kalarajanaka did not keep up the tradition and broke the cycle. He was the last King of that cycle.

[316] Then the Buddha completed the narration by saying as follows:
"Ananda did it occur to you, king Makhadeva would have become perfect if that good cycle was broken, it should not be known in that manner. At that time I was king Makhadeva, I broke that good cycle, so that the later generation would not go on in that cycle. Ananda, that good cycle does not lead to turning away, detachment, cssation, appeasement, realisation, enlightenment and extinction. It leads up to birth in the world of Brahma. Ananda, that good cycle is broken by me now. It conduces to, for certain, turning away, detachment, cessation, appeasement, realisation, enlightenment and extinction. Ananda, how does that good cycle broken by me conduce to, for certain turning away, detachment, cessation, appeasement, realisation, enlightenment and extinction? It is this same noble eightfold path such as: Right understanding, right thoughts, right speech, right actions, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness and right concentration. Ananda, now, that good cycle is broken by me, to conduce to, for certain turning away, detachment, cessation, appeasement, realisation, enlightenment and extinction.. Ananda, I tell this, as long as you turn this cycle undisrupted, you will not be the last persons in the cycle. Ananda, when this cycle of good is disrupted during any period of Great Men, they would become the last men in the cycle. Ananda, because of that I tell you, do not disrupt this cycle of good and become the last men in this cycle. " [Translation by Sister Uppalavanna}
Summary Anaysis
This is a narrative reminiscence of the Buddha related to Ananda about a mythical King said to have lived many years ago. The extraordinary length of the time periods is proof of that.

But the clearest proof of this is the Buddha's statement that he was King Makhdeva and that he broke the cycle. So the entire sequence after Makhadeva would not have taken place and the whole purpose why this elaborate story was concocted was to emphasise the rule given in the Buddha's last statement.

M 84. Madhurasutta
Discourse at Madhurā

[317] In this sutta Ven Mahā-Kaccāyana was living in the Gunda forest in Madura. While there King Vantiputta of Madhura came to see him. The following conversation then took place: Good Kaccayana, when this is so, these four clans are equal and I do not see any difference in them.'
KINGVenerable sir, brahmins say, brahmins are from the chief clan, the most superior in appearance, all other clans are inferior, the brahmins are born from the mouth of Brahma, his hereditary sons, they purify, non-brahmins do not purify. What has good Kaccaayana to say about this?
KACCAYANA   Great king it's only an utterance (ghosoyeva kho eso) in the world.

[318] To a warrior, there is prosperity, wealth, grains, silver, or soverign gold, then would a warrior, stand up, retire last, do his biddings and talk to him pleasantly, or would a brahmin, or a householder, or an out-caste do so?
KINGIf there is prosperity etc., to a warrior, then a warrior would stand up, retire last, do his biddings and talk to him pleasantly, or even a brahmin, or even a householder, or even an out-caste, would do so.
KACCAYANA Great king, if there is prosperity (etc.) to a Brahmin then would a brahmin, stand up, retire last, do his biddings and talk to him pleasantly, or would a warrior, or a householder, or an out-caste, do so?
KINGIf there is prosperity (etc) to a brahmin, then a brahmin would stand up, retire last, do his biddings and talk to him pleasantly, even a warrior,or a householder, or an out-caste, would do so.
KACCAYANA Great king, if there is prosperity (etc.) to a householder, would a householder stand up, retire last, do his biddings and talk to him pleasantly or would a brahmin, or a warrior, or an out-caste, do so?
KING'Good Kaccayana, if there is prosperity to a househlolder in the form of wealth (etc.) then a house holder wouldstand up, retire last, do his biddings and talk to him pleasantly, or a brahmin, or a warror, or an out-caste would do so.
KACCAYANA If there is prosperity (etc). to an out-caste, would an out-caste stand up, retire last, do his biddings and talk to him pleasantly, or would a warrior, or a brahmin, or a householder, do so?
KINGIf there is prosperity (etc.) to an out-caste, then an out-caste would stand up, retire last, do his biddings and talk to him pleasantly, or a warrior, or a brahmin, or a householder, would do so.
KACCAYANA Great king, when this is so, are not these four clans the same, or how is it here?
KINGGood Kaccayana, when this is so, these four clans become equal and I do not see any difference in them.'
KACCAYANA 'Great king, this, 'Brahmins are from the chief clan (etc) ... You should know that it is only an utterance in this manner too.
[319] Great king, there are warriors, who destroy life, take the not given, misbehave in sexuality, tell lies, slander, speak rough words, speak frivolous words, covet, those bear angry minds and wrong view, would they after death be born in decrease in hell? Or is it they would not be born in hell?' ...
KING 'Good Kaccayana, even if warriors, destroy life, take the not given, misbehave in sexuality, tell lies, slander, speak rough words and speak frivolous words, covet and bear an angry mind and maintain wrong view, after death they would be born in decrease will go to loss. It occures to me thus, and I have heard this from perfect ones.' ...
KACCAYANAGreat king, good that it occures to you thus and you have heard it from perfect ones. Great king, there are brahmins, -- those of householder clan, -- those of the out castes' clan, who destroy of life, take the not given, misbehave in sexuality, tell lies, slander speak rough words, speak frivolous words, covet, bear angry minds and with wrong view, would they after death be born in decrease in hell? Or is it they would not be born in hell?' ..
KING'Good Kaccayana, even if those of out castes' clan, if they destroy life, take the not given, misbehave in sexuality, tell lies, slander, speak rough words and speak frivolous words, covet bear an angry mind and maintain wrong view, after death would be born in decrease will go to loss. It occures to me thus, and I have heard this from perfect ones.'. .
KACCAYANA'Great king, good that it occures to you thus, good that you have heard it from the perfect ones. Great king, when this is so, are not these four clans the same, or how is it here?'...
KING'Good Kaccayana, when this is so, these four clans, become equal and I do not see any difference in them.' ...
KACCAYANA'Great king, this, 'Brahmins are from the chief clan (etc) ... you should know that it is only an utterance in this manner too. ...

[320] Great king, there are warriors, who abstain from, destroying life, taking the not given, misbehaving in sexuality, telling lies, slandering, speaking rough words, speaking frivolous words, coveting, bearing angry minds and with right view, would they after death be born in increase in heaven? Or is it they would not be born in heaven?'
KINGGood Kaccayana, even the warriors, who abstain from, destroying life, taking the not given, misbehaving in sexuality, telling lies, slandering, speaking rough words, speaking frivolous words, coveting, bearing angry minds and who maintain rightview, after death would be born in increase in heaven ithappens thus, I have heard it from the perfect ones.'. ...
KACCAYANA'Great king, good that it occures to you thus, good that you have heard it from the perfect ones. Great king, there are brahmins,--- those of the householder clan, ---of out castes' clan who abstain from, destroying life, taking the not given, misbehaving in sexuality, telling lies, slandering, speaking rough words, speaking frivolous words, coveting, bearing angry minds and those who maitain rightview, would they after death be born in increase in heaven? Or is it they would not be born in heaven?' ...
KINGGood Kaccayana, even those of the out castes' clan if they abstain from, destroying life, taking the not given, misbehaving in sexuality, telling lies, slandering, speaking rough words, speaking frivolous words, coveting, bearing angry minds and those who maintainrightview, after death, will be born in increase in heaven, ithappens thus, I have heard it.from the perfect ones.'...
KACCAYANAGreat king, good that it occures to you thus, good that you have heard it from the perfect ones. Great king, when this so, are not these four clans the same, or how is it here?' ...
KING'Good Kaccayana, when this is so, these four clans are equal and I do not see any difference in them.' ...
KACCAYANAGreat king, this, 'Brahmins are from the chief clan (etc.) ... you should know that it is only an utterance in this manner too....

[321] Here, great king a certain warrior breaks into a house, carries away loot, robs, waits in ambush, or goes to others' wives, then people get hold of him and show him to the king. Me' lord this is a highway robber, mete him the punishment you desire'What would you do?' /tr>
KING'Good Kaccayana, I will get him destroyed or banished or mete to him, the suitablepunishment.What is the reason? Good Kaccayana, earlier, he was reckoned a warrior, and afterwards he came to be known as a robber.' ...
KACCAYANA 'Here, great king a certain brahmin, --one of householder clan, --of outcastes' clan, breaks into a house, carries away loot, robs, waits in ambush, or goes to others' wives, then people get hold of him and show him to the king. Me' lord this is a highway robber, mete him the punishment you desire'What would you do?' ...
KING'Good Kaccayana, I will get him destroyed, or banished or mete to him, the suitablepunishment. What is the reason? Good Kaccayana, earlier, he was reckoned an outcaste, and afterwards he came to be known as a robber.'

'Good Kaccayana, when this is so, these four clans are equal and I do not see any difference in them.'. ....
KACCAYANAGreat king, when this so, are not these four clans the same, or how is it here?' ...
KING'Good Kaccayana, when this is so, these four clans are equal and I do not see any difference, in them.' ...
KACCAYANA'Great king, this, 'Brahmins are from the chief clan (etc.) ... you should know that it is only an utterance in this manner too....

322. Here, great king a certain warrior shaves head and beard, dons yellow clothes, goes forth as a homeless. Gone forth abstains from destroying life, abstains from taking the not given, abstains from telling lies, partakes one meal per a day and leads a pure holy life: What would you do to him?'
KING 'Good Kaccayana, I will get up from the seat at his approach, offer him a seat, invite him will provide with the four requisties of life, such as robes, morsel food, dwellings and requisties when ill, and I will see to his righteous protection. What is the reason? Good Kaccayana, earlier, he was reckoned a warrior, and later he is reckoned a recluse.'
KACCAYANA'Here, great king a certain, brahmin,-- one of householder clan,--- one of outcastes' clan, shaves head and beard, dons yellow clothes, goes forth homeless. Gone forth abstains from, destroying life, taking the not given, abstains telling lies, partakes one meal per a day and leads a pure holy life: What would you do to him?'
KING I will, get up from the seat at his approach, offer him a seat, invite him, provide with the four requisties of life, such as robes, morsel food, dwellings and requisties when ill, and see to his righteous protection. What is the reason? Earlier, he was reckoned an outcaste, and later he is reckoned a recluse.'
KACCAYANA.'Great king, this, 'Brahmins are from the chief clan (etc.)..., you should know that it is only an utterance in this manner too.' ..
KING[323] Now I understand good Kaccaayana, it's like something over turned, is reinstalled, as something covered is made manifest, as the path was shown to someone who had lost his way. It's as though an oil lamp was lighted for those who have sight to see forms in the dark. In various ways the Teaching, is explained by good Kaccayana. Now I take refuge in good Kaccayana, in the Teaching and the Community of bhikkhus. May I be remembered as a lay disciple who has taken refuge from today until the end of life.' ...
KACCAYANAGreat king do not take my refuge, take refuge in that Blessed One as I have done.' 'Good Kaccayana, where does the Blessed One, perfect rightfully enlightened live now?' 'Great king, the Blessed One, perfect rightfully enlightened has passed away.' ...
KING'Good Kaccayana, if I hear, that the Blessed One perfcct rightfully enlightened is seventy miles from here, I would go there, to see the Blessed One. If I hear that the Blessed One perfcct rightfully enlightened is one hundred and forty miles away from here two hundred and ten miles from here, three hundred and fifty miles from here, seven hundred miles from here, I would go there, to see the Blessed One. Good Kaccayana, since the Blessed One, perfect rightfully enlightened has passed away. I take refuge in that Blessed One, in the Teaching and the Community of bhikkhus. May good Kaccayana bear me as a lay disciple from today until I die.'. ...

Summary Analysis
This is one of the suttas where the Buddhist position is stated clearly.

M 85. Bodhirājakumārasutta
Discourse to Prince Bodhi

[324-326] Once when the Buddha was in the Bhagga country Prince Bodhiraja sent a messenger to invite him with the bhikkhs to a meal at his newly constructed palace Kokinada. The Buddha accepted this invitation. He went to the Palace and after he got the Prince to remove the cloth he had laid at the entrace (because the Buddha would not treat on cloth) he went and was served with the meal. After the meal the Prince said: "Venerable sir, it occurs to me that pleasantness could not be attained by pleasantness, it has to be attained, with unpleasantness".

[NOTE: The Buddha seems to have taken the question of the Prince to refer to the unpleasantness and struggle he underwent in the course of his search for Enlightenment. He then narrates this struggle. This struggle has been referred to in several other suttas. For this reason it is heavily shortened in this Abstract.]

[327-328] This section recounts the Bodhisattvas journey from leaving the household life until after is encounters with Alara Kalama and Uddaka Ramaputta. After this he continued on his journey]

[329-336] While he was nearing Uruvelā where he was destined to end his search the Buddha says that three comparisons "never heard before" occurred to him. These were:
  1. This was the case of a man trying to make fire with a log that had lain immersed in water. However hard he rubbed he could nt make fire. He compared this to recluses who were grossly steeped in sensuality.
  2. This was of a man who was trying to make fire out of a sappy log even if it was not immersed in water. Because of the sap in the wood he was unsuccessful. This too he compares to a recluse trying to get vision without completely eliminating sensuality.
  3. The third was the case of a man trying to make fire wtih a dry sapless log well away from water. He would succeed like a recluse who tried strenuously but with his body secluded from sensuality
[336-340] This section described some of the austerities he undertook at 57;. These included:
  1. Clenching the jaws while pressing the tongue against th palate which is said expel "burnt-up thoughts";
  2. stopping in-breaths and out-breaths to stop the intake of air through nose and mouth allowing air to enter through the ear lobes;
  3. stopping air entering through nose, mouth and earlobes;
  4. extending the time period when the two practices above may made; (here devas intervene to stop it).
  5. stop partaking all food; (the gods intervene and say that they will iinject heavenoy essence through his pores).
  6. partaking food in trifling amounts which destroyed his skin complexion and the body shrunk.
Since this ki7d of exercise did not give him the end he desired he decided to give them up. He then turned to Jhānic meditation and to the cultivtion of the Knowledges (vijjā). The last of these gave him the ability to destroy the āsavas and gain enlightenment.[341-344] Now the moved into the incidents after his enlightenment. Firstly there the Brahma Sahampati intervenes to persuade hik to teach. Then the question of whom to teach is resolved by deciding on his forjer companions in the search, the five monks (i>pañcavaggiya bhikkhū) whom he divined had reched Isipatana near Benares. It is hither he went. The incident of meeting Upaka is recounted as well as the hesitant welcome from the five monks. Then he tells how he won over the five monks who soon reached the goal of the holy life.)

[345-346] In answer to another question of the Prince the Buddha gave five factors required of a bhikkhu to reach his goal. There were: aith in the Tathagata, a healthy body, not being crafty or fraudulent, accumulation of merit and dispelling demerit, and firm determination to end the yoke. With these qualities the training could be completed even oess than a year. The suta ens with Prince Bodhi becoming a lay folllower of the Buddha.

Summary Analysis.
This long sutta is completely devoted to the Buddha's narrative of his path to enlightenment. This path is stated in many other discourses and this adds only few details.

M 86.Aṅgulimālasutta
Discourse with Aṅgulimāla

[347-349] This sutta is set in Kosala at a time when a bandit called Angulimala was ravaging the countryside killing many people and cutting their fingers which he strung together as a necklace (hence his nickname). The Buddha one day set off on the road which lay through Angulimala's territory not heeding the advice of the local people not to do so. Then Angulimala began chasing the Buddha but the Buddha performed a psychic miracle (iddhābhisaṅkhāraṃ abhisaṅkhāsi) which made it appear to Angulimala that the Buddha was going faster than him however fast he ran. Then the following exchange took place between Angulimāla and the Buddha:

I have stopped, Angulimala, once & for all, having cast off violence toward all living beings. You, though, are unrestrained toward beings. That's how I've stopped and you haven't."
ANGULIMALA   Stop, recluse, Stop.
BUDDHA I have stopped, you stop.
ANGULIMALARecluse, while walking you say, 'I have stopped.' But when I have stopped you say I have not. What is the meaning of this? How have you stopped? How have I not?
BUDDHA I have stopped, Angulimala, once & for all, having cast off violence toward all living beings. You, though, are unrestrained toward beings. That's how I've stopped and you have not.
ANGULIMALAAt long last a great seer for my sake has come. Having heard you I will go about having abandoned evil.


Then Angulimala abandoned his sword and weapons, paid homage to the Buddha and requested the going forth. By simply saying "Come Bhikkhu (tamehi bhikkhū)" the Buddha ordained him as a Bhikkhu.

[350-351] Then the Buddha with Angulimala returned to the Jetavana monastery in Sāvatthi. Meanwhile in response to popular demand the King Pasanedi organized a large contingent of troops but before deploying them he went to see the Buddha. The Buddha asked if there was the threat of a foreign attack that this force has been assembled. But the King said it is to stamp out the bandit Angulimala. Then the Buddha asked what if Angulimala had become a monk and shows him Angulimala, now a bhikkhu. The King questioned and verified that the monk was indeed Angulimala and agreed to provide him with his necessities.

[352-349] Meanwhile Angulimala had become a forest monk, and one day on his alms round he saw a woman in great pain during child delivery. He reported this to the Buddha who advised him to go to that woman and give a blessing to the child about to be born. He then went back to the woman and said: "Sister, since I was born in the noble birth, I do not recall intentionally killing a living being. Through this may there be wellbeing for you, wellbeing for your the child to be born." Then there waw well-being both for her and for the new-born child.

Then later by strict adherence to the Buddha's training Bhikkhu Angulimala became a completely liberated Arahant. Subsequently some stones thrown by some people struck him accidentally causing him great pain and much bleeding. The Buddha interpreted this as the karmic consequences of what he had done in his previous life as a bandit. As a result of getting the karmic consequences now he avoided suffering for a long time in hell.

The sutta ends with a long stanza attributed to the Arhat Angulimala.

Summary Analysis.
This provides the rare instance in the Pali Canon where a blessing offered by a monk will have practical consequences. As a result this sutta is very popular in Buddhist countries where blessings from bhikkhus are sought, especially during child-birth. Another interesting point is that karmic consequences could be manifested during the life time itself rather than in a subsequent birth.


M 87 Piyajātikasutta
Discourse on Born of Affection

[353-354] This sutta is set in Sāvatthi where the only young child 'dear and beloved' (piyo manāpo) of his father had died. The father could not get over his grief and visited the Buddha. The Buddha noted a change in his demeanour and was told of the father's tragedy. The Buddha's comment was: "That's the way it is. Sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, and despair are born from one who is dear, comes from one who is dear (evametaṃ. piyajātikā hi soka-parideva-dukkha-domanas-supāyāsā piyappabhavikā"). This so upset the father that he left the Buddha's presence immediately. On his way he met some gamblers who agreed with him that the Buddha was wrong. Gradually this incidence came to the attention of the King and Queen of Kosala, Pasanedi and Mallikā.

[355] Then Pasanedi conveyed what the Buddha had said to Mallikā [who was strong devotee of the Buddha]. Mallikā said that if the Buddha had said so it must be so. Pasanedi disagreed and ordered Mallikā out. Then the Queen ordered the Brahmin Nalijangha to go to the Buddha and find out why the Buddha said so. The Brahmin agreed to do so and went to the Buddha.

[356] The Buddha confirmed that he had indeed said so and gave the following sequence of examples to understand what he had said:
  1. Once in Sāvatthi there was a woman whose mother [whom she dearly loved] died. She went wandering from street to street asking everyone "Have you seen my mother".
  2. Once in Sāvatthi there was a woman whose father or brother or sister or daughter or husband died. She too went mad and went from street to street asking people if they had seen the deceased person. It is through this sequence of events that it could be understood how sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress and despair are born from one who is dear.
  3. Once in Sāvatthi there was a man whose mother died. The same sequence of events occurred.
  4. Once in Sāvatthi there was a man whose father or brother or sister or daughter or son or wife died. He too did the same as the others. It is through this sequence of events that it could be understood how sorrows ... are born from one who is dear.
  5. Once in this same Savatthi there was a wife who went to her relatives' home. Her relatives wanted to separated her from her husband, and to give her to another man against her will. She related this to her husband. Whereupon the husband killed her and killed himself thinking "Dead we will be together". It is through such events that it may be understood how sorrows ... are born from one who is dear, come from one who is dear.
[357] Nalingha reported all this to the Queen, who reported it to the King. Then Queen Mallikā asked him if their daughter Vajiri who is dear to them dies would be be filled with grief, lamentation, unpleasantness and distress. He said: "Even my life would be in danger, why should not grief, lamentation, unpleasantness and distress arise to me?". The same question was asked with respect to warrior Wasabha and General Widudabha who were both dear to the King and the same answer received. Finally he was asked if you lose Kashmire and Kosala, would you grieve? The King said "If I lose these territories even my life would be in danger, why should I not grieve and distress arise to me".

Then Mallikā said: "Great king, it was on account of this that the Buddha said dear ones bring grief, lament, unpleasantness and distress and the pleasure here is insignificant." Then the King turned in the direction of the Tathagata and said "I worship that Blessed One, perfect and rightfully enlightened".

Summary Analysis
The principle that the Buddha expressed was that the degree of sorrow at the loss of a dear one is proportionate to the extent that the deceased is loved and held dear to a person. He does not go into the reverse to this that would there be pleasure at an unfortunate things happening to someone who is considered an enemy and not loved on that account.

M 88. Bāhitikasutta
Discourse on the Warm (Foreign) Cloth

[358] In Sāvatthi. King Pasanedi seeing Ven Ananda coming sent a messenger to ask if he could spare sometime to discourse with the King. Ananda agreed and the King approached him and asked if Ananda could go to the banks of the Aciravati river. He agreed to do so.

[359] Ananda got to the river first and then the King joined him there are asked: "Venerable Aananda, does the Blessed One practise bodily behaviour that is hostile to recluses Brahmins and the wise?" The answer was "No, great king". Then he asked about hostile verbal and mental behaviour and the answer again was "No".

[360] Then the King asked: "What kind of bodily behaviour is hostile to recluses, Brahmins and the wise?" Ananda answered that it was behaviour that is faulty; this is turn was behaviour that is troublesome; this in turn was behaviour with unpleasant results; this in turn is behaviour which is hurtful to oneself, to others or to both. On account of such behaviour demerit increases.

Then Ananda was asked about verbal and mental behaviour hostile to recluses, Brahmins and the wise. Again the answer is the same. It is that which is faulty, caused by being troublesome, caused by unpleasant results, caused by behaviour hurtful to one self, others or both.

[361] Then Ananda was asked what kind of bodily behaviour is well disposed to recluses, Brahmins and the wise? Here the sequence was that it was behaviour that is faultless, caused by being not troublesome, caused by behaviour with pleasant results, which in turn was caused by behaviour which is not hurtful for oneself, to other or to both.

Then the same question is asked with respect to verbal and mental behaviour. The answer is again the same sequence ending up with behaviour which is not hurtful for oneself, to other or to both.

[362]Then the King expressed his wonder, surprise and pleasure at the words of Ven Ananda. He said he would have liked to gift him with his elephant or horse or a village but these would not be suitable. King Ajatasattu of Magadha had sent him a cloth that was warm (bāhitikā, sometimes translated as 'foreign') and he would like to present it to Ven Ananda. But Ananda said that he was already provided with the permitted three robes. But the King said that he could give his robes to other monks and use this warm (or foreign) robe. Ananda then accepted it.

[363] Soon after the king had gone, venerable Ananda approached the Blessed One. He then related the conversation with King Pasanedi and offered the warm (or foreign) cloth to the Buddha. The Buddha told the monks that it a great gain for the King to associate with Ven Ananda.

Summary Analysis
The questions asked of Ananda by the King are fairly trivial ones. The answers given were equally bland. There is nothing that is new in this sutta,


M 89. Dhammacetiyasutta
Discourse on Testimony to Dhamma

[NOTE: In this sutta most of the talking is done by King Pasanedi when he praises the the Buddha, the Dhamma and the Sangha. That is the testimony spoken of in the title. In this Abstract the "I" referenced in the speech is to the King.]

[364-366] This sutta opens with the Buddha at Medhalumpa in the Sākyan territry and King Pasandi of Kosala at Nangaraka also in Sākya about 20 miles away. The King sends a messenger Dūgha Kārāyana to seek the Buddha's permission to see him and when this is given he sets out by carriage to Medhalumpa. He knocked on the door of the monastery and when the Buddha admitted him he paid homage with his head laid at te Buddha's feet.

[367-368] [King Pasanedi said:] Venerable sir, I have come to the main drift of the Blessed One's Teaching. I see recluses and Brahmins, who lead the holy life for even forty years. Later I see them partaking of sensual pleasures; I see bhikkhus leading the holy life until the end of life, until they breathe their last breath. Kings, warriors, Brahmins, householders dispute with each other. So do mother, father, son, sister, brother and friend dispute with other. I see bhikkhus united and friendly, without a dispute. The disciples of the Blessed One have come to the right path.

[369] As I wander around the country I see certain recluses and Brahmins wasted, unpleasant, discoloured with jaundice, with protruding veins, not attractive to the eyes. Then it occurs to me these venerable ones live do not live the holy life or they have some undisclosed demerit. When I ask they why they are so they say that they suffer from jaundice. Here we see bhikkhus who are pleased, in good spirits, pleasant to the sight, are with satisfied mental faculties, leading a carefree life, without fear are ready to help, abide with minds like those of wild animals.

[370] I have power in my kingdom, to kill, destroy or banish, those who have done wrong. But even as I mete out justice I am interrupted. But when the Blessed One is teaching various hundreds of bhikkhus, even the sound of a sneeze or a cough is not heard. The gathering is well behaved, without, stick or weapon. Venerable sir, I have not seen a disciplined gathering like this anywhere else. The disciples of the Blessed One have come to the right path.

[371-372] Some disputans, be they warrior-caste wise ones (khattiyapanḍte) or wise Brahmins (brāmanapanḍte) when they hear that the Blessed one is visiting a certain place concoct a question thinking that when the Blessed One explains to pull him down and create a dispute. But the Blessed One advises them, incites them and makes their hearts light. Then they do not even ask the question and become disciples of the Blessed One. On account of this too I have come to the main drift of the Blessed One's Teaching.

[373] The master builders, Isidatta and Purāna, were brought up by me, given life by me, raised to that state by me. Yet these two do not show that same reverence to me, that they give to the Blessed One. In the past during a difficult time I went to their dwelling and they told me that they sleep, placing their heads towards where the Blessed One was, and their feet towards me. On account of this too I have come to the main drift of the Blessed One's Teaching. The Blessed One is rightfully enlightened, the Teaching of the Blessed One is well proclaimed. The disciples of the Blessed One have come to the right path.

[374] King Pasenadi concluded his talk as follows "Venerable sir, I'm a warrior, a man of Kosala eighty years old, the Blessed One too is a warrior, of Kosala and is eighty years of age. On account of this, too I show highest reverence and make these friendly offerings to this body. Venerable sir, now we go, there is much work to be done. "

Then King Pasenadi of Kosala departed. The Buddha addressed the bhikkhus. "Bhikkhus, king Pasenadi of Kosala made monuments to the Teaching. Bhikkhus, learn those monuments to the Teaching. They are conducive to good and belong to the fundamentals of the holy life." The Blessed One said that and those bhikkhus delighted in the words of the Blessed One.

M 90. Kaṇṇakattalasutta
At Kaṇṇakattala

[375 -377] Once when the Budddha was staying in the deer park Kaṇṇakattala at Uruññāya King Pasanedi too had come to Uruññāya and, after sending a message to that effect went to see the Buddha after his mid-day meal.

Then the King said: "Venerable sir, I have heard that you have said: 'There is no possibility that a recluse or Brahmin could acknowledge, knowledge and vision of everything without leaving out anything'. Are those who are saying this saying the whole truth?" The Buddha said "Those who say that are not speaking in line with what I have said, and are misrepresenting me with what is untrue and unfactual."

[378] Then the King asked General Vidudaba who brought this news to the Palace and was told that it was Sanjaya Akāsagotta. Then the King sent a man to summon Sanjaya. Meanwhile the King asked whether he had been misunderstood. The Buddhas said that his recollection was that 'There is no possibility that a recluse or Brahmin, could know and see everything at one and the same time.'

[379] Then the King asked: "These four castes of warriors, Brahmins, the common man and the slaves is there any difference?". Before answering this question the Buddha gave the five attributes for exertion. These are: (1) Faith in the Enlightened One; (2) Has few ailments; (3) Not being crafty and fraudulent; (4) dispels demerit strenuously; (5) Wise to see rise and fall of unpleasantness. The Buddha concluded by saying: "If these four castes are endowed with these five attributes of exertion, it will be for their good and welfare for a long time."

[380-381] Then the King raised the question whether there are differences in exertion between the castes. In answer to this the Buddha gave the example of two elephants, horses or bulls to be trained. If one is tamed and the other not tamed the tamed one can be easily trained. He also brought the example of a fire created out of different kinds of wood, the flame of the fire would be equally bright.

Then the again King changed the subject to gods, and asked if some would return and other not. The same was also said about Brahmas. The answer is that those with untroubled minds would return. General Vidudaba asked if gods with untroubled minds chases out those with troubled minds. Then Ananda intervenes and said that King can banish impure recluses but he cannot even see devas to bannish them. [NOTE: At this point the discussion gets extremely confused and no subject is taken to a conclusion.]

[382] At this point the Brahmin Sanjaya Akāsagotta is brought in and the talk briefly returns to the original subject of the omniscience of a recluse or Tathagata. But a man reminds the King that it is time to go and he departs. This ends the sutta.

Analytical Summary.
This is a very confusing sutta. Three subjects are broached:
 
(1) The first is whether knowledge of an enlightened person is unlimited or not. The original report on this was brought by the Brahmin Akāsagotta and a man is sent to fetch him and the discussion is suspended. It is only at the end that Sanjaya comes but the matter is not resolved.
(2) The second matter is the question of caste. On the question of caste differences the Buddha's position is stated, every person despite the caste can with proper exertion reach the highest highest level but there are personal differences relating to the exercise of exertion exists in all castes. This seems to be accepted by the King.
(3) The last issue relates to the question of gods. This is the one that is most unsatisfactorily dealt with, and no definite conclusion is reached.