Digha Nikāya


The Dīgha Nikāya opens the Sutta Piṭaka of the Pali Canon which contains the discourses which provide the foundation of the teaching of the Buddha (called the Buddha Dhamma). The Sīlakkhanda (literally 'Chapter on Morality') comprises the first 13 suttas (or discourses) of the Buddha. This Introduction will make a short statement about each of these suttas but a comprehensive summary of each sutta will be given in the Abstract of that sutta. These Abstracts immediately follow this Introduction.

The Brahmajāla sutta (D 1) after a brief statement on the Buddhist position on blasphemy it gives a detailed account of morality in three extended lists of sīlas. It then considers 62 wrong views on philosophical topics. The next sutta Sāmaññaphala Sutta (D 2) begins with a brief statement on the doctrines preached by six other teachers and then traces the path of the Noble Disciple from the time he hears the Dhamma and decides to go forth into homelessness until he reaches the final Buddhist goal of enlightenment. This part is a practical application of the Noble Eightfold Path and is repeated in many other suttas in this Nikāya and elsewhere.

In the third sutta Ambaṭṭha Sutta (D 3) a Brahmin sends his student to find if the Buddha has the signs of the mythical "Great Man" and confront his views on the Brahman caste. The Buddha calmly explains his position and the student is converted. In the next sutta Soṇadaṇḍa Sutta (D 4) the Buddha outlines the true qualities of a Brahmin. The Brahmins were the highest caste and they held that this was due to birth but the Buddha advances the view that it is action and morality that makes a Brahmin, not heredity. In the next sutta Kūṭadanta Sutta (D 5) the Buddha considers the principal Brahman rite of animal sacrifice and suggests to a Brahmin who was preparing to do such a sacrifice a different way of sacrifice that does not involve killing.

The next sutta Mahali Sutta (D 6) two issues are considered: the question of supernormal abilities like heavenly sights, and the metaphysical question of the difference between the body and the soul. This sutta is repeated in the next sutta Jāliya Sutta (D 7) to a different inquirer interested in the same matters. The next sutta Mahāsīhanāda Sutta (D 8) called the "Lion's Roar" is given to a naked ascetic explaining that extreme self mortification is unproductive. The ascetic is converted. The next sutta Poṭṭhapāda Sutta (D 9) involves a long conversation between the Buddha and the layman Poṭṭhapāda on several psychological matters involving consciousness and jhānic states. The elephant trainer Citta joins the conversation and both are converted with Citta becoming a monk.

The Subha Sutta (D 10) is given by Ananda after the Buddha's death and deals with some basic issues. The Khevaddha Sutta (D 11) deals with the question of miracles and even though the Buddha believed in them he considered that they should not be performed for pure demonstration. The Lohicca Sutta (D 12) deals with the question of good and bad teachers, and asserts that a new doctrine should not be kept secret. Finally the Tevijja Sutta (D 13) deals with the Way to Brahmā as given in the Vedas with the Buddha saying that the right way to do this is by meditation on the Brahma Vihāras.

D 1. Brahmajālasutta
The Perfect Net

[1-6] Once when the Buddha and the bhikkhus were travelling from Rajagaha to Nālanda a Brahmin Suppiya was also making this same journey and was criticising the Buddha in various ways. The Buddha's attention was drawn to this and the Buddha said: "Monks, if anyone should speak in disparagement of me, of the Dhamma or of the Sangha, you should not be angry, resentful or upset on that account. If you were to be angry or displeased at such disparagement, that would only be a hindrance to you. For if others disparage me, the Dhamma or the Sangha, and you are angry or displeased, can you recognise whether what they say is right or not? If others disparage me, the Dhamma or the Sangha, then you must explain what is incorrect as being incorrect." Then he added: " ... if others should speak in praise of me, of the Dhamma or of the Sangha, you should not on that account be pleased, happy or elated".

[7-27] Then the Buddha went on to consider what he said were "inferior matters of morality" for which ordinary people praise him. These included the abandonment of killing, of stealing, of false and malicious speech, harming plant life, immoderate eating, using luxurious furniture, watching shows, accepting money or animals and several other things. He said some recluses and Brahmins while receiving food and other requisites from householders engage in this kind of thing but he strictly avoids them.

The Buddha also said that he avoided some practices which certain recluses and Brahmins engage in such as astrology and palmistry; forecasting earthquakes, eclipses and the weather; disputation and gossip; medicine and surgery; self-adornment, playing games; and many other things he listed and which he abstained from.

[NOTE: The Buddha next proceeded to consider the sixty-two wrong views entertained by recluses and Brahmins which is the main purpose of this sutta. These views are numbered within curly brackets {} in the text below. The 62 wrong views are grouped into 10 categories as follows:
  1. Eternalists (4 types). {1}-{4}
  2. Part Eternalists and part Non-Eternalists. (4 types). {5}-{8}
  3. Finite and Infinite believers (4 types) {9}-{12}
  4. Eel Wrigglers (4 types) {13}-{16}
  5. Chance Originalists (2 types) {17}-{18}
  6. Conscious Post-Mortem Survivalists (16 types) {19}-{34}
  7. Unconscious Post Mortem Survivalists (8 types) {35}-{42}
  8. Neither Conscious nor Unconscious Post Mortem Survivalists (8) types) {43}-{50}
  9. Annihilationists (7 types) {51}-{57}
  10. Here and Now Nibbānists(5 types) {58}-{62}]

[28-30] There are more profound matters which a Tathagata can divine with his own super-knowledge. There are the Eternalists (sassatavādo) who proclaim the eternity of the self and world in four ways.

[31-37] One {1} Group A Eternalist claims to know a large number of past births (up to several hundred thousand) and comes to the conclusion of the eternity of self and world. {2} The second type recollecting innumerable periods of expansion and contraction of the world comes to the same conclusion. {3} The third type can count the periods of contraction-expansion by tens and comes to the same conclusion. {4} The fourth type is a logician or reasoner (takkī hoti vīmaṃsi) and using his method concludes that the self and world are rooted firmly as a post.

[38-50] Group B thinkers are Part Eternalists who give their own account of the cycles of evolution of the world. One {5} holds that on the contractions most beings go to the Abassara Brahma world and an empty Brahma palace emerges in the new expanding world. Then one Brahma falls into this palace and calling himself the Great Brahma. He wills others too to fall back into the world. This person can recall only one past existence and thinks that they are only partly eternal. Another {6} thinks that Khiḍḍāpadosikā Gods who are given over to merriment and pleasure occupy the world. But they too realize that they are impermanent and not eternal. Another {7} thinks that it is the Manopadosikā Gods (Corrupted gods) that come to the world. Their stay is also temporary. The last of this kind of thinker {8} is the logician and reasoner. By his logic he concludes that people can only be part eternalists.

[51-59] These are the Part C thinkers called Finite- and Infinite-believers (antānantavādo) who proclaim the finitude or infinitude of the world. The first {9} of these by effort reached a state of concentration in which he sees the world as finite. The he thinks so. Another {10} reached a state in which he sees the world as Infinite. He then thinks that this is how the world is. The third {11} by a similar exertion comes to the conclusion that the world is finite vertically and infinite horizontally. He thinks that the world is so. The fourth type {12} in this group is the logician and the reasoner. He comes to the conclusion that the world is neither finite nor infinite.

[60-65] These Part D thinkers are called eel-wrigglers because of their evasive nature (like the animal after which they are so named). They are of four types. The first type {13} gives an evasive answer because he does not know the truth or falsity of the matter at hand. The second type {14} fears attachment that might distress him, so he is evasive. The third type {15} is evasive because he fears that he might be challenged if he gives a straight answer and abhors any debate that might ensue. The last type{16} is evasive because he is a stupid person.

[66-70] The Part E thinkers are called Chance-Originationists (adhiccasamuppannikā). They are of two types. One {17} is a person who belonged to the category of Unconscious gods (sāññuppādā devā). These gods fall from that realm the moment that a perception arises. This happened to this person but he thought that this happened to him simply due to chance. That was his wrong view. The other instance {18} is when a logician or reasoner simply because of his line of thinking thinks that the orign of the self and the world is simply due to chance.

[71-73] These Part F thinkers are the most numerous as they come in 16 different types. They are called Speculators about the Future (pubbantakappikā). They declare that the self after death is healthy and conscious and {19} material, {20} immaterial, {21} both material and immaterial, {22} neither material nor immaterial, {23} finite, {24} infinite, {25}both, {26} neither, {27} of uniform perception, {28} of varied perception, {29} of limited perception {30} of unlimited perception, {31} wholly happy, {32} wholly miserable, {33} both, {34} neither. There is no other way.

[74-77] These are the Part G thinkers who are called Unconscious-After-Death Survivalists (uddhamāghātanikā saññīvādā). They are of eight types: They declare that the self after death is healthy and unconscious and {35} material, {36} immaterial, {37} both, {38} neither, {39} finite, {40} infinite, {41} both, {42} neither.

[78-81] These thinkers (Part H) thinkers are called Neither-Conscious-nor-Unconcious-After- Death-Survivalists (uddhamāghātanikā asaññīvādā) who come in 8 ways. 'They declare that the self after death is healthy and neither conscious nor unconscious and {43} material, {44} immaterial, {45} both, {46} neither, {47} finite, {48} infinite, {49} both, {50} neither.

[82-92] These thinkers called (Part I) Annihilationists (nevasaññīnāsaññīvādo) proclaim the destruction and non-existence of beings in seven ways. One {51} claims that since the self is composed of the four Great Elements it perishes at death and is no more. The second asserts that {52} in the self there is an invisible divine part which is the self that is annihilated at death. The third one {53} says that there is another self which is divine, material and mind-made and it is this self that perishes at death. The fourth {54} asserts that there is a self that has realized the Sphere of Infinite Space and it is this self that perishes at death. The fifth {55} asserts that the real self has reached the Sphere of Infinite Space and it is this self that perishes. The sixth {56} asserts the self has gone to the Sphere of Nothingness and it is this self that perishes. The last one{57} says that the self has penetrated up to the Sphere of Neither-Perception-nor-Non-Perception and gets annihilated at death.

[93-99] This is the final group (Part J) of thinkers who assert Nibbāna Here and Now (diṭṭadhammanibbānavāda) in five ways. The first {58} of these assert that since the self is now enjoying the five sense pleasures it has already reached nibbāna. The next {59} argues that the self persists into the first jhāna and thinks that it has reached nibbāna. The next {60} asserts that the self has to go to the second jhāna to do so. The next {61} that the third jhāna is the real nibbāna. The last one {62} asserts that the fourth jhāna is the only way that Nibbāna Here and Now can be achieved. [This completes the list of 62 wrong views.]

[100-145] All this the Tathagata knows but he is not attached to this knowledge. The Buddha then makes again a summary statement of the 62 wrong views. Then he says that all those who hold these views experience feelings by repeated contact through the six sense bases ; feeling conditions craving. craving conditions clinging, clinging conditions becoming, becoming conditions birth. birth conditions ageing and death, sorrow, lamentation, sadness and distress. When, monks, a monk understands as they really are the arising and passing away of the six bases of contact, their attraction and peril, and the deliverance from them, he knows that which goes beyond all these views.

 [146-149] Whatever ascetics and Brahmins who are speculators about the past or the future or both, having fixed views on the matter and put forth speculative views about it, these are all trapped in the net with its sixty-two divisions, and wherever they emerge and try to get out, they are caught and held in this net. Just as a skilled fisherman or his apprentice might cover a small piece of water with a fine-meshed net, they are trapped and caught in this net.

The body of the Tathagata stands with the link that bound it to becoming cut. As long as the body subsists, devas and humans will see him. But at the breaking-up of the body and the exhaustion of the life-span, devas and humans will see him no more. At these words the Venerable Ananda said to the Lord: 'It is marvellous, Lord, it is wonderful. What is the name of this exposition of Dhamma?' 'Ananda, you may remember this exposition of Dhamma as the Net of Advantage, the Net of Dhamma, the Supreme Net, the Net of Views, or as the Incomparable Victory in Battle.' Thus the Lord spoke, and the monks rejoiced and were delighted at his words.

Summary Analysis
This sutta consists of three segments. In the first the Buddha gives his views on disparagement of religion now known as blasphemy. In theistic religion such criticism has been banned and those fount guilty are imprisoned, tortured and even executed. The Buddha's view is the opposite. He says that any such criticism should be listened to and errors pointed out. No kind of penalty is imposed.

The second section is the statement of morality and Buddha contrasts his moral principles with those of many recluses and Brahmins. However important such moral principles be they are secondary to real knowledge.

In the third section the Buddha gives the 62 wrong views. These are not the views advanced in the principal religions of the day like Jainism, Vedantism and even Brahmanism. They are views entertained on the subject of the self and the world by some unnamed recluses and Brahmins. These views are stated and declared wrong but no detailed refutation of the views is provided. Nor does the Buddha go into a statement of Right Views which represent his thinking.

D 2. Sāmaññaphalasutta
Fruits of the Homeless Life

[150-156] Once King Ajatasattu of Magada was sitting on the upper story of his palace with his ministers on a full moon night when he expressed a desire to meet some ascetic or Brahmin. Then he asked his ministers who he should visit. One suggested Purana Kassapa, another Makkhali Gosala, another Kesa Kambali, another Pakudha Kaccayana, another Sanjaya Belathaputta, and another Niganta Nataputta. But the King was silent for all these suggestions.

[157-161] Then Jivaka Komrabacca suggested thst the Buddha be visited with the usual statement of praise of the Buddha. The King agreed to this and ordered a party to be prepared to visit the Buddha who was then staying in Jivaka's mango-grove. The party then went thither and the King was impressed with the calmness of the bhikkhus who were with the Buddha.

[162-164] Then the following conversation took place between the King and the Buddha:

KINGIf only Prince Udayabhadda were possessed of such calm as this order of monks!
BUDDHA Do your thoughts go to the one you love, Your Majesty?
KINGLord, Prince Udayabhadda is very dear to me. If only he were possessed of the same calm as this order of monks! Lord, I would ask something, if the Lord would deign to answer me
BUDDHAAsk, Your Majesty, ask anything you like.
KINGLord, just as there are these various craftsmen, such as elephant-drivers [and many other vocations are given] - and whatever other skills there are: they [and family and friends] enjoy the visible fruits of their skills, and are delighted and pleased. They maintain and support ascetics and Brahmins. Can you point to such a reward visible here and now as a fruit of the homeless life?'
BUDDHAYour Majesty, do you admit that you have put this question to other ascetics and Brahmins?
KINGI admit it, Lord
BUDDHAWould Your Majesty mind saying how they replied?
KING'I do not mind telling the Lord, or one like him.
BUDDHAWell then, Your Majesty, tell me.

[165-166] Then the King gave the following account of what these teachers had told him. Purana Kassapa on being asked about the present fruits of the homeless life, explained non-action to me. Just as if on being asked about a mango he were to describe a breadfruit-tree, or vise versa Purana Kassapa, on being asked about the present fruits of the homeless life, explained non-action to me. And I thought: "How should one like me think despitefully of any ascetic or Brahmin dwelling in my territory?" So I neither applauded nor rejected Purana Kassapa's words but, though displeased, not expressing my displeasure, saying nothing, rejecting and scorning speech, I got up and left.

[167-169] Makkhali Gosala said: "There is no cause or condition for the defilement of beings, they are defiled without cause or condition. There is no cause or condition for the purification of beings, they are purified without cause or condition. There is no self-power or other-power, there is no power in humans, no strength or force, no vigour or exertion. All beings, all living things, all creatures, all that lives is without control, without power or strength, they experience the fixed course of pleasure and pain through the six kinds of rebirth. There are 1,400,000 principal sorts of birth, and 6000 others and again 600. There are 500 kinds of kamma ..., 62 paths, 62 intermediary aeons, 6 classes of humankind, 8 stages of human progress, 4900 occupations, 4900 wanderers, 4900 abodes of nagas, 2000 sentient existences, 3000 hells, 36 places of dust, 7 classes of rebirth as conscious beings, 7 as unconscious beings, and 7 as beings freed from bonds, 7 grades of devas, men, goblins, 7 lakes, 7 great and 7 small protuberances, 7 great and 7 small abysses, 7 great and 7 small dreams, 8,400,000 aeons during which fools and wise run on and circle round till they make an end of suffering.

Therefore there is no such thing as saying: 'By this discipline or practice or austerity or holy life I will bring my unripened kamma to fruition, or I will gradually make this ripened kamma go away'. Neither of these things is possible, because pleasure and pain have been measured out with a measure limited by the round of birth-and-death, and there is neither increase nor decrease, neither excellence nor inferiority. Just as a ball of string when thrown nuns till it is all unravelled, so fools and wise run on and circle round till they make an end of suffering.

Thus, Lord, Makkhali Gosala, on being asked about the fruits of the homeless life, explained the purification of the round of birth-and-death to me. So I neither applauded nor rejected Makkhali Gosala's words but got up and left.

[170-172] 'Once I visited Ajita Kesakambali, and asked him the same question. Ajita Kesakambah said: Your Majesty, there is nothing given, bestowed, offered in sacrifice, there is no fruit or result of good or bad deeds, there is not this world or the next, there is no mother or father [worthy of respect] , there are no spontaneously arisen beings, there are in the world no ascetics or Brahmins who have attained, who have perfectly practised, who proclaim this world and the next, having realised them by their own super-knowledge. This human being is composed of the four great elements, and when one dies the earth part reverts to earth, the water part to water, the fire part to fire, the air part to air, and the faculties pass away into space. They accompany the dead man with four bearers and the bier as fifth, their footsteps are heard as far as the cremation-ground. There the bones whiten, the sacrifice ends in ashes. It is the idea of a fool to give this gift: the talk of those who preach a doctrine of survival is vain and false. Fools and wise, at the breaking-up of the body, are destroyed and perish, they do not exist after death.

Thus, Lord, Ajita Kesakambali, on being asked about the fruits of the homeless life, explained the doctrine of annihilation to me. I got up and left.

[173-175] 'Once I visited Pakudha Kaccāyana, and asked him the same question. Pakudha Kaccāyana said: Your Majesty, these seven things are not made or of a kind to be made, uncreated, unproductive, barren, false, stable as a column. They do not shake, do not change, obstruct one another, nor are they able to cause one another pleasure, pain, or both. What are the seven? The earth-body, the water-body, the fire-body, the air-body, pleasure and pain and the life-principle. These seven are not made. Thus there is neither slain nor slayer, neither hearer nor proclaimer, neither knower nor causer of knowing. And whoever cuts off a man's head with a sharp sword does not deprive anyone of life, he just inserts the blade in the intervening space between these seven bodies.

Thus, Lord, Pakudha Kaccayana, on being asked about the fruits of the homeless life, answered with something quite different. I got up and left.

[176-178] The Nigantha Nataputta said: "Your Majesty, here a Nigantha is bound by a fourfold restraint. What four? He is curbed by all curbs, enclosed by all curbs, cleared by all curbs, and claimed by all curbs. And as far as a Nigantha is bound by this fourfold restraint, thus the Nigantha is called self-perfected, self-controlled, self-established.

Thus, Lord, the Nigantha Nātaputta, on being asked about the fruits of the homeless life, explained the fourfold restraint to me ... I got up and left.

[179-181] Once I visited Sanjaya Belatthaputta, and asked him the same question. Sanjaya Belatthaputta said: If you ask me: 'Is there another world?' if I thought so, I would say so. But I don't think so. I don't say it is so, and I don't say otherwise. I don't say it is not, and I don't not say it is not. If you ask: 'Isn't there another world?'...'Both?'...'Neither?'...'Is there fruit and result of good and bad deeds?' 'Isn't there?'...'Both?'...'Neither?'. ..'Does the Tathagata exist after death?' 'Does he not?'. . .'Both?'. . .'Neither?'. . . I don't not say it is not.

Thus, Lord, Sanjaya Belatthaputta, on being asked about the fruits of the homeless life, replied by evasion. Just as if on being asked about a mango he were to describe a breadfruit tree ... And I thought: "Of all these ascetics and Brahmins, Sanjaya Belatthaputta is the most stupid and confused." So I neither applauded nor rejected his words, but go up and left.

[182-189] Then the following conversation between the Buddha and the King took place:
BUDDHA  Suppose you had a slave who thought "I am a man just like the King but he enjoys all the sense pleasures while I slave due to my karma.". Then he goes forth, becomes a monk, and develops the qualities of a good monk. He comes back before you. Would you treat him as a slave as you did before?
KINGNo indeed. For we should pay homage to him.
BUDDHAIs that one fruit of the homeless life visible here and now?
BUDDHAThen that is the first such fruit of the homeless life.
KING'But can you show any other reward, visible here and now, as a fruit of the homeless life?
BUDDHASuppose there were a farmer, you have appointed as a steward of an estate. He thinks: "I am a man the King is a man. Yet he enjoys the five strands of sense pleasure while I am a mere farmer". He then goes forth and lives in solitude. If people were to tell you this would you then say: "That man must come back and be a steward as before"?
KINGNo indeed, we should pay proper homage to him. Can you show me any other reward visible here and now?
BUDDHA I can, Please listen carefully to what I say.

[190-193] The Buddha said: A Tathāgata gets born in this world and he preaches the Dhamma which is heard by a householder who cuts hair and beard dons yellow robes and goes into homelessness. Having gone forth, he dwells restrained by the restraint of the rules [of the pātimokkha] and becomes devoted to the skilled and purified life, perfected in morality.

[194-212] [NOTE: These sections on morality are identical to the sections on the lesser, the middle and the greater morality given in the Brahmajāla Sutta (D 1), see abstract of that sutta. They are therefore excluded from this Abstract.]

[213-217] He then guards the sense-doors. On seeing a visible object with the eye, does not grasp at it. He knows that greed and sorrow will overwhelm him if he dwelt on the eye-faculty unguarded. He does the same with the ear and sound, the nose and odours, the tongue and tastes, the body and touches and the mind and ideas. He experiences the bliss that comes from maintaining this Ariyan guarding of the faculties. Then he accomplishes mindfulness and clear awareness in all the physical activities he is engaged in. He then develops contentment with the alms he gets as food an the robes he gets to wear. He then seeks a dwelling under a tree or an empty place and dwells with a mind freed of worldly desires. Abandoning ill-will and hatred by compassionate love for the welfare of all living beings, abandoning sloth-and-torpor, abandoning worry-and-flurry, abandoning doubt he dwells with things that are wholesome, his mind purified.

[218-225] A number of similes are given to portray the monk at this stage of his development:
  1. A man who has taken a loan to develop his business pays off the debt when his business has succeeded.
  2. A man who has been sick with no appetite and weak in body gets cured of his illness recovers his appetite and is strong again.
  3. A man who has been put in prison but is released with no deductions from his possessions.
  4. A man who was a slave is freed from his slavery and free to go wherever he likes.
  5. A trader laden with goods embarks on a long desert journey but after a time a reaches a village.
In all these cases the person involved would rejoice and be glad just as the monk who has eliminated the five hindrances.

[226-235] Now the monk is in a position to enter and remain in the first jhāna which has thinking and pondering born of detachment. From there he progresses into the second jhāna in which concentration replaces thinking and pondering. Next he reaches the third jhāna in which he excels with equanimity and mindfulness. Then having given up pleasure and pain, and with the disappearance of former gladness and sadness, enters and remains in the fourth jhāna which is beyond pleasure and pain, and purified by equanimity and mindfulness. This is another fruit of the homeless life more excellent and perfect than the former ones. He knows that the body is made up of material things and his consciousness is dependent on it and tied to it.

[236-249] The monk with mind concentrated, having gained imperturbability, applies and directs his mind to the production of a mind-made body. He then directs his mind to various supernormal powers (iddhi). This is another fruit of the homeless life. He then directs his mind to acquiring the Divine Ear. (that is the ability to hear distant sounds). Next comes the power to read others' minds. Next comes the ability to see his past existences in great detail even up to a hundred thousand births in many periods of universal contraction and expansion. He then develops the ability to see beings passing from one existence to another based on their kamma. Finally he directs his mind to the knowledge of the destruction of the corruptions. With this he reaches his final goal: "Birth is finished, the holy life has been led, done is what had to be done, there is nothing further here".

[250-253] Then King Ajatasattu applauded the Buddha in the usual way and confessed to the crime of depriving his father of his life for the sake of the throne. The Buddha then said that since he had acknowledged his transgression and confessed it he would accept it. Then the King left. After that the Buddha said: "'The King is done for, his fate is sealed. But if the King had not deprived his father of his life, then as he sat, here the pure and spotless Dhamma eye would have arisen in him". The monks rejoiced in his words.

Summary Analysis
This sutta is important one for several reasons. It begins with the King's statement of what the six other teachers had said about his question on what the benefits of the homeless life were. Despite the brevity of their reported views it is one of the few places where this is available.

On the Buddha's question the two examples given of the slave and the farmer-steward who became monks and were acclaimed as benefiting from the homeless life. After this comes the example of the path of a noble disciple from his going forth right up to the his final release. This is a story told in many a sutta but it may be questioned if these examples answer the King's question. His concern was the benefits of the ordinary worker not only to himself but to his relatives, friends and those to whom he extends charity. The benefits of the recluse are only for himself and do not compare with the wider spread of benefit from the normally employed person.

The sutta also gives the progress of the monk through the four jhānas and the super-normal powers that he develops. In later suttas this is developed into a specific path that ends in Nibbāna.

This has also some relevance to the debate between the Mahayana and the Theravada. The Mahayanists claim that the Theravadins are concerned only with their selfish interests and this sutta may appear to support their charge.

D 3. Ambhaṭṭhasutta
About Ambhaṭṭha

The First Part

[254-274] Once when the Buddha was touring Kosala he came to the Brahmin village Iccanakala. The Brahmin Phokkarasati who was was living Ukhatta heard the praise of Gotama and thought that it was good to see him. So he sent his pupil Ambhatta to see the Buddha to find if what was said of him is true. In particular he wanted to know if he had the 32 marks of a Great Man. Ambhatta came to the presence of Gotama but did not give the usual courtesies and even went to the extent of abusing the Sakyans.

[267-] The Buddha then asked what clan Ambhatta came from and he said that he was a Kanhayan. The Buddha said that the Sakyans were descended from King Okkaka while Ambhatta was descended from a slave girl of the Sakyans. This did not please Ambhatta's companions and the Buddha asked Ambhatta from whom the Kanhayans were descended from. Ambhatta was silent until the yakkha Vajrapani stood over him with an iron bar forcing him to admit that the Buddha had been right about his origin. Then his companions began to clamour that Ambhatta was ill born, and the Buddha had to pacify them, by telling them Kanha was a mighty sage.

[275-277] Then the Buddha postulated a hypothetical union between a Khattiya youth and Brahmin girl out of which a son was born and what would happen. Then Ambhatta said that the son would be allowed to participate at funeral rites, would be taught the mantras, would keep their women uncovered, but would not be allowed to participate in the Khattiya consecration because the son would not be well born. Then the Buddha postulated the case of a Brahmin youth marrying a Khatttiya girl with a son being born. Here too the son would not be allowed in the Khattiya consecration. The Buddha then said that that this proved that Khattiyas were senior to Brahmins. The Buddha then ascertained that if the Brahmins or the Khattiyas expelled one their own kind for them clan for some offence he expelled person would not be allowed to participate in holy ceremonies. The Buddha then said that these proved this verse attributed to Brahma Sanankumara, with which he too agreed was correct:
The Khattiya is best among those who value clan
He with knowledge and conduct is best among gods and men.

The second Part

[278-279] In explaining conduct and knowledge the Buddha starts with the rise of a Tathāgata. He then goes through the narrative of a clansman becoming a noble disciple guarding he sense doors, attaining the jhānas, developing right conduct, overcoming the corruptions, achieving the various stages and finally reaching the goal. This is the correct path.

[280-286] Then the Buddha addresses Ambhattha on the wrong path of the Brahmin ascetics. He takes to the forest trying to live on chance food, then of roots and tubers he digs up, then tending the fire, then attending on other ascetics. These are paths of failure, Even Ambhatta's teacher would fail following this path. Even though Pokkharasati lives on a grant given by King Pasanedi the King will not even see him face to face. If someone were to impersonate the King he would not be believed. This is like those repeating chants of Brahmins of old like Atthaka, Vessamitta, Bhagu etc. The Buddha then gave some practices indulged in by the Brahmins of old which Ambhattha said he did not know. These included indulging in self adornment, eating only fine foods, amusing themselves with women, riding around in chariots drawn by mares urged on with long goads, living in towns guarded by swordsmen. To all these Ambatta said that he did not know. Then the Buddha began walking up and down and Ambhattha followed him observing the Buddha for the 32 marks of a Great Man. He missed out only two, the genitals and the long tongue. The Buddha knowing this revealed the former though a magic act and the latter by drawing out his tongue and touching all parts of the face with it. Then Ambattha took leave and departed.

[289-292] When Ambhatta returned he found the Brahmin Pokkarasati seated outside surrounded by his followers. Ambhatha then related all the details of his visit to Gotama. Pokkharasati then upbraided Ambhatta for having heaped insults on Gotama and anyone doing such a things would go to Hell. He then kicked Ambhatta and wanted to go to see the Buddha immediately. But as it was late his followers urged him to go the next day.

[293-299] After the usual courtesies the Brahmin enquired about his pupils's visit and the Buddha told him all what happened. Then the Brahmin said that Ambhatta is a young fool and may he be pardoned. The Buddha did so adding: May Ambhattta be happy. Then the Brahmin looked for the 32 marks and missed the two. Knowing his the Buddha revealed this as he had done to Ambhatta. Then the Brahmin invited the Buddha for the meal the next day which the Buddha accepted by his usual silence.

Then the next day after the meal the Buddha gave his usual graduated discourse which he gives to newcomers to the Dhamma. This dealt with generosity, morality, heaven, the danger of sense desires, and the profit of renunciation. Pokkharasati absorbed all this like a clean cloth taking up the dye. He then begged to be taken as a lay follower of the Buddha up to the end of his life.

Summary Analysis
This Sutta adds little that is new. The first part shows how the Buddha deals with a proud and bombastic person, which he did by revealing the real truth of his ill birth. In the second part he gives both the right and the wrong conduct and knowledge.

The Buddha's position on caste is well stated in many other suttas especially in the middle length collection. He has already questioned the superiority assumed by the Brahmins. Here he adduces the point that even among those who adhere to caste distinctions the khattiyas comes ahead of the Brahmins. The absurdity of the 32 marks of the Great Man is dealt with in an identical way in a sutta in the Middle Length collection. This is one of the many debts that Buddhism owes to the myths of that age and has no place in rational times.


D 4. Soṇadaṇḍasutta
About Soṇadaṇḍa

[300-305] Once the Buddha stayed on the shore of the Gaggara Lake in Campa. The Brahamin Soṇadaṇḍa was also living there. He saw people going towards the Lake and on inquiry found that they were going to see the recluse Gotama and he too decided to visit him. At that time several leading Brahmins had come to Campa on some business and hearing that Soṇadaṇḍa had decided to see the recluse Gotam came to the Brahmin to dissuade him from this course of action. They gave praise to Soṇadaṇḍa and said that because of his high position Gotama should come to him rather than he go to see the recluse. But Soṇadaṇḍa gave many more reasons why Gotama was deserving of being visited.

[306-311] So Soṇadaṇḍa set out to meet Gotama but on the way he had doubts how Gotama will treat his questions, whether he will be humiliated, because if so his reputation would diminish and with that his wealth. But he continued on his journey and met the Buddha and after exchanging civilities sat down on a side still beset with his doubts. The Buddha divined this reading of Soṇadaṇḍa's mind and to set him at ease decided to ask him about the Vedas.

The Buddha then asked Soṇadaṇḍa how many qualities a Brahmin should have to be regarded as an accomplished Brahmin. The Brahmin said that there were five qualities: (1) he should be well born on both sides for seven generations; (2) he should be a master of the three Vedas and should be able to recite the mantras; (3) he should be good looking, of perfect complexion and good physique; (4) he should be virtuous; (5) He should be leaned and wide and be the first or second to hold the sacrificial ladle.

[312-316] Then the Buddha asked is some of these could be left out. Soṇadaṇḍa agreed that some could be left out and the absolutely ones were two: viz. (1) he is morally virtuous, mature in virtue, endowed with mature virtue; (2) he is learned and wise, the first or second to hold out the sacrificial ladle. At this the Brahmins supporting Soāadaṇḍa protested for having left out birth and complexion. Then the Buddha addressed the protesting Brahmins and said: "If you think that the Brahmin Soṇadaṇḍa is unlearned or should not discuss with the recluse Gotama let Soṇadaṇḍa stop. Otherwise you should stop".

Then Soṇadaṇḍa intervened and said that he will answer the Brahmins. He told that that they should not say that he is adopting the recluse Gotama's words. He does not decry appearance, mantras or birth. Then Soṇadaṇda pointed to his nephew Aṅgaka who was listening. He said that nephew Aṅgaka had all the traditional qualities of a Brahamiin but it is because of the two qualities that he had mentioned that he can say that he is a true Brhamin.

[317] Then the Buddha inquired if of the two qualities (virtue and wisdom) it is possible to leave out one and have only one quality to define a true Brahmin. The Brahmin said that it was not possible because it was like trying to wash one hand without the other. The Buddha agreed with this and said that both were essential. Then the Buddhas was asked to explain this matter in detail.

[318 NOTE: At this point the Buddha begins the story of the appearance of a Tathagata and a noble disciple agreeing to follow the true Dhamma. He repeats the matters given in discourses like the Sāmaññaphala sutta relating to the accomplishment of morality (short, middle and long). Then he goes into the guarding the sense-doors, the various insights, and the acquiring of the three-fold knowledge including the elimination of the influxes (corruptions) which opens the door to the final release. The section is omitted from this Abstract as it is given in the sutta referred to.]

[319] At this Soṇadaṇḍa praised the Buddha calling his discourse excellent and asked to be accepted as a lay disciple. He then invited the Buddha for the meal the next day together with the bhikkhus which was accepted in the usual manner. After this the Buddha departed.

[320-322] The next day the Brahmin had the meal prepared and the bhikkhus came was served the meal after which the Brahmin took a low seat. He said "When I go into an assembly and salute with joined palms take that as a salutation to venerable Gotama, when I take off my headgear take it as bowing at your your feet, when I raise the goad in my carriage take it as getting down from the carriage and bowing at your feet. Then the Buddha gave a talk on Dhamma and departed.

Summary Analysis
This begins with the discussion on what makes a real Brahmin and the Buddha was able to narrow it down to five qualities and finally, with Soṇadaṇḍa agreeing, to two, namely virtue and wisdom. This why the Arhat is often referred to as Brahmin in several Buddhist texts like the Dhammapada.

D 5. Kūṭadantasutta
About Kūṭadanta

[323-329] Once the Buddha was living at the Khāṇumate in Kosala. At that time Kūṭadanta was administering the district on a royal domain given by King Bimbisāra of Maghada. Kūṭadanta was preparing for a large sacrifice with many animals brought to the sacrificial area. When the news of the Buddha's arrival got around the people of Khāṇumate began going to the Ambalaṭṭika Park where the Buddha was staying. Observing this Kūṭadanta let it be known that he too would like to visit the recluse Gotama.

[330-339] Then some Brahmins of the place went to Kūṭadanta to dissuade him from going to see the recluse Gotama. They argued that as Kūṭadana was a pure Brahmin and the leader of the Brahmins and several other reasons why it was Gotama who should visit him. But Kūṭadanta gave a large number of reasons why it was fitting for him to visit the recluse Gotama. [These arguments are similar to those used by the Brahmin Soṇadaṇḍa when his local Brahmins had tried to prevent him from seeing Gotama (see Soṇadaṇḍa Sutta)].

[334-335] So Kūṭadanta and the local Brahmins came to the Buddha and sat on a side. Then Kūṭadanta said: "I hear that master Gotama knows about the successful performance of the threefold sacrifice and its sixteen requisites. I am going to do such a sacrifice and I would like master Gotama to teach me how to do this successfully".

[335-339] [The Buddha's response to this strange request was to relate the story of how the King Maha Vijitha in the past conducted such a sacrifice.] The Buddha said, "Brahmin pay close attention I will speak".

At that time there was a plague of robberies and disorder in the country of King Vijitha. On the advice of his minister (purohita) the king instead of punishing miscreants gave them grain and capital so that they could do honest work. The disorders subsided. Then he turned his attention to the preparations for the sacrifice.

[340-348] The sacrifice was accomplished successfully. The following were the principal aspects of King Vijitha's sacrifice:

  1. On the advice of the purohita the King invited the khattiyas, the public officials, the householders and the Brahmins to be partners in the sacrifice to which they agreed.
  2. The king had the eight requisite qualities to make the sacrifice: pure birth, right lineage, good complexion, great wealth, strong army, charity towards recluses, learning and intelligence.
  3. The purohita had the required four qualities: well-born on both sides, expert mantra reciter, morally virtuous and qualified to be the first or second to hold out the sacrificial ladle.
  4. The three-fold purity was honoured: Before, while and after making the sacrifice the king did not show any regret.
  5. Some who came to the sacrifice were evil doers (destroying life, taking what is not given, have evil lusts, engaging in wrong speech or have wrong views). Others were not be evil doers. Those that were evil bore their own evil, while the king sacrificed on behalf of the others.
  6. No animals were killed and the sacrifice was done with ghee, oil, butter, milk, honey, sugar and the like. No trees were cut to make the sacrificial post.
  7. The gifts brought by those who came for the sacrifice were not accepted by the king but as they did not want to take them back they were laid the gifts around the sacrificial pit.
  8. There were no slaves and all those who worked did so voluntarily.

The Buddha concluded his narration of King Vijita's sacrifice with these words addressed to the Brahmin Kūṭadata: "And thus, Brahmin, there were the four consenting parties, the rajah Maha Vijita endowed with eight qualities, the brahmin purohita endowed with four qualities, and the three modes (of offering). This, brahmin, is called the successful sacrifice with the three modes and the sixteen requisites." At this Kūṭadanta remained silent while the other Brahmins applauded the Buddha's words.

[349-353] When questioned on his silence Kūṭadaṇṭa said that it not because he did not believe what Gotama had said but because Gotama had not said "Thus have I heard". He thought that Gotama was relating a personal experience. Then Gotama said that the story of King Vijita's sacrifice was a pervious life experience when he was the purohita in that life. Gotama was then asked what gifts were superior to the sacrifice of King Vijita. He then nominated these gifts each one better than the previous one:
  1. Whatever regular family gifts given to virtuous ascetics.
  2. Anyone providing shelter to monks coming from distant places.
  3. Anyone with a pure heart going for refuge in the Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha.
  4. Anyone with a pure mind who undertakes the precepts.
  5. Anyone who follows a Tatagata's teaching on morality, the Jhānas and the higher states leading to final release.

[354-358] Then Kūṭadanta praised what the Buddha had said in the usual terms. He then asked that he be considered as a lay follower of the Buddha for life. He said that he had set free the seven hundred each of bulls, bullocks, heifers, goats and rams that had been destined for the sacrifice. Then the Buddha gave Kūṭadanta the graduated discourse on the the Dhamma he gives newcomers to the Dhamma. Kūṭadanta then invited the Buddha and monks for the meal the next day. The Buddha accepted this invitation and went to Kūṭadanta's residence the next day, and after the meal gave further instruction in the Dhamma and departed.

Summary Analysis
This sutta is similar to the conversion of the Brahmin Soṇadaṇḍa in the sutta of that name. The difference here is that a great sacrifice of animals was avoided. The strategy used to convert the Brahmin was the sacrifice conducted by the King Vijita in one of the Buddha's previous births. That birth story (jātaka) like the others of this kind has to be taken as a mythical edifying tale.

D 6. Mahālisutta
About Mahāli

[359-362] Once when the Buddha was living at the Gabled Hall in the Great Wood at Vesali a number of Brahmins had come to Vesali from Kosala and Magadha. When they heard that the Buddha was residing at Vesali they wanted to see him and went to the Gabled Hall. Then they asked the Buddha's attendant who was a monk called Nāgita they were told that the Buddha was in solitude. So they decided to wait. Then a Licchavi called Oṭṭaddhopi [also referred to as Mahali] with his supporters also wanted to see the Buddha and was given the same reply by Nāgita. Then Siha a novice told Nāgita that these Brahmins and others should be allowed to see the Buddha and he was told to ask the Buddha himself. Then Siha did that and the Buddha told him to make preparations outside the Hall and that the Buddha will see those waiting to see him.

[363-365] Then Siha made the preparations and the Buddha came out and sat down with those waiting taking seats on either side. Then Oṭṭadattha said: "The Licchavi Sunakkhatta told me that he had been a follower of the Buddha for three years and that he could see delightful heavenly forms but he could not hear heavenly sounds. Now sir why is it that he could not hear these delightful heavenly sounds or are there no such heavenly sounds?".

[366-371] The Buddha replied: ""Suppose a recluse practised one-sided concentration of mind with the object of seeing heavenly forms, not hearing heavenly sounds, then since he has practised one-sided concentration he sees heavenly sights, hear heavenly sounds. And why not? Because of the nature of his self concentration (samādhi)". He added that if one were to practice one-sided concentration to see hear heavenly sounds he will only hear those sounds. But if he practiced with the double object of both seeing and hearing then he will both see and hear.

[372-373] Then Mahali asked if it was for that reason that bhikkhus practiced such self-concentration. The Buddha gave an emphatic "No, Mahāli". Then asked what were the sweeter and more important objectives that a monk has to adopt the holy life (brahamcāriya) he gave a series of objectives each one better than the last:
  1. Become a Stream Winner (sotāpatthi) by eliminating three fetters.
  2. Become a Once-Returner by eliminating the three fetters together with reducing greed, hatred and ill-will.
  3. Become a Non-Returner by abandoning the five lower fetters.
  4. Become an Arhat by by the complete destruction of the āsavas (influxes, taints, intoxications, corruptions, etc)
[374-377] [NOTE: At this point the Buddha recalls an episode that occurred when he was in Kosambi when two recluses Mārissa and Jāliya raised the question whether the soul and the body were the same or different. The Buddha's answer is contained in the next sutta D 7. Jāliya Sutta and it given in the Abstract to that sutta.]

Mahali then asks if there is a path for realising this goal of being an Arhat. The Buddha says that it is the Noble Eightfold Path from Right Views to Right Concentration. When a Tathāgata  appears and preached the true Dhamma a householder out of faith goes forth and becomes a disciple. He then develops the aryan morals, the foundations of mindfulness and the four Jhānas. Finally he realises the goal of the holy life.

Oṭṭhadatta (Mahāli) rejoiced at the Buddha's words.

Summary Analysis
In this Sutta the Buddha develops on the notion of one-sided concentration which is not usually presented in the discussion of concentration (samādhi). It may have been a devise to explain the problem of Sunakhatta. Otherwise the road to Arhatship given is the usual one of the elimination of the fetters. The Eightfold Path is also mentioned in this connection but the subsequent questioning of Mahāli indicates that it is not a strict a "path" but a collection of qualities necessary to realize the goal of Arhatship. The only real path is that followed by the Noble Disciple from the development of the Sīlas to the elimination of the āsavas.

D 7. Jāliyasutta
About Jāliya.

[378] Once when the Buddha was living at Gositārāma in Kosambi, when two wanderers, Mandissa and Jaliya, the pupil of the wooden-bowl ascetic, came to him and exchanged courtesies. Then they said: "How is it, friend Gotama, is the soul (jīva) the same as the body (sarīra), or is the soul one thing and the body another?"

[379] The Buddha said: "A Tathāgata arises in the world and preaches the Dhamma. A disciple goes forth and practices the moralities and he is perfected in morality. Being thus detached from sense-desires and unwholesome states, he enters and remains in the first jhāna. His whole body is filled with delight and joy born of detachment. Now of one who thus knows and thus sees, is it proper to say: 'The soul is the same as the body,' or 'The soul is different from the body?' But I thus know and see, and I do not say that the soul is either the same as, or different from the body."

"And the same with the second, the third, the fourth jhāna. The mind bends and tends towards knowledge and vision. Now, of one who thus knows and thus sees, is it proper to say: 'The soul is the same as the body,' or 'The soul is different from the body?' It is not, friend."

[380] The Buddha continued: "He knows: 'There is nothing further here.' Now of one who thus knows and thus sees, is it proper to say: 'The soul is the same as the body,' or 'The soul is different from the body?' But I thus know and see, and I do not say that the soul is either the same as, or different from the body."

Thus the Lord spoke, and the two wanderers rejoiced at his words.

Summary Analysis
Though recorded as a separate sutta in the Digha Nikāya (Long Discourses) this extremely short sutta is the concluding part of the previous sutta D 6 Mahāli Sutta. It deals with a totally different subject to that in the Mahāli sutta. Both the alternatives given by the two wanderers on the subject of the soul and the body are rejected on the authority of the Buddha who remains neutral on the subject.

D 8. Mahāsīhanādasutta
The Greater Lion's Roar

[381-383] Once the Buddha was living in the deer-park Kannakattale in Ujunnaya when the naked ascetic Kassapa approached him and asked if it was true that Gotama had said that he (Gotama) disapproves of all austerities, and censures and blames all those who lead a harsh life of self- mortification. The Buddha denied having said such a thing and called it a slander. He said that with the divine eye he could see some ascetics practicing self mortification arising in hell, but others practicing self-mortification arise in heaven.

[384-393] The Buddha explained that there were clever recluses and Brahmins and that their views sometimes coincided with his own, and sometimes they did not. In approaching them Gotama would say: "In these things there is no agreement, let us leave them aside. In these things there is agreement: there let the wise take up, cross-question and criticise these matters". The wise would say that of things unskilled Gotama and some other teachers have abandoned them, of things skilful Gotama has completely mastered them and while some other teachers also may have done so, other teachers may have done so only in part. In these situations Gotama gets the most praise. The Buddha then told Kassapa that there is a path, the Noble Eightfold Path consisting of the eight factors from Right View to Right Concentration whereby one may know for oneself the Dhamma ane Discipline of the Buddha.

[394-396] At this point Kassapa gave a description of the practice of austerities (tapopakkamma) as follows: He licks his hands after eating, does not accept food offered or prepared for him, does not accept food out of the pot or pan, from a pregnant or nursing woman or from one living with a man, or from where a dog is standing or where flies are swarming. He eats no fish or meat and drinks no alcohol. He eats only once a day, or once in two days, or once in seven days. He takes to eating rice only twice a month. He becomes a herb-eater, a millet-eater, a raw-rice-eater, a wild-rice-eater, an eater of water-plants, of rice-husk-powder, of rice-scum, of the flowers of oil-seeds, grass or cow-dung, of forest roots and fruits. He wears coarse hemp, clothing from corpses, rags from the dust-heap, garments of bark, skins, hair, or owl-feathers. He plucks out hair and beard, makes a bed of thorns, sleeps alone in a garment of wet mud, lives in the open air, accepts whatever seat is offered, drinks no water, and is addicted to the practice of going to bathe three times before evening. [NOTE: This is not a complete list of the austerities given by Kassapa.]

[397-401] The Buddha then repeated his position: "If a naked ascetic were to do all these things, and if this were the measure and practice of the difficulty, the great difficulty, of understanding an ascetic or Brahmin, it would not be right to say that, because any householder... could understand it. But, Kassapa, because there is a very different kind of asceticism and Brahmanism beside this, it is right to say: 'It is hard to understand an ascetic or a Brahmin.' But, Kassapa, when a monk develops non-enmity, non-ill-will and a heart full of loving-kindness and, abandoning the corruptions, realises and dwells in the uncorrupted deliverance of mind, the deliverance through wisdom, having realised it in this very life by his own insight, then, Kassapa, that monk is called an ascetic and a Brahmin.'

[402-404] The Buddha continued his discourse to Kassapa: "There are some ascetics and Brahmins who preach morality. They praise morality in various ways. But as regards the highest Aryan morality I do not see any who have surpassed me in this. There are some who preach self-mortification and austerity, but as regards the highest Aryan self-mortification and austerity I do not see any who have surpassed me in this. So I am supreme in this regard, in super-austerity. There are some who praise wisdom in various ways, but as regards the highest Aryan wisdom I do not see any who have surpassed me in this. Some preach liberation but as regards the highest Ariyan liberation I do not see any who have surpassed me in this. I am supreme in this regard, in super-liberation. The ascetic Gotama roars his lion's roar, in company and confidently, they question him and he answers, he wins them over with his answers, they find it pleasing and are satisfied with what they have heard. Then at this point the following conversation took place:

BUDDHA:Because there is a very different kind of asceticism beside this, therefore it is right to say: 'It is hard to be an ascetic, it is hard to be a Brahmin'. When a monk develops non-enmity, non-ill-will and a mind full of loving kindness then that monk is called an ascetic and a Brahmin.
KASSAPA   It is hard to understand an ascetic, it is hard to understand a Brahmin.
BUDDHA:A self-mortifier may do all these things, but if his morality, mind and wisdom are not developed he is still far from being an ascetic or a Brahmin. But, when a monk develops non-enmity, non-ill-will and a mind full of loving-kindness and, abandoning the corruptions, realises and dwells in the uncorrupted deliverance of mind, the deliverance through wisdom, having realised it in this very life by his own insight then that monk is termed an ascetic and a Brahmin.
KASSAPAWhat then is the development of morality, of the mind, and of wisdom...
BUDDHA:A Tathagata arises in the world and preaches the Dhamma. A disciple goes forth and practises the moralities [NOTE: Here the section on Morality given in the Sāmaññaphala Sutta (D2) is repeated.] That is the perfection of morality. He guards the sense-doors, etc. and attains the four jhānas [as in Sutta D 2]. That is the perfection of the mind. He attains various insights and the cessation of the corruptions [as in Sutta D2]. That is the perfection of wisdom. And, Kassapa, there is nothing further or more perfect than this perfection of morality, of mind and of wisdom.
KASSAPA'Lord, who on hearing Dhamma from you would fail to be delighted beyond all measure? I am delighted beyond all measure. Excellent, Lord, excellent! It is as if someone were to set up what had been knocked down, or to point out the way to one who had got lost, or to bring an oil-lamp into a dark place. Lord, may I receive the going-forth at the Lord's hands, may I receive ordination!

[405] The Buddha then tells Kassapa of the four month probation for those belonging to other sects. Kassapa agreed to this and he received the going-forth from the Lord himself. Then Venerable Kassapa, alone, secluded, unwearying, zealous and resolute, in a short time attained that goal aimed for by those taking up the holy life. He knew: 'Birth is destroyed, the holy life has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is nothing further here.' And the Venerable Kassapa became another of the Arahats.

Summary Analysis
Kassapa's conversion is no different to the conversion of many others who came to the Buddha in a similar search. There is no detailed description of Kassapa's path to Arhat-hood, but it would be the same well-worn path described in many a sutta.

The important teaching here is that even that extreme self-mortification is no obstacle to realising the goal of liberation. The path of the monk is not one of ease and comfort even though it may not involve the extremes that Kassapa described as was his former life. Even the need to seek ones food through alms (piṇḍapāta) imposes a great measure of difficulty and that some would consider a demeaning life-style. Except on rare occasions when the monk is invited for a meal he would have to go from house to house in sunshine or rain and wait for whatever is put into the bowl. This culture may have been common in the India of the day but one which is increasingly difficult to find in the modern world. Something similar applies to getting the other requisites of clothing. shelter and medicine.

D 9. Poṭṭhapādasutta
About Poṭṭhapāda

Once the Buddha was living at the Jetavana in Sāvatthi and Poṭṭhapāda the wanderer was with 300 followers was at the debating Hall in the Mallika Park. The Buddha set out on his alms round but as it was too early he thought of going to the debating hall. He was welcomed by Poṭṭhapāda who said that recently the recluses and Brahmins were discussing about the extinction of perception (saññā). Someone said that when it arises one is conscious when it ceases one is unconscious. Another said that the consciousness is the person's self. It comes and goes: when it comes, he is conscious; when it goes, he is unconscious. Still another said that there are recluses and Brahmins of great power and influence who can draw consciousness into or out of a person making him either conscious or unconscious. It was these various views that led Poṭṭhapāda to ask the Buddha how is there cessation of consciousness.

[412-413] In answer the Buddha said that those who say that perceptions arise and cease without condition are totally wrong as this can happen through training. To this Poṭṭapāda asked 'What kind of training'. Then the Buddha went into a long description of the training of the noble disciple. He started with a Tathāgata appearing in the world and preaching the Dhamma. Then a house holder out of faith goes into the homeless life. His first training is to develop the moralities.  [N.B. Here the short, middle and higher moralities given in the Sāmaññphala Sutta (D2) are repeated in full.] After this the disciple turns to the guarding of the sense doors. [N.B. again the method of doing this given in Sutta D2 is repeated in full.] Then he takes to the development of the four jhānas. Then comes the achievement of the various supermundane states. First is the Sphere of the Infinity of Space. Then comes the Sphere of the Infinity of Consciousness. Passing beyond this he comes to the Sphere of No-Thing-ness. This the Buddha said is the training he spoke of perceptions arise and fade away during the course.

[414] The Buddha concluded his exposition by saying: "When the monk has gained control over his perceptions he proceeds step by step until he reaches the summit of perceptions. Then when he is on the summit it may occur to him: 'To be thinking at all is the inferior state. It is better not to be thinking. Were I to stop thinking and imagining these ideas, these states of consciousness, I have reached to, would pass away, but others, coarser ones, might arise. So I will neither think nor fancy any more'. And he does this. And to him neither thinking any more, nor fancying, the ideas, the states of consciousness, he had experienced pass away; and no other coarser ones arise. So he touches cessation. Thus is it, Potthapada, that the attainment of the cessation of conscious ideas takes place step by step."I teach it as both one and many."

[415-420] After this exposition by the Buddha the following conversation occurred between the Buddha and Poṭṭhapāda:

BUDDHAThis is how there is the alert progressive attainment of the ultimate cessation of perception (consciousness).
POTTAPADA  Lord, do you teach that the summit of perception is just one, or that it is many?
BUDDHAI teach it as both one and many.
POTTAPADA'Lord, how is it one, and how is it many?
BUDDHAAccording as he attains successively to the cessation of each perception, so I teach the summit of that perception: thus I teach both one summit of perception, and I also teach many.
POTTAPADALord, does perception arise before knowledge, or knowledge arise before perception, or do both arise simultaneously?
BUDDHAPerception arises first then knowledge.
POTTAPADALord, is perception a person's self, or is perception one thing, and self another?
BUDDHADo you postulate a self?
POTTAPADAI postulate a gross material self.
BUDDHAGiven such a gross self, certain perceptions would arise in a person, and others pass away. In this way you can see that perception must be one thing, the self another.
POTTAPADAI postulate a mind-made self with all sense-organs.
BUDDHAWith such a self, perception would be one thing, and the self another.
POTTAPADAI assume a formless self made up of perception.
BUDDHAEven with such a formless self, perception would be one thing, and self another.
POTTAPADABut Lord, is it possible for me to know whether perception is a person's self, or whether perception is one thing, and self another?
BUDDHAIt is difficult for one of different views, a different faith, under different influences, with different pursuits and a different training to know whether these are two different things or not.
POTTAPADA Is the world eternal? Is it not eternal? Is it finite? Is it not finite?
BUDDHAI have not declared that the world is eternal nor that it is not eternal, nor that it is finite, nor that it is not finite.
POTTAPADAIs the soul one thing and the body another?
BUDDHAI have not delared that the soul is one thing and the body another.
POTTAPADADoes the Tathagata exist after death?
BUDDHA'I have not declared that the Tathagata neither exists nor does not exist after death.
POTTAPADAWhy has the Lord not declared these things?
BUDDHABecause that is not conducive to the purpose, not conducive to Dhamma.

After stating his position on the ten undeclared questions the Buddha concluded by saying that he has declared what is suffering, its cause, its cessation, and the path to the cessation of suffering. Then the Buddha rose from his seat and went away.

[421-427b> After the Buddha left the other wanderers jeered at Poṭṭhapāda saying that he blindly accepted what the recluse Gotama had said. But Poṭṭapāda strongly defended the Buddha. A few days later Poṭṭhapāda along with Citta, the son of an elephant trainer, went to see the Buddha and told him what happened. The Buddha said that all those wanderers were blind. He repeated that he had not taken a position on the undeclared questions for the reason he had given earlier. He then said that some ascetics and Brahmins declare that after death the self is entirely happy and free from disease. But when questioned as to the basis for this belief they could not provide any. He then gave two parables to make his point clear. The first was one who said that he was going to seek out and love the most beautiful girl in the country but could not provide any information about her as to her name, clan, stature, complexion etc. The second was of a man who wanted to build a staircase for a building but did not have any information about the building as to its height, where it was located, which direction it faced, and so on. This kind of talk was simply stupid as that of these ascetics who talk of the the self after death.

[428-436] The Buddha said that there are three kinds of acquired self (or personality): (1) the material acquired self, which is real and nourished on food; (2) the mind-made acquired self which is purely mental with form and is perfect in every respect; and (3) the formless acquired self which is without form and made of pure consciousness. He then said that he teaches a doctrine that leads to the abandonment of personality of all three kinds. According to this doctrine acquired evil dispositions decline and disposition tending to purification increase so that a person can realize the full perfection of wisdom. Then there will be joy, happiness, and peace, and one will live at ease continually mindful with self-mastery. If one asks what happens to the personality that has been put away the answer is that that is the very personality you see before you. The Buddha then compared this to a person who builds a staircase to an actually existing building starting from the ground floor.

[437-440] Then the following conversation took place between Citta and the Buddha:

CITTALord, whenever one forms of personality exists would it be wrong to assume the existence of the other two forms of personality?
BUDDHACitta, whenever one form of personality is present we do not at that time speak of the other two forms of personality. We speak only of that form of personality that is present.
CITTAAt that time, Sir, when a man is in possession of any one of the three modes of personality, are the other two unreal to him then ? Is it only the one he has that is real?
BUDDHA At the time. Citta, when any one of the three modes of personality is going on, then it does not come under the category of either of the other two. It is known only by the name of the mode going on. 'If people should ask you, Citta, thus: 'Were you in the past, or not ? Will you be in the future, or not ? Are you now, or not ?' How would you - answer?
CITTAI should say that 1 was in the past, that I shall be in the future, and that I am now here.
BUDDHAThen if they ask 'Is your past personality real to you; and the future personality, and the present, unreal ? The future personality that you will have, is that real to you; and the past nd the present personality unreal ? Is the personality that you have now is that real to you ; and the past and future personality unreal ?' How would you answer?
CITTAI should say that the past personality that I had was real to me at the time when I had it; and the others unreal. And so also in the other two cases.
BUDDHAJust so, when any one of the three modes of personality is going on, then it does not come under the category of either of the other two.

Then the Buddha gave the parable of the cow. From the cow comes milk, from that curd, from that butter, from that ghee etc. At any stage it is designated by its current form not by any of its past former by any future form that it could become.

[441] Then Poṭṭhapāda said: "Excellent, Lord. etc. Lord, I go for refuge to the Lord, the Dhamma and the Sangha. May the Lord accept me as a lay-follower who has taken refuge in him from this day forth as long as life shall last".

[442] Cittta too praised the Lord's words and added: "May I be permitted to go forth under the Exalted One; may I receive admission into his Order.' This request was granted. Channa remained alone and separate, earnest, zealous, and resolved and before long he attained to the supreme goal.

Summary Analysis
This is an important sutta as it deals with a fundamental doctrine of the Dhamma its attitude to the soul theory. The "Soul" (atta) is a basic concept of almost all religions and of the earliest creations of the human mind. The Buddha is perhaps the earliest thinker who denounced this concept.

In this sutta the Buddha distinguishes three aspects of the soul concept one considering it as a real entity, other a mental concept but still considered as one with a form, and the third as a purely abstract concept without a form. The first one was the accepted version in the Vedic theory generally accepted in the Buddha's time in India, and is also (with small variations in all theistic religion following the Abrahamic model. Realising the absurdity of the first version some religions adopted the second and third versions. Today many Christians do not use the term 'soul' but preferring terms like 'spirit'. But the Buddha had anticipated this kind of substitution and declared all forms of the soul theory as wrong and leading to suffering.

D 10. Subhasutta
About Subha

[444-447] Ven Ananda was living at Jetavana in Sāvatthi shortly after the death of the Buddha. At that time a Brahmin called Subha had come to Sāvtthi on some business. He sent a messenger to invite Ven Ananda to come and visit him. The messenger delivered this message to Ven Ananda who said that he could not go that day but would do so on the morrow. This message was conveyed back to Subha.

[448-449] The next day Ven. Ananda accompanied by a bhikkhu from Ketiya went to see Subha. After the usual courtesies he sat down on a side. Then Subha said to Ven Ananda: "You, Sir, have waited long on the venerable Gotama .... You will know what were the things the venerable Gotama praised and used to establish people and make them firm. What were they ?" Ananda replied: "There were three bodies of doctrine that the Exalted One used. These were the doctrine regarding right conduct (sīla), the doctrine regarding self-concentration (samādhi), and doctrine regarding intelligence (paññā)". Then Ananda went on to detail each one of three doctrines".

[450-470] Then Subha asked: "What is the noble doctrine of right conduct which Gotama praised?"
[N.B. In answer to this Ananda gave the section on morality that is contained in the Sāmaññaphala Sutta (D 2) starting with the appearance of a Tathagata and the preaching of the Dhamma. Then a disciple emerges who becomes a bhikkhu and starts his training in act, word, and speech. He then observes the instructions given in the section on minor morality. This results in the absence of fear and the development in confidence. (See the Abstract on Sutta D 2).]
Ananda concluded with "There is yet something further, according to this system, still to be done".

[471] Then Subha said: "Wonderful is this, Ananda, and mysterious-both that this so noble group of conduct is well-rounded, not incomplete ; and that I perceive no other, like unto it, among the other Samanas and Brahmins outside of this community. And were they also to perceive such in themselves, then would they be satisfied with thus much. But you, Ananda, say that there is something further still to be done".

[472-475] Then Subha asked: "What is the noble doctrine regarding self-concentration (samādhi) praised by the venerable Gotama ?
[N.B. In answer to this Ananda gave the sections on concentration contained in the Sāmaññaphala Sutta (D 2). These involve how the disciple learns to guard the door of his senses. Then the constant mindfulness and self-possession that he gains. Next the power of being content with little, with simplicity of life. Next the emancipation of the mind from the Five Hindrances (Covetousness, Ill-Will, Sloth of body and mind, Excitement and worry, and Perplexity). Doing this results in joy and peace that pervades his body and the mind. (See the Abstract on Sutta D 2). ]
Then Ven Ananda said: There is yet something further, according to this system, still to be done." [This was the doctrine of the intellect.]

[476-479] Then Subha asked: "What is the noble doctrine regarding intellect (paññā) praised by the venerable Gotama ?

[N.B. In answer to this Ananda gave the sections on concentration contained in the Sāmañ�aphala Sutta (D2). These dealt with insight (ñāṇdassana) which sees that the body is impermanent, and that mind (viññāṇa) is bound up with it, has no existence independent of it; the power of calling up mental images; the perception of the Four Truths as to sorrow and the Eightfold Path; and finally the uprooting of the intoxicants (āsavā); and there gaining the final release. (See Abstract of Sutta D 2)]
[480] Ananda concluded with: "This is that so noble doctrine regarding intellect which the Exalted One spoke of and praised". At this Subha said: "Wonderful is this the noble doctrine regarding intellect which is well-rounded, not incomplete. I, betake myself to that venerable Gotama as my guide, to the truth, and to the Order. May the venerable Ananda receive me as an adherent, as one who, from this day forth, as long as life endures, has taken them as his guide".

Summary Analysis
This Sutta contains nothing new other than the repetition of the relevant parts of the Sāmaññaphala Sutta. It recognizes the three important parts of the Buddha's teaching as morality, discipline of the mind, and wisdom.

D 11. Kevaddhasutta
About Khevaddha

[481-383] Once when the Buddha was staying at Nāḷandā in Pāvārika's mango grove the householder Kevaddha visited him and asked him to direct a monk to perform a miracle so that the people of Nāḷandā would be even more attached to him than they were then. But the Buddha simply said: I do not teach monks to perform miracles to lay people". Kevaddha's request was refused three times. Then the Buddha said that there were three miracles that he had directly known and realized. These were: (1) The miracle of psychic power; (2) the miracle of telepathy; and (3) the miracle of instruction.

[484] [The Miracle of Psychic Power (iddhipāṭihāriya)] A monk with faith capable of this miracle can from being one become many; from being many become one; vanish and appear; go through walls and other obstacles; dive-in-and-out of the earth; walk on water; sit cross-legged and fly through the air; touch and stroke the sun and moon; and reach up to the Brahma worlds, But a man without faith will say that he does this through the Gandhara Charm. The Buddha then said that is why he is disgusted with the miracle of psychic power.

[485] [The Miracle of Telepathy (ādesanāpāṭihāriya)] This is when a monk with faith can read the mind of others. But a man without faith will say that it is due to the Jewel Charm. The Buddha then said that is why he is disgusted with the miracle of telepathy.

[486-487] [The Miracle of Instruction (anusāsanīpaṭihāriya)] This is where a monk with faith tells a person without faith how to direct his thought how to attend to things, how to let go of this and attend to that. Furthermore a Tathagata appearws in the world.
[N.B. Here verses #40-84 and #97 of the Sāmaññaphala Sutta (D 2) are repeated. These relate to are (1) the teaching of the Dhamma; (2) the awakening of a hearer who goes into homelessness; (3) his self-training in act, word, and deed; (4) the observation of the minor morality; (5) the arising of the absence of fear, and confidence of mind; (6) the guarding of the doors of his senses; (7) the gaining of constant self-possession; (8) acquiring the power of being content with little and simplicity of life; (9) the emancipation from the Five Hindrances (covetousness, ill-temper, sloth of body and mind, excitement and worry, and perplexity); (10) the consequent gaining of joy and peace; (11) the accomplishment of the four jhānas; (12) the arising of the knowledge of the nature of the body, its impermanence, and consciousness being bound up with it; (13) the realisation of the Four Truths, the destruction of the Intoxicants, and the final assurance of the emancipation of Arhatship.]

The Buddha Concluded: "So these, Kevaddha, are the three wonders I have understood and realised myself, and made known to others." He continued as follows:

[488-492] Once the following doubt occurred to a certain monk: "Where do the four great elements (mahābhutā: earth, water, fire and wind) cease without remainder?". Then he posed this question to the gods of the retinue of the Four Great Kings ( cattāro mahārājā) but they did not know and they referred him to the Four Great Kings themselves. They too did not know the answer and the Bhikkhu was referred to the thirty-Three gods who send him to their chief Sakka. Then to the Yama gods and their king Suyama. Then to Tusita gods and their king Santusita. Then to the Nimmana-rati gods and their king, Sunimmita ; then to the Para-nimmita Vasavatti gods and their king Vasavatti, but they too like the other could not answer his question. Then he was finally sent to the gods of the Brahma world.

[493-495] Then through concentration the mind the monk found his way to the Brahma world. But the retinue gods there could not answer his question and he was referred to their chief Mahā Brahmā himself. They told him that he has to wait until a light manifests and Mahā Brahmā appears. When this happened he posed his question twice. Mahā Brahmā gave an evasive reply each time, but at the third time he took the monk by the hand, led him away and said: "I did not give you a direct answer because I did not want these other devas to know that I did not know the answer to your question. Go to the Buddha and accept whatever answer he gives".

[496-498] After this the monk vanishes from the Brahma world and appears before the Buddha and poses his question. The Buddha the said: "You have posed the question wrongly. You should ask where the four great elements do not find a footing, where both name-and-form die out". Then he gave the answer: "The four elements find no footing when both name-and-form die out, when consciousness ceases they all also cease". Then Khevaddha rejoiced at these words.

Summary Analysis
This sutta contains several interesting points. One is the possibility of miracles and super normal powers. It is said that these are within the reach of an enlightened monk. But he should not exhibit these powers before lay persons. But of course the Buddha himself and some monks like Mahā Mogallāna had demonstrated these in public. If Arhats can perform these publicly it would give proof that they are indeed Arhats. As it is there is no proof that a person said to be enlightened is indeed enlightened. But the third kind of miracle, education or instruction, could be provided freely. A good part of the Sutta deals with how this instruction could be followed leading to Enlightenment. This section is extracted from the Sāmaññaphala sutta.

The other question is that posed by the unnamed monk which is when the four great constituents end. This amounts to when the end of the world occurs. His visit to the deva world to find an answer is not a real but purely a mental one. Since Maha Brahma (who is considered the equivalent of the Abrahamic God) cannot answer it this shows that God is  not all-knowing. So the monk has to return to the Buddha to find the answer. But this is one of the unresolved questions of Buddhism. The Buddha reformulates the question and gives the answer that it ends in Arhatship. But this end is only for the Arhat. The original question is not resolved so it remains an undetermined question.

D 12. Lohiccasutta
About Lohicca

[501-502] While on a tour of Kosala with the monks the Buddha arrived at the village of Sālavatika. This was a royal domain granted by King Pasanedi of Kosala to  the Brahmin Lohicca. Now Lohicca had come to this wrong view: "If a recluse or a Brahmin has come across a skilful doctrine (kusaladhamma) he should not tell anyone about it. For what can one man do for another? To do so is like freeing oneself from one bond and getting entangled in another".

[503-507] When Lohicca had heard that the Buddha had come to Sālavatika he told his barber Bhesika to invite the Buddha and the monks on his behalf for the meal the next day. This Behesika did and the Buddha accepted the invitation. Behesika conveyed this information to Lohicca who got the meal prepared.

[508-509] The next day Bhesika followed the Buddha when he made his way to the house of Lohicca. On the way he told the Buddha of the (erroneous) view which Lohicca had developed. After the Buddha had been served with the meal and he had finished eating Lohicca sat on a low stool beside the Buddha. Then the following questions were asked by the Buddha followed by Lohicca's reply:
  1. "Is it true that a wicked opinion has arisen in you as reported to me Bhesika?" "Yes it is so Gotama".
  2. "Are you not established in your domain at Sālavatika?" "Yes, it is so".
  3. "Suppose one were to say 'Let Lohikka alone enjoy the revenue and fruit of his domain giving nothing to anybody else' would not that person be a danger to all those who depend on you, not considering their welfare?" "He would be such a one."
  4. "Would that doctrine be unsound?" "It would be unsound doctrine"
Then the Buddha concluded: "If a man hold unsound doctrine I declare that he would be born either in hell or as an animal".

[510-512] Here the Buddha continues with the same kind of questioning replacing Lohicca with King Pasanedi and a man saying that the King should enjoy all the revenues leaving nothing to subjects. Then it is concluded that this man's doctrine too is not concerned with the welfare breeds enmity and is an unsound doctrine. The consequences for the man with unsound views are either hell or rebirth as an animal.

The same is applicable to a recluse or Brahmin who discovers a good doctrine but refuses to declare it asking what good can one man do to another. This would tend to discourage young men of good family who following a good teaching such as the Dhamma of a Tathagata could attain to great distinction like the fruit of conversion, or to the fruit of once returning, or to the fruit of never returning, or even to Arahatship. Thus such a doctrine puts obstacles to people who otherwise could get good rebirth like in heaven. By putting obstacles in their way the recluse or Brahmin who adopts this view will be out of sympathy for their welfare; being out of sympathy for their welfare he would become established in enmity; and when one is so established that doctrine is unsound. Now if a man holds unsound doctrine his future birth will either be in in hell or as an animal.

[513-515] Then the Buddha declares that there are three kinds of teachers who are worthy of blame and whoever blames such a one would be justified.

The first kind of teacher is one who has not reached his own goal. His students do not attend to what he says, do not have interest in learning, and deviate from what the teacher instructs them to do. He is compared to a man who goes after a woman who rejects him, and tries to embrace her even when she has turned her back. This is an evil thing.

The second type of teacher also has not reached his goal. But he has the ability to keep his students interested, to enthuse them and make them follow his instrutions. But he should be blamed because he should have reached his goal before making his students to do so. He would fail in such an effort. He is compared to a man who keeps his own field unattended and tries to weed another's field.

The third type of blameable teacher reaches his goal and teaches but his disciples do not listen, do not show interest to learn. They do not follow his teaching. He is compared to one who having cut through an old bond, makes a new bond. This is why he is blamed.

[516-517] Then Lohicca asks who are the teachers without blame. The Buddha states that there is one such teacher who teaches the following: 
[Here a long extract from the Sāmaññaphala Sutta (D 2) verses #77-97 is reproduced. These contain (1) The appearance of a Tathagata; (2) the minor details of mere morality that he practises; (3) the Confidence of heart he gains from this practice; (4) the guarding of the door of his Senses; (5) the development of Mindfulness and Self-possesstion; (6) the making of life to be simple and contented with little; (7) the Emancipation from the Five Hindrances; (8) the joy and Peace that results; (9) the four Jhānas; (10) the Insight arising from Knowledge of the First Path; and (11) the Realisation of the Four Noble Truths, the destruction of the Intoxications and the attainment of Arahatship.

The refrain throughout and the closing paragraph is: ''And whosoever the teacher be under whom the disciple attains to distinction so excellent as that, that is a teacher not open to blame in the world. And whosoever should blame such a one, his rebuke would be unjustifiable, not in accord either with the facts or with the truth, without good ground.]

When this was Lohicca made the usual expressions of praise of the Buddha and said: " I go to Master Gotama for refuge, to the Dhamma, and to the community of monks. May Master Gotama remember me as a lay follower who has gone to him for refuge, from this day forward, for life."

Summary Analysis
This sutta starts with the "wrong" view of Lohicca. There are two parts to this view, one that the person discovering a new doctrine can keep it secret and the other his question "What can one man do for another?". The Buddha starts with the second of these by raising the examples of Lohicca's domain and the kingdom of Pasanedi. If someone says that they alone should enjoy then it is a wrong doctrine and the consequences would be hell or an animal birth. Then the first part is also considered as it will prevent a clansman from following a right doctrine. But the logic here seems questionable.

The rest of the sutta deals with kinds of teachers. Three teachers are blamed either because they have not reached the goal they teach or because they cannot convince their students. There is only teacher who cannot be blamed that is the Tathagata or an Arhat.

D 13. Tevijjasutta
The Three-fold Knowledge

[518-520] Touring Kosala the Buddha and the bhikkhus came to the village of Manasikata and lodged at the mango grove on the bank of the Acirvati river. At that time many famous Brahmins had come to Manasikata. Then a discussion arose between the students Vāseṭṭha and Bhāradvāja as to which was the true path and which the false path to union with Brahmā. Vāseṭṭa said that it was path shown by the Brahmin Pokkarasadi while Bhāradvāja said that it was the path shown by the Brahmin Tarukkha. Neither was able to convince the other.

[521-524] Then Vāseṭṭha suggested that they go to see the recluse Gotama who was now in Manasikata and put him the question and abide by what he says. His companion agreed. They then went to see the Buddha and related to him the whole story. The Buddha asked: "What is the quarrel what is the difference of opinion between the two of you?" In reply Vāseṭṭha said that there were many kinds of Brahmins such as the Addhariya, the Tittiriya, the Chandoka, the Chandava and so on who teach different paths that lead to union with Brahmā. He then wanted to know if following these paths will lead one to union with Brahmā.

[525-533] The Buddha then asked if there was "a single one of the Brahmins up to the seventh generation who has seen Brahmā face to face" and was told "No". He then asked if these Brahmins knew and could say when and where Brahmā would appear. Again the answer was "No". The Buddha then said that this being the case it is impossible for these Brahmins versed in the Three Vedas to show the way to union with Brahmā. The Buddha then compared these Brahmins to a line of blind men one holding on to the other, the first not seeing, the last not seeing and all in between not seeing. These Brahmins can see the sun and the moon but they cannot point to a way to go there, so how can they point a way to union with Brahmā who they had not even seen.

[534-541] The Buddha then gave two examples or parables to illustrate his argument. The first was a man who said that he was going to seek out and love the most beautiful woman in the land. Asked details of this woman regarding her name, caste, stature, where she lived and so on he could not give an answer. The second example was a man who said he was going to build a staircase for a palace in the place at a crossroads. But when asked details of the palace regarding its location, its height, how many storeys it had, and so on, he could not any of these these. In both cases the man concerned was indulging in foolish talk.

[542-545] Here the Buddha gives another comparison. He tells of a man standing on one bank of the Achirvati river and calling on the other bank to come to him so that he can cross over easily. He then asks Vāseṭṭha if this man's pleas will result in the other bank coming over. "Certainly not", said Vāseṭṭha. In the same way the Brahmins call and beg their gods like Indra, Soma, Varuna, Isāna, Pajāpati and the rest praying that after death they would be have union with Brahmā. But this is not possible.

[546-549] The Buddha then said that in the discipline of the noble Aryan there are five strands of sense desire originating from the eye, ear, nose, tongue body and mind. The noble disciple treats these as a bond or chain which has to be broken. But the Brahmins versed in the Three Vedas cling to them, are infatuated with them, and enjoy them. They do not realize their danger and their unreliability.

The Buddha then speaks of the Five Hindrances (sensual desire, ill-will, sloth and torpor, restlessness and worry, and sceptical doubt). The noble disciples consider them as obstacles, entanglements and veils. They avoid them. But the Brahmins versed in the three Vedas adopt these practices. It is impossible that those adopting these practices can after death attain union with Brahmā.

[550-553] Then differences between Brahmā and the Barhmins are highlighted. Brahmā does not have wives and possessions while the Brahmins do. Brahmā is not full of malice and his mind is pure while the Brahmins are full of malice and their hearts are not pure. So how can there be union between Brahma and these Brahmins after their death. Vāseṭṭha agrees.

[554-555] Then the Buddha give the simile of a man born and brought up in Manasikata being asked by someone about the way to Manasikata. He might fall into difficulty but the Tathagata has no doubt or difficulty about the way to Brahmā. Then Vāseṭṭha asked the Buddha about the way to Brahmā. In his answer the Buddha starts with the arising of a Tathagata, his preaching of the Dhamma and a householder deciding to go forth from the household life to practice the Dhamma. He becomes a monk and leads a life of restraint and begins developing good conduct.
[Here is inserted a long extract from the Sāmaññaphala Sutta (D 2) verses #43-72. These contain (1) the confidence of heart he gains from his sense of goodness; ; (2) the guarding of the door of his Senses; (3) the development of Mindfulness and Self-possession; (4) the making of life to be simple and contented with little; (5) the emancipation from the Five Hindrances; (8) the joy and Peace that results from all that he has done so far.]
[556] He then pervades the four quarters with a heart imbued with compassion. then above, below, across, and everywhere. He dwells pervading the entire world with a mind imbuded with compassion, vast, exalted, measureless, without hostility, without ill will. Like a mighty trumpeter he is heard everywhere. He then does the same with a heart filled with appreciative joy, then with heart filled withj equanimity. This is the way to the union with Brahmā.

When the Lord had finished speaking, the young Brahmins Vāseṭṭha and Bhāradvāja said: "Lord! Magnificent are your words. It is as if you have set upright something overturned, revealed something hidden, shown the way to one lost, or set a lamp in the darkness. We go to the Blessed One for refuge, to the Dhamma, and to the Sangha. May the Blessed One remember us as lay followers who have gone to him for refuge, from this day forward, for life!"

Summary Analysis
Union with Brahmā is taken to mean rebirth in the Brahma world. This has been the goal of the Vedic religion and in this sutta the Buddha says that this cannot be achieved by the usual Brahmanical practices but by the cultivation of the Brahma Viharas. These are traditionally four: mettā (loving kindness), compassion, sympathetic joy and equanimity. For some reason the first of these has been omitted.

The Buddha first criticized the Vedas by showing that those who composed them had not seen Brahmā nor had all those who followed in their wake. The parable of the chain of blind men is invoked. This argument could be applied to believers in God in late religions like the Abrahamic religion. Next the actual ritualistic practices of Brahmins are ridiculed even though these are not described in detail. Finally the practice of the Brahma Viharas is shown as the right path.

This sutta does not go to the goal of Arhatship as in many other suttas. It stops after reaching the highest of the Deva world which is the world of Brahmā. The Buddha of course believed in the existence of the deva worlds which was a common belief of the day inlike today.

 Digha Nikāya


The Mahāvagga of the Dīgha Nikāya is the second of the its three sections. It contains 10 suttas (sometimes called suttāntas). This Introduction will make a short statement about each of these suttas and takes the place of a Table of Contents. A comprehensive summary of each sutta will be given in the Abstract of that sutta. These Abstrats immediately follow this Introduction.

The Mahāpadāna Sutta (D 14) gives some basic information of the six Buddhas who preceded Gotama the historical Buddha. This is pure mythology and cannot be accommodated within the known history of India. The second sutta Mahānidhāna Sutta (D 15) gives an early version of one of the key doctrines of Buddhism the theory of Dependent Origination. Next comes the Mahāparinibbāna Sutta (D 16) which is the longest in the Canon and contains the last teachings of the Buddha. The next two suttas the Mahāsudassana Sutta (D 17) and the Janavasabha Sutta (D 18) are spin-offs from the sutta of the Great Disease. They are largely mythological and lack a realistic basis. The next Sutta the Mahāgovinda Sutta (D 19) is in reality a Jātaka or (previous birth) story. The next sutta the Mahāsamaya Sutta (D 20) is another mythical story of a great gathering of the gods near Kapilavatthu for the express purpose of viewing the Buddha and his band of Arhats. In the next sutta the Sakkapañha Sutta (D 21) the Buddha answers a number of questions posed by Sakka the King of the gods. The questions are not very challenging ones and serve to illustrate the mental level of the many mythical gods who populate the Buddhist universe. The next Sutta the Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta (D 22) deals with the important doctrine of Mindfulness. It reproduces verbatim a sutta in the Majjhima Nikāya (M 10). The section added is a fairly direct exposition of the Four Noble Truths. The final sutta the Pāyāsi Sutta (D 23) is an interesting debate on the key doctrines of Kamma and Rebirth. Rebirth remains the most contentious doctrine in Buddhism and even though the sceptical king is convinced of its truth by the monk Kumāra Kassapa the arguments used by him are questionable by modern standards.

Half the suttas in this collections are purely mythological and some of the others also contain mythical elements. Nonetheless they give a good insight to the varied nature of the suttas in the Pali Nikāyas.

D 14. Mahāpadāna Sutta

[N.B. This sutta is the Buddha's story of the six mythical Buddhas that preceded him. There is nothing extra regarding the doctrine they preached other than that it was the Buddha's own Dhamma. Only the basic information about the Buddhas is given in this Abstract.]

[1-3] The sutta begins with a discussion amongst the bhikkhus gathered in the Kareri pavilion in Sāvatthi about previous births. The Buddha hears this through his divine ear and comes to the pavilion. He then asked if the bhikkhus would like to hear a discourse on this subject. On being told that they would the Buddha started with the story of of the Buddha Vipassi and prceded to deal with the others.

[4 - 90] [N.B. For each of the Buddhas the information given relates to the following items: (1) The era or eon (kappa) which they lived (a kappa) is long period of time, a regular kappa is said to be 16 million years!); (2) His rank (jāti) or caste either Noble (Khattiya) or Brahmin; (3) Family name (gotta); (4) Length of life at the time; (5) The tree under which he gained enlightenment; (6) The Chief Disciple; (7) The co-Chief Disciple; (8) The number of Arhats in assemblies; (9) Name of attendant bhikkhu; (10) Father; (11); Mother; (12) Birth-place. These 12 items are given in the Table below for the six mythical Buddhas and the one historical Buddha (Gotama). In the course of the narration large numbers of devas come to listen to the story.]

ITEMVipassi SikhiVessabhu KakusandaKonagamana KassapaGotama
Era -91 -31-31Current CurrentCurrent Current
RankNoble NobleNoble BrahminBrahmin BrahminNoble
FamilyKondanna KondannaKondanna KassapaKassapa KassapaGotama
Lifespan80000 7000060000 4000030000 20000100
Bo-treePatali PundarikaSala SirisaUdumbara NigrodaAsatta
Disciple1Khanda AbibhuSona ViduraBhiyyosa TissaSariputta
Disciple2Tissa SambhavaUttara SanjivaUttara BhardvajaMoggallana
No of Arhats.80000 7000060000 4000030000 200001250
AttendantAsoka Khemankura Upasannaka BuddhijaSotthija SubhamittaAnanda
FatherBanduma ArunaSapputtita AggidattaYannadatta BrahmadattaSuddhodana
MotherBhandumati  PabhavatiYasavati VisakahUttara DhanavatiMaya
Born atBhandumati PabhavatiAnopama KhemavatiSobhavati BaranasiLumbini

[91-92] The Buddha said: "At one time I was dwelling at Ukkattha, in the Delectable Wood, beneath a giant sal tree. Now to me as I meditated in solitude this idea arose in my mind:- 'There is but one abode of beings easily accessible that I have not dwelt in for a very long time, and that is among the gods of the Pure Mansions. What if I were now to repair thither ?' Then I vanished from beneath the giant sal tree in the Delectable Wood at Ukkattha and appeared among the gods of the Aviha heaven."

[93] The Buddha continued: "Then several thousands of them came up to me, and saluting me, stood by and spoke thus : 'Friend! in this fortunate aeon the Exalted One has now arisen in the world as an Arhat, Buddha Supreme. The Exalted One, friend, is of noble birth, born in a clan of nobles, in a family with Gotama for surname. Small is the span of life in the Exalted One's time, brief and soon past; he who is long-lived lives a hundred years more or less. The Exalted One, friend, became a Buddha under an aspen tree. He has, friend, two chief disciples, Sāriputta and Moggallāna, a glorious pair. He has had one assembly, friend, of disciples, 1250 in number, and in this company all are arhats. He has for chief attendant, one named Ananda. His father, friend, is the raja Suddhodana, whose wife Maya is his mother, and whose seat is the town of Kapilavatthu. His leaving the world, his becoming a recluse, his travail, his enlightenment, his setting the Wheel of Truth a-rolling, were each on such and such wise. And we being of those who lived the holy life under our Exalted One, and purged the lusts of the flesh, have been reborn here.'

"Thereafter, brethren, I resorted, not only to the Aviha gods, but also to the home of the Cool gods; and the Well-seeing gods and came to the Senior gods. And in each of these heavens numbers of the gods accosted me and told me of their previous birth under Vipassi and the following Buddhas down to the recent one, myself. "Thus, brethren, through his clear discernment of that principle of the Truth, is the Tathagata able to remember the Buddhas of old, who attained final completion, who cut off obstacles, who cut down barriers, who have ended the cycle, who have escaped from all sorrow,-so that he can remember as to their birth, their names, their families, the span of life usual in their time, their pair of disciples, and their congregations of disciples, and can say:- 'Of such was the birth of those Exalted Ones, such were their names, their families, such were their morals, their doctrines, their wisdom; how they lived and how they gained emancipation.' ".

Thus spoke the Buddha and the bhikkhus were pleased and rejoiced at the word of the Exalted One.

Summary Analysis
This narrative cannot be taken as history. It is pure myth and should be treated as such.

D 15. Mahānidāna Sutta

[95-103] This sutta was given at Kammasadhamma in the Kuru country to Ananda who had said that the doctrine of Dependent Arising, even though it appears deep, is clear to him. The Buddha cautioned him: "Do not say so. This doctrine is deep. Because of not understanding it people have become entangled". He then asserted this sequence of conditionality:
  1. With birth (jāti) as condition there is aging and death (jarāmaraṇa).
  2. With existence ( bhava) as condition there is birth (jāti).
  3. With clinging (upādāna) condition there is existence (bhava).
  4. With craving (taṇhā) as condition there is clinging (upādāna).
  5. With feeling (vedanā) as condition there is craving (taṇhā).
  6. With contact (phassa) as condition there is feeling (vedanā).
  7. With name-and-form (nāmarūpa) as condition there is contact (phassa).
  8. With consciousness (viññāṇa) as condition there is name-and-form (nāmarūpa).
  9. With name-and-form (nāmarūpa) as condition there is consciousness (viññāṇa).
In each of these links without the cause the result will not occur.

[104-113] Dependent upon feeling (vedanā), there is craving; dependent upon craving (taṅhā) there is seeking; dependent upon seeking (pariyesanā), there is gain; dependent upon gain (lābha), there is decision-making; dependent upon decision-making (vinicchāya), there is desire and lust; dependent upon desire and lust (chandarāga), there is attachment; dependent upon attachment (ajjhosanā), there is possessiveness; dependent upon possessiveness (pariggaha), there is avarice; dependent upon avarice (macchāriya), there is safe-guarding; dependent upon safe-guarding (arakkha), there arise various evil unwholesome states like taking up of the rod, taking up of the sword, conflicts, quarrels, disputes, back-biting, harsh speech, false speech.

[114-118] How does contact lead to feeling? Here contact comes through eye-contact (which comes from forms), ear-contact (sounds), nose-contact (smells and odours), tongue-contact (tastes), body-contact (touches) and mind-contact (ideas). In the complete absence of such contact, with the cessation of contact, there would be no feeling.
      How does name-and-form lead to contact? With name-and-form as condition, there is contact." If there were no qualities, traits, signs and indicators through which there is a description of the mental body [mind-group] then sense-impression would not manifest in the mental body.
      How does consciousness condition name-and-form? If consciousness were not to descend into a mother's womb, then name-and-form will not take shape in the womb. If, after descending into the mother's womb, the consciousness were to depart, no name-and-form would be be generated. If the consciousness of a young boy or a young girl were cut off, name-and-form would not grow, develop and mature.
      How does name-and-form condition consciousness? If there were no name-and-form to find a footing in consciousness, there would be no further arising of birth, decay, death and suffering. Therefore this itself is the reason, the connection, the arising, the condition for consciousness.
      It is thus far that one can be born, or decay, or die, or fall away, or re-arise; thus far that there is a pathway for designation, language, description, knowing. It is thus far that the samsaric round revolves, that is, when there exist name-and-form together with consciousness.

[119-120] There are four ways of describing the self. These could be jhānic perceptions of the self (attā). These are:
  1. Self as having material form and being limited. This describes a self existing at present or in a future birth. In either case it is a settled view of self.
  2. Self as having form and being unlimited. Here too the self may exist at present or in a future birth. Or it could be a latent view of the self, not explicitly held.
  3. Self as being formless and limited. This too refers to an existing self or a potential and latent view of the self,
  4. Self as being formless and unlimited. This could be self-existing now or in the future.
[121-123] [There are ways of not describing self. They are the opposite of the four ways of describing self.] He who refrains from making declaration (about the self) does not make it with regard to the present life or a future one.

[124-126] This deals with those who consider the self in relation to feeling or not. There are the following four aspects to consider:
  1. Here a person says "Feeling is my self". But feeling is on three kinds: painful, pleasant or neutral; at any moment a person will be in one of these. He should be questioned which of these is the self. All these feelings are impermanent with definite causes and are liable to perish. Is self is identified with a particular feeling, when it ends the Self too will end. So this view is not commendable.
  2. Here a person says: "Feeling is not my self; my self is without the experience of feeling," This person should be asked "When there is no feeling of anything can you say 'I am' "? He cannot so this view is also unsatisfactory.
  3. Here a person says "My self is not feeling, nor is it non-sentient. It has feelings and sentience", He too will not be able to say "I myself am". So this view too is not commendable.
  4. Here a bhikkhu who does not regard any of the above. He grasps at nothing, and so he does not tremble, he is at perfect peace. He has reached Arhatship. Of such a person it cannot be said that he continues after death, He is free of all language, communication, knowledge, and of the round of birth. He has been set free.
[127] There are seven stations of consciousness. for consciousness. These are:
  1. Beings who are different in body and in perception such as humans, some devas and beings in hell.
  2. Beings who are different in body but same in perception such as those in the Brahma world who had gone there through the first jhāna.
  3. Beings who are same in body but different perception like the Abyssara devas.
  4. Beings who are same in body and same in perception like the Subhakina devas.
  5. Those who have arrived at the sphere of the infinity of space.
  6. Those who have arrived at the sphere of the infinity of consciousness.
  7. Those who have arrived at the sphere of nothingness.
None of these seven stations of consciousness is a state to delight in. That is because they are all subject to pass away. When a monk has understood this he is liberated through non-clinging, then he is called a monk liberated through wisdom.

[128] There are eight kinds of Emancipation or Liberation. These are:
  1. One with physical form who sees physical forms.
  2. One who does not see physical form internally, but sees physical forms externally.
  3. One who is liberated after contemplating the idea of the beautiful.
  4. One who enters and dwells in the sphere of the Infinity of Space by the utter transcending of the perception of physical form, the passing away of the perception of impingement, and non-attention to the perception of diversity, and thinking "Space is infinite".
  5. One who enters and dwells in the sphere of the Infinity of consciousness by the utter transcending of the infinity of space, and thinking "Consciousness is infinite". 
  6. One who enters and dwells in the sphere of Nothingness by the utter transcending of the sphere of the infinity of consciousness, and thinking "There is nothing".
  7. One who enters and dwells in the sphere of neither-perception-nor-non-perception by the utter transcending of the sphere of nothingness.
  8. One who enters and dwells in the cessation of perception and feeling through the utter transcending of the sphere of neither-perception-nor-non-perception.
[No further information is given on any of these.]

[129-130] When a monk attains these eight liberations in a forward order, or in a reverse order, or in both forward and reverse order, when he attains to them and emerges from them, wherever he wishes, in whatever way he wishes, for as long as he wishes, and when, right here and now having realized for himself through direct knowledge, upon attaining the liberation of mind and the liberation by wisdom that are influx-free with the destruction of the mental influxes, dwells therein then he is called a monk who is liberated both ways. There is no other liberation that is higher or more excellent than this liberation both ways.

The Blessed One said this. The venerable Ananda joyfully approved of the Blessed One's word.

Summary Analysis
This Sutta introduces an important doctrine of the Buddha into the Digha Nikaya. This is the doctrine of causality called Paṭiccasamuppāda or Dependent Origination (DO). This asserts that all states result from pre-existing causes. It is the opposite of the doctrine of creation by a God or other supreme entity. It is the basis of modern scientific investigation. But whereas science investigates for the most past to physical things the Buddha's interest was in human suffering. It is to elucidate this that the theory of DO was mooted.

This sutta gives a version of this doctrine somewhat different from later versions. As the first paragraph shows there are only 9 bases as against the 12 in the standard version. The three missing are ignorance (avijjā), karma formations (saṅkhāra) and the six sense organs (salāyatana). This creates certain problems. Thus in formulation the last two links make consciousness to depend on name-and-form and name-and-form to depend on consciousness. This makes these two bases interdependent not dependently originated as the other bases.

There is also less emphasis on re-birth than in the standard version. This is because karma formation so important to the re-birth theory is neglected. The standard version is usually taken to represent three life cycles in the chain of saṃsāra.

The discussion of the DO doctrine is followed by a discussion on other matters like the doctrine of Self (Soul) and the path to liberation in which the usual position of the Buddha is given.

D 16. Mahāparinibbāna Sutta

[N.B. This is the longest sutta in the Pali Canon and consists of a number of episodes relating to the last days of the Buddha. This Abstract is even more succinct than previous ones and the episodes are titled. Where necessary the verse numbers in the Pali text are given in addition to the usual method showing the Sixth Council numbering. The verse numbers are preceded by the number sign (#)].

The Vassakara Episode.

[131-135] This starts with the Buddha at Rajagaha when King Ajatasatru was planning an attack on the Vajjian Confederacy. The King sent his chief Minister Vassakara to get the Buddha's opinion on this. Vassakara went to see the Buddha at the Gijjakhuta mountain and explained the purpose of his mission. Before answering Vessakara the Buddha verified from Ananda that the Vajjians satisfy seven conditions. These are (1) that they assemble regularly and frequently; (2) that they agree peacefully and unanimously; (3) that they neither enact new decrees nor abolish old ones; (4) that they honour and esteem their elders and listen to them; (5) that they do not abduct women and detain them; (6) that they honour their shrines; and (7) that they guard and protect Arhats. Then the Buddha said that so long as the Vajjians do this they will grow and prosper.

Then to Vassakara the Buddha said: "When I dwelt among the Vajjians I taught them the seven conditions leading to prosperity. So long as these endure their growth would have to be expected, not their decline". Then Vassakara said: "Even if the Vajjians keep one of these it would be for their growth. What then of all the seven? No harm, indeed, can be done to the Vajjis in battle by Magadha's king, Ajatasattu, except through treachery or discord". Saying that Vassakara left.

The Welfare of Monks.

[136-141] Then the Buddha got all the monks assembled and gave them instructions for their welfare and growth and preventing their decline. These consisted of five groups of 7 things and one of 6 things, all making up 41 things.

The first group of seven (1-7) were were (1) meet regularly and frequently; (2) agree unanimously on the tasks that they should do; (3) not establish new laws or cut off old ones; (4) honour elder monks and leaders of the Community; (5) not come under the influence of craving; (6) desire forest dwellings; and (7) attend to mindfulness and live comfortably with their fellow celibates.

The second group of seven (8-14) were: (1) should not be devoted to the pleasure in work, the delight in work, and not attached to work; (2) should not be devoted to the pleasure in speech, the delight in speech, and are not attached to speech; (3) should not be devoted to the pleasure in sleep, the delight in sleep, and are not attached to sleep; (4) should not be devoted to the pleasure of company, the delight in company, and are not attached to company; (5) should not have evil wishes, not go under the influence of evil wishes; (6) should not have wicked friends, wicked companions, and wicked comrades; (7) should not achieve only mundane or incomplete attainment.

The third group of seven (15-21) were: (1) should have faith; (2) should have conscientious mind;  (3) should have sense of shame; (5) should be strenuous; (6) should attend to mindfulness; (7) should possess wisdom.

The fourth group of seven (22-28) were: (1) should develop the factor of Perfect Awakening that is Mindfulness; (2) should  develop the factor of Perfect Awakening that is Investigation of the nature of things; (3) should develop the factor of Perfect Awakening that is Energy; (4) should develop the factor of Perfect Awakening that is Rapture; (5) should develop the factor of Perfect Awakening that is Calm; (6) should develop the factor of Perfect Awakening that is Concentration; (7) should develop the factor of Perfect Awakening that is Equanimity.

The fifth group of seven (29-35) were: (1) should develop the perception of impermanence; (2) should develop the perception of non-self; (3) should develop the perception of the unattractive; (4) should develop the perception of danger; (5) should develop the perception of giving up; (6) should develop the perception of dispassion; and (7) should develop the perception of cessation.

The final group of six (36-41) were: (1) should with friendly actions by way of the body serve their fellow celibates, both in public and in private; (2) should with friendly actions by way of speech will serve their fellow celibates, both in public and in private; (3) should serve their fellow celibates, both in public and in private; (4) should in regard to those righteous gains, received in accordance with the Teaching whatever amount has been received in the bowl will divide and share such gains with those who are virtuous, fellow celibates, and share them in common; (5) should be endowed with those virtues which are unbroken, faultless, unspotted, unblemished, productive of freedom, praised by the wise, not clung to, leading to concentration and will live endowed with virtue amongst their fellow celibates who themselves possess such virtue, both in public and in private; and (6) should  endowed with that which is Aryan View, which leads out, which leads to the complete destruction of suffering for one who acts thus, and will live endowed with Right View amongst those who themselves possess such Right View, both in public and in private.

From Rajagaha to Pāṭaligāma

[142-154] While living at Rajagaha, at the Vultures' Peak, the Buddha gave counsel to the bhikkhus thus: "This is morality, this is concentration, this is wisdom. Concentration, when imbued with morality, brings great fruit and profit. Wisdom, when imbued with concentration, brings great fruit and profit. The mind imbued with wisdom becomes completely free from the corruptions, that is, from the corruption of sensuality, of becoming, of false views and of ignorance." [This statement is repeated several times later and will be called the Comprehensive Talk on Dhamma.]

When the Blessed One had stayed at Rajagaha as long as he pleased, he went to Ambalatthika with the monks and dwelt at the  Kings Rest (rajāgārike). There too he gave the Comprehensive Talk on Dhamma. His next destination was Nāḷandā where he lodged at the Pāvārika Mango Grove. There Sāriputta came and said that there has never been nor will be anyone more enlightened than the Buddha. The Buddha however discounted this praise saying that there have been and will be Buddhas equal to him. Then after preaching the Comprehensive Talk on Dhamma he set off to Pāṭaligāma.

There in the Rest House he addressed the householders on the five perils of immoral conduct. These were: (1) loss of property through neglect of affairs; (2) getting a bad reputation; (3) becoming diffident and shy in confronting assemblies; (4) dying confused; and (5) after death going to a bad place. He then gave the five consequences of good conduct. These were the opposite of the five bad consequences given above. He then gave the Comprehensive talk on Dhamma.

At that time two Magadhan ministers Sunidha and Vassakara were building a fortress at Pāṭaligāma. The Buddha then saw with his Divine Eye that many devas were taking up residence there. He made the prophesy that this will be site of a great city Pāṭaliputta in the future. The two ministers then visited the Buddha and invited him for the meal the next day. The Buddha accepted and after the meal advised the Ministers that those leading the virtuous holy life should be fed because the devas will respect and honour those who do this so that they will be happy. After this the Buddha left Pāṭaligāma and came to the River Ganges which he crossed miraculously by disappearing from one bank and appearing on the other. [His entourage probably did it conventionally by boat.] 

From Pāṭaligāma to Vesāli

[155-185] The Buddha then went to Koṭigāma. He then spoke to the monks on the importance of the Four Noble Truths. He also gave them the Comprehensive Talk on Dhamma. Then he left Koṭigāma for Nādikā. There Ananda said that the monk Sāḷha, the nun Nandā and several lay followers, male and female, had recently died at Nādikā and wanted to know what their destinations after death had been. The Buddha then gave the destination for each of them whether they had like Sāḷha had reached the final goal, or like the monks had become non-returners, or once-returners. The lay persons would become Stream-winners or non-returners. The Buddha then said that it would be vexatious of him to give the destinations of all followers after their death. He said he could preach the Mirror of the Dhamma (dhammādāsa) which would enable each one of followers to determine their destination after death. When asked what this was he said that the Ariyan disciple with full confidence in the Buddha would understand the stanza praising the Buddha (beginning 'itipiso ...' etc.), the stanza praising the Dhamma (beginning 'sākkhāto...' etc.) and the stanza praising the Sangha (beginning 'supaṭipanno ...' etc.). He concluded by giving the Comprehensive Talk on the Dhamma.

Then the Buddha left for Vesāli and took residence at Ambapāli's Grove. Then he addressed the monks on mindfulness and clear awareness. The monk should contemplate the body ardently and be aware of what he is doing. Then Ambapāli visited the Buddha and invited him for the meal next day which he accepted. Then some Liccavi youths came to see the Buddha in order to invite him for the meal the next day but on learning that Ambhapāli's invitation had been accepted they went back disappointed after listening to some Dhamma talk. After the meal Ambapāli announced that she was gifting her Grove to the Sangha which offer was accepted. Afterwards the Buddha again gave the Comprehensive Talk on the Dhamma to the monks.

Then the Buddha announced that he would spend the rains at the village of Beluva near Sāvatthi. There he was attacked by a severe illness but he overcame it with determination. Ananda was saddened but pleased that the Buddha had not died. He said that the Buddha would not pass away before he has told the order about it. Then the Buddha told Ananda that he was now eighty years old, and that a monk should be an island unto himself with no other refuge. Then the next day after the alms round in Sāvatthi he went to the Capala shrine and there he said to Ananda that a Tathagata could live up to a century if he wanted to. But Ananda failed to grasp that hint and ask the Buddha to do so even though this statement was repeated thrice.

Shortly afterwards when Ananda had left the Buddha's side Mara approached the Buddha and told him that it was time to attain final Nibbāna. The Buddha declined this but when Mara persisted the Buddha announced that the final Nibbāna will be in three month's time. This is taken as the Buddha renouncing the life-principle (āyusaṅkhāra). Then a great earthquake took place. Ananda returned to inquire the cause for the earthquake. The Buddha gave eight reasons for earthquakes including the birth of a Tathāgata as well as his passing away into Nibbāna. He followed this up with a description of eight kinds of assembly (parisā), eight stages of mastery (abhibhāyatanāni). and eight kinds of liberation (vimokkhā). The latter were given as : "(1) possessing form, seeing forms; (2) not perceiving material forms in oneself, seeing them outside; (3) becoming intent on beauty; (4) completely transcending all perception of matter and entering the Sphere of Infinite Space; (5) entering the the Sphere of Infinite Consciousness; (6) entering the Sphere of No-Thingness; (7) abiding in the Sphere of Neither-Perception- Nor-Non-Perception; and (8) abiding in the Cessation of Perception and Feeling.

Then the Buddha recounted to Ananda his encounter with Mara during his Enlightenment at Uruvelā. He then related his latest encounter with Mara at the Capala shrine when he renounced the life-principle. Then Ananda begged the Buddha not to enter final Nirvāna. But the Buddha recounted the number of times that Ananda could have made this request but did not. Now it as too late. He requested Ananda to assemble all the monks at the Brick Hall. Then he told the monks:
"What I have discovered and proclaimed should be thoroughly learnt, practised, developed and cultivated by you. They are: The four foundations of mindfulness, the four right efforts, the four roads to power, the five spiritual faculties, the five mental powers, the seven factors of enlightenment, the Noble Eightfold Path. In three months the Tathāgata will take final Nibbāna. My life-span is determined, I go from you, having made myself my refuge. Monks, be untiring, mindful, disciplined, guard your minds with well-collected thought. He who tirelessly keeps to law and discipline, leaving birth behind will put an end to suffering."

From Vesāli to Kusināra

[186-240] Then the Buddha did his last alms round in Vesali and after the meal took the last look at Vesāli. Then he left Vesāli and with the monks went to Baṇḍāgāma. There he told the monks: "Through not understanding the Ariyan morality, concentration, wisdom, and liberation, that I as well as you have for a long time fared on round the cycle of rebirths. And it is by understanding and penetrating the Ariyan morality, concentration, wisdom and liberation that the craving for becoming has been cut off and exhausted, and there will be no more rebirth.?" Then the Buddha again delivered his Comprehensive Talk on the Dhamma.

The Buddha next went to Bhoganagara where he told the monks that if someone says that such is the teaching this should be compared with what is in the Suttas. This way of verification should be applied to other claims about the Dhamma. and then only should it be accepted. Then he gave again the Comprehensive Talk on the Dhamma. From there the Buddha went to Pāvā and stayed at the mango-grove of Cunda the smith. Cunda visited him, listened to the Dhamma, and invited him for the meal the next day. This meal contained the dish sūkaramaddhava which has been variously interpreted as pork or truffles. The Buddha said that this dish should only be served to him and anything left over should be buried. After the meal the Buddha suffered from a severe diarrhoea which he suppressed with determination. Then he said that his next destination should be Kusināra.

On the way the Buddha rested by the roadside and requested Ananda to fetch some water to drink from a nearby stream. But Ananda discouraged him saying that the water had been churned up by 500 carts which had crossed it. At the third request Ananda went to fetch the water and found the stream flowing clear. He considered this a miracle. At that time Pukkusa a Malla, who was a follower of Alara Kālāma was going on the read and seeing the Buddha came over and saluted him and sat down on a side. He said that once Alāra Kālāma was sitting down when 500 carts passed close to him but he did not notice any of it. The Buddha then recounted an experience of his at Atumi when he was out in a rain storm but did to notice the storm. Pukkhusa considered this another wonder and requested ordination and became a monk. He then went on his way.

The Parinirvāna of the Buddha

After the Pukkhusa incident Ananda dressed the Buddha in a golden robe and noticed that his skin colour had become even brighter than the robe. The Buddha said that this occurred only twice once when the Tathagata becomes enlightened the other when he passes into final Nibbāna. He said that this will happen to him that day, Then the Buddha went to the river Kakutthā, bathed there and went to a Mango Grove nearby. There he requested the monk Cundaka to lay down a robe folded into four. There he laid down adopting the lion's posture. It was here that he said that no ill effects would come to Cunda for providing him the meal of truffles. On the contrary it was very meritorious to provide a Tathāgata with his last meal.

Then the Buddha suggested that they cross the Hiraññavati river and enter the Sal-grove of the Mallas near Kusināra. There he lay down between two Sal trees which miraculously burst into untimely flower. The devas too gathered in large numbers, seen only by the Buddha. The Buddha then gave some teachings and instructions:
  1. There were four places worthy of a pilgrimage. These were where the Tathāgata was born, where he achieved enlightenment, where he gave the first sermon, and where he passed away.
  2. Monks should avoid women as far as possible but if they have to they should exercise mindfulness.
  3. The monks should not worry about funeral arrangements for a Tathāgata.
  4. The remains of the Tathāgata should be treated like that of a wheel-turning monarch. The body should be cremated and a stupa constructed.
  5. The monks were told: "All Buddhas in the past had chief attendants like Ananda. He is wise and knows the right time for visitors, monks and lay persons to see the Buddha".
Then Ananda went to the Vihara and started weeping. The Buddha summoned him and explained the futility of such action in the face of impermanence. The Buddha then addressed the monks giving four qualities of Ananda: monks coming to see him are pleased at his sight, they are pleased with what he says, they are disappointed if he is silent, and this is also the case with with nuns and lay persons. Then Ananda asked why the Buddha should pass away in a small town, but the Buddha related that in a past time there was a great city here called Kusāvatī. [N.B. This discussion forms the subject of the next sutta in this vagga D 17. Mahā Sudassana Sutta (See Abstract of sutta D 17) as well as in a Jātaka story.] The Buddha next instructed Ananda to announce his impending passing away to the Mallas at their Assembly. The Mallas reacted with much grief and some came to where the Buddha was.

Then the recluse Subaddha came to see the Buddha and referred to other teachers who advanced different views. The Buddha said that in any teaching which does not have the Noble Eightfold Path there are no followers with the degrees of attainment found in those following the Dhamma. This discussion ends with Subaddha obtaining the ordination so that he became the last convert of the Buddha.

Then the Buddha gave final instructions to Ananda that after his death the teaching he had given should be their Master. The Buddha asked the monks to ask him any question if they had any doubts but all of them fell silent. Then the Buddha uttered his final words: "Monks, I declare to you: all conditioned things are of a nature to decay. Work your own salvation with diligence (vayadhammā saṅkhārā appamādena sampādetha)". Then the Buddha went through the Jhānic processes and after the fourth jhāna passed away.

After the the Parinirvāna

After the passing away of the Buddha stanzas on the Buddha and his teaching were recited by Brahmā Sahampati, Sakka the ruler of the devas, Venerable Anuruddha, and Venerable Ananda. Others who had not yet reached a degree of spiritual mastery began weeping until Ven Anuruddha admonished them. There were seven days of official mourning by the Mallas. After this the cremation was undertaken according to the instructions of Venerable Ananda, the funeral pyre igniting itself. Then of the Buddha's body only fragments of bones remained.

There were many claimants for the remains of the Buddha. But on the suggestions of a Brahmin Doṇa the remains were divided into portions going to King Ajātasattu of Magadha, the Licchavis of Vesālī, the Sakyans of Kapilavatthu, the Bulayas of Allakappa, the Koliyas of Rāmagāma, the Brahmins of Veṭhadīpa, the Mallas of Pāvā, the Mallas of Kusinārā and lastly the Brahmin Doṇa himself. Stupas were built by all these over their portions of the relics. King Ajatasttu of Magada is said to have built a large number of stupas from the portion of the relics that had been allocated to him.

Summary Analysis.
A Sanskrit version of this sutta called the Maha Parinirvana Sutra exists which differs in some respects from the Pali version.  A Chinese translation simply called the Nirvana sutta also exists.  Many doctrines have been attributed to the Buddha and they were tacked on to the final discourse to get the Buddha's approval before he died. One of these is the injunction to his followers to be vegetarians. This is not found in the Pali version

This important Sutta requires a separate analytical essay. So the usual summary analysis will not be given here.

D 17. Mahāsudassana Sutta

[N.B. This is a mythical story about a Cakkavatti King Mahāsudassana ruling from a city called Kusavati located where the village of Kusinara was located in the Buddha's time. It is a story with no historical basis and almost no moral value. Only a few of the extravagant claims made are given in this Abstract of the Sutta.]

[241-264] When the Buddha was lying in the Sal forest of the Mallas at Kusināra just prior to his passing away venerable Ananda pleaded with him not to die in this small wattle-and-daub village in the jungle when he had lived in the great cities of the Northern India of the time. Then the Buddha related this narrative to show that a great city called Kusāvati existed at this very site in previous times when it was the capital of a wheel-turning monarch called King Sudassana. These are some of the features of the city and the King and the happenings at Kusavati.
Many other marvellous things and happening at Kusavati are related.

[265-272] Then comes the story of the death of the King. This begins with Queen Subhadda after thousands of years deciding to visit King Sudassana. She collects a large number of women from the harem and with a military escort goes to the Dhamma Palace. But the King stops her from entering. The King ordered a man to bring out the Royal Couch and put it beside the Golden palm tree. Then he reclined on it in the lion's posture. The Queen thinking that he was going to die entreated him to stay alive reminding him of his immense wealth. But the King said: "For a long time you have spoken delightful words but not now. You should say: 'All things that are pleasing are liable to vanish. Do not die filled with longing. Abandon the longing to live in Kusavati' ". The Queen said as told and the King died and was born in the Brahma world. He had ruled for 84,000 years.

Then the Buddha told Ananda that King Sudassana was himself in a previous birth and this was the seventh time he had died in that place. So this was the best place for the Tathagata to end his life for the eighth time. Then the Buddha said:

"Impermanent are compounded things, prone to rise and fall,
Having risen, they are destroyed, their passing truest Bliss."

Summary Analysis.
This is a purely mythological story to justify the Buddha's death at the obscure village of Kusinārā. Whether Buddha really said it or it was later interpolated into the story we will never know.

D 18. Janavasabha Sutta

[273-281] The Buddha was staying at Nātika (on his last journey). He was speaking about the after-death destination of his followers who had died including many from Nādika. Some of them had realized their goal and others had gone to good births which pleased the people of Nātika. Ananda hears of this and he thought about the fate of others from Anga and Magadha who had died including Bimbisāra the former King of Magadha. He told the Buddha of what he had thought and the Buddha after his alms round and the meal concentrated his mind on the fate of his Magadhan followers after their death.

That evening the Buddha told Ananda that when he was concentrating on the fate of the Magadhan adherents an invisible spirit came and said "I am Janavasabha". Soon he materialized himself and identified himself as King Bimbisāra in a previous birth. He had been re-born in the deva world and was now in communion with King Vessavaṇa, the Great King of the North (of the Deva-world). He said that he was destined not to be re-born in states of woe and now wished to become a Once-returner. He understood that the Buddha had exerted his mind to find the fate his followers in Magadha who had died and he has now come before the Exalted One. He then related the following account of recent happenings in the Deva-world.

The Discourse of Jana-sabha

[282-283] Once the devas in the retinue of the Thirty-Three (tāvatiṃsā) were assembled at the Sudhammāya (Good Law) Hall to conduct their business. This included the devas who had recently arisen in the deva world after following the teaching of the Buddha Gotama. They shone brighter than the rest. Then Sakka, King of the Gods, uttered a verse honouring the Tathagata who had preached the sublime law as well as the newcomers who had followed the teaching. Then a radiant light shone from the North and Sakka explained that this heralded the imminent manifestation of Brahmā Santaṅakumāra.

Then the Brahma came assuming a gross form of the youth Pancasikha as his normal form would be too much even for the devas to behold. Usually the Brahma chooses on whose divan he sits, which would give great satisfaction to the deva who owns that divan. But Pancasikha sat cross-legged in the sky and uttered a stanza, praising the Tathagata and the newly arisen devas who had followed the Sage and now outshine the established gods. He then gave a Dhamma talk consisting of the following topics:
  1. The four roads to power consists of concentration, of intention, of energy, of consciousness and of investigation. He said that he too has practiced these four roads to power.
  2. The Three gateways to bliss. These are (1) a person infatuated with sense desires hears the Dhamma and dissociates himself from sense desires as a result of which he experiences joy and gladness; (2) a person endowed with the gross tendencies of body, speech and mind hears the Dhamma practicing which he gains true joy; (3) a person who does not know what is right from what is wrong, what is blameworthy from what is not, hears the Dhamma ans learns true morality and practicing which he gives him gladness and joy.
  3. The four foundations of mindfulness. Here a person contemplates his body as body, his feelings as feelings, his mind as mind and finally the mind objects as mind objects.
  4. The Seven requisites of concentration, which are right view, right thought, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, and right mindfulness. These lead to right concentration and ultimately to right knowledge and right liberation.

Then the Brahma concluded saying that more than 24 lakhs [2.4 million] of Maghadans now dead have completed the destruction of the Three Bonds and cannot be reborn in any state of woe; moreover some of them here are Once-returners. This speech was conveyed by King Vessavaṇa to his followers including the spirit Janavasabha and through him to the Buddha and to Ananda.

Summary Analysis
This sutta is an expansion of a short incident in the Mahaparinibbāna Sutta during the Buddha's short stay at Nādika. It is obviously a mythological account in contrast to the very real events that took place in the story of the passing away of the Buddha. Most of it is an account of a conclave amongst the gods of the heaven of the Thirty-Three given by the spirit Janasabha who is said to be King Bimbisāra reborn. Most of the sutta is an account of what Janasabha said happened in that heaven.

The most important item in this deva-council is the speech of the Brahma Santakumara assuming the form of the youth Pancasikha. It is curious that the Brahma would be preaching the Dhamma to devas who in their earthly existence would have heard it and practiced some of it so as to reach their current state as devas. The Brahma reveals that a large number of Maghadans have been reborn in the deva world due to their practice of Dhamma in their earthly existence. The number of 24 lakhs given amounting to 2.4 million is obviously a gross exaggeration.

There is no new doctrinal material in this sutta that is not found elsewhere in the discourses of the Buddha.

 D 19. Mahāgovinda Sutta

Gandhabba Pañcasikha visits the Buddha

[293] Once when the Buddha was dwelling on Gijjakūṭa Hill in Rājagaha the Gandhabba Pañcasikha visited him in the early morning lighting the whole place with an effulgence. He told the Buddha that he would like to relate things he had seen and noted in the presence of the gods of the heaven of the Thirty Three. The Buddha told him to do so. Then Pañcasikho related the following narrative.

The Speech of Pañcasikha

[294-303] Some time ago there was an assembly of the gods (devā) of the Heaven of the Thirty Three. There were the Four Great Kings with their hosts, the Thirty-Three gods and their retinue, Sakka king of the Gods, and those newly arisen gods who had lived the higher life under the Buddha and who shone brighter than the others. The Thirty-Three gods were greatly pleased at this. Seeing this Sakka gave eight truthful items in praise of the Exalted One. There were:
  1. He is the only one who has wrought so much for the good and happiness of gods and men whether we survey the past of the present.
  2. There is no teacher of such a doctrine of welcome and guidance to be comprehended by the wise than the doctrine preached by the Exalted One.
  3. He has revealed what is good, what is bad, what should be followed, what should be abandoned, what is light and what is dark than any other teacher in the past or present.
  4. He has shown Nirvana and the way to it. A revealer of such a way is not to be found in the past or the present,
  5. More than any other teacher in the past or the present he has comrades and students travelling along the Way, some of them Arhats who have reached the goal.
  6. Nobles are well disposed towards him and give him gifts which he accepts with a heart not intoxicated by pride.
  7. His acts conform to his speech and his speech to his acts. A teacher of his kind and character, we find not, whether we survey the past, or the present.
  8. He has crossed the sea of doubt, gone by for him is all question of the 'how' and 'why' accomplished for him is every purpose.
Then some gods wished that there three such teachers in the world, others wished for two, but Sakka reminded them that there can be only one supremely enlightened Buddha in any given world system. Then an exceedingly bright light shone from the North and Sakka said that this heralded the imminent arrival of Brahmā Santanaṅkumara. Then the Brahmā did arrive but he was invisible and his voice only was heard to say in verse: "The Thirty-Three and all other gods honour the Tathāgata and the sublime cosmic law. The newly arisen gods who had lived the holy life under the Tathgātha are beautiful and bright, hearers of the Mighty Sage". He then materialized taking the shape of the Paṅcasikha deva and sat cross-legged in the sky. He then requested Sakka to repeat the eight qualities of the Tathagata that he had told the assembly earlier.

The Story of Mahā Govinda (the Great Steward)

[304-317] Meanwhile on earth there was a king called Disampati who ruled over a large territory. His chief minister was a Brahmin named Govinda (called the Steward). He was a clever officer who did much of the administrative work for the King. The king had a son called Reṇu, Govinda had a son called Jotipala. These two youngsters together with six young nobles were good friends.

In course of time Govinda died. This was a great loss to Disampati as Govinda had taken on himself all the duties of the king leaving Disampati to enjoy the pleasures of the senses, On the advice of his son Renu Disampati offered the job of Steward to Jotipala, the son of the deceased Steward. Jotipala accepted the job and in course of time became even more efficient than his father had been. He came to be known as the Great Steward (Mahā Govinda).

King Disampati was also getting old the Chief Steward knew that when the king died Prince Reṇu would succeed him. So he went to the six nobles and told them that when King Disampati dies and Prince Reṇu is anointed King the nobles should tell their friend Reṇu that he should share the Kingdom with the six of them. The nobles then went to Reṇu and told them of the suggestion of the Great Steward. Reṇu readily agreed to this suggestion.

So when king Disampati finally died and Reṇu was made king the nobles reminded him of his promise to share the kingdom with them. King Reṇu agreed to keep his promise and asked the Chief Steward to break up the large Kingdom into seven parts six going to the nobles and the seventh being his kingdom. The Chief Steward did this skilfully so that each kingdom went to a particular tribe. Accordingly he gave Dantapura for the Kalingas, Potana for the Assakas, Mahissati for the Avantis, Roruka in the Soviras, Mithila for the Videhas, Campa for the Angas, leaving the Kasi as the realm for Reṇu to rule. The nobles took royal names for themselves as kings, but they agreed to allow the Great Steward to do the practical tasks of administration.

Soon the fame of the Great Steward grew and it was rumoured that he was in communion with Brahmā himself. This was not true but the Great Steward had heard that the only way to see Brahmā would be to go into seclusion for four months and meditate on compassion. He announced his intention to go on retreat for four months to all who would be affected by that decision and having got a lodging made where he could mediate in solitude he began his four month retreat. But at the end of this period he could still not have communion with Brahmā and got extremely disappointed.

[318-325] Then Brahmā Sanaṅkumāra divining what was in the mind of the Great Steward appeared before him much to his terror. This fear and dread was allayed when he learned that the Brahmā had come to give him "whatsoever you would like to have". What the great Steward wanted most was to find the way to the Brahma world. Then Brahmā gave the requirements to do so as being proficient in abandoning all thought of 'me' and 'mine', living in solitude, meditating on compassion, giving up things with a foul smell (nirāmagandho virato), and chastity. Then the Great Steward said he could understand all these things except avoiding things with a foul odour and asked the Brahmā what they were. Then the Brahmā said that they were "Anger and lies, deceit and treachery, selfishness, self-conceit and jealousy, greed, doubt, and lifting hands against fellow men, lusting and hate, dullness and pride of life". He added that these doom a person to hell.

The Great Steward realized that he could not do all the things that the Brahmā said that were necessary to get to the Brahma world if he remained in the household life. So he decided that he would become a monk. He decided to convey this to all those that would be affected by his decision to leave the household life. Accordingly he went to the following:
  1. King Reṇu. But the King said that he to would join Mahāgovinda if he gave up the household life.
  2. The Six Nobles. They asked Mahāgovinda to wait for seven years but he said that it would be too long. The waiting period was gradually reduced to seven days after which they too would join him. This was agreed to,
  3. The seven Brahmins and their 700 students. They too tried to dissuade him but finally agreed to join him.
  4. His 40 equal wives. They said that they too will go into homelessness.
[326-328] Then after seven days Mahāgovinda cut his hair and beard, donned yellow garb and went into homelessness, together with all his disciples who had agreed to do so. Then they wandered around the country practising compassion. After death each of them was reborn in a heaven depending on how well they had understood and practiced Mahāgovinda's teaching.

The End of Pañcasikha's narration

[329-330] When Pañcasikha had concluded the story of the Great Steward he asked the Buddha if he remembered any of the events he had related. Then the Buddha said that he had been the Great Steward Mahāgovinda in a past birth. Even though he had guided his disciples then to a heavenly destination that should not be the real goal.

The Buddha said that those of his disciples now who fully understand the teaching will destroy the intoxications and and realize full liberation even in this life. Those who have broken the five Fetters are reborn without parents and will be liberated without returning. Those that have broken away three Fetters will become Once-Returners. Some will become Stream-Winners, not liable to be reborn in any state of woe, but assured of attaining to the Insight. Thus spoke the Exalted One and Pañcasikha was pleased at the word of the Exalted One, and in delight and gladness he saluted the Exalted One, and vanished from that place. **

D 20. Mahāsamaya Sutta

[N.B. This sutta is given to an assembly of an immense number of gods who had come to see the Buddha and the Arhats. The Buddha tells the bhikkhus the names of the gods who had come and where they came from. In this abstract the names of some devas has been omitted.]

[331-334] Once the Buddha was living in the Great Wood near Kapilavatthu with about 500 arhats. Then four devas from the Pure Abodes visited the Buddha and each recited a short verse. Then other devas joined them until a great gathering (mahā samaya) filled the woodland. Then the Buddha addressed the monks thus: "Often devas from the ten world-systems foregather to see the Tathagata and the community of bhikkhus. Devas have assembled now before me. I will tell you the names of the host of devas, I will reveal their names. I will give utterance. The terrestrial devas remain in their realm. Those bent on meditation frequent rocky clefts. The Arhats live like solitary lions overcoming fear with immaculate minds, pure, serene, and undefiled. Monks, hosts of devas have assembled. Do know them well."

Some bhikkhus saw one hundred, some thousand non-humans (devā) and others seventy thousand non-humans. Some saw one hundred thousand non-humans, others saw countless numbers, every quarter being filled with them. Thereupon the Buddha knowing all things through super knowledge, addressed the disciples who delighted in the word of the Buddha:

[335] There are 7,000 terrestrial devas (yakkhā) from Kapilavatthu with super-normal powers (iddhi), 6,000 from the Himlayan mountains, 3,000 from Mount Sata. These 16,000 were of diverse hue, all with iddhi power and radiant and comely to behold. They came with a retinue of attendants. There were 500 yakkhā from Vessamitta mountain. Kumbhira living in Mount Vepulla near Rajagaha came with 100,000 yakkhā in his train.

[336-337] The Four Great Kings, rulers of the deva world, have come. They are: (1) Dhatarattha, King of the East, Chief of the Gandhabbas with Inda his son and his retinue. (2) Virulha, King of the South, Chief of the Kumbhandas, with his retinue and many of his sons. (3) Virupakkha, King of the West, Chief of the Nagas with his retinue. and (4) Kuvera, King of the North, Chief of the Yakkhas, with his retinue of attendants. They took station at the four quarters of the forest.

With them came their slaves: Kutendu, Vetendu, Vitucca, and Vituda; Candana, Kamasettha, Kinnughandu, and Nighandu. There also came Panada and Opamanna and Matali charioteer of the Devas. Came also Gandhabbas like Citta and Sena, Nala, Janesabha, Paṇcasikha, and Timbaru, with his daughter Suriyavaccasa. Other Gandhabba kings too have come.

[338] Then came the Nagas from lake Nabhasa, from the Vidali realm, Nagas of Kambala, Assatara and Payaga. They were accompanied by their relatives. The Nagas of Tacchaka and of Yamuna have also come. The Garula birds, the natural enemies of the Nagas also flew into the gathering but the Buddha vouchsafed the Nagas from these birds,

[339-340] The Asura who had been defeated by Sakka had also came. But there were many more devas outnumbering them. These included the devas of the Khemiya, Tusita, Yama worlds, and also the mighty Katthaka, Lambhitaka, Lamasettha, Joti, and Asava.

[341-342] Next came the Brahmās Subrahma, Paramatta, Sanankumara and Tissa, headed hy Haritta. When all the devas and Brahmas had assembled then came Mara, the Evil One. Mara sent his army into the midst of the gathering saying: "Seize them, bind them, let them all be bound by lust, surrounded on every side, suffer not anybody to escape". But they were not able to bring the devas under their sway. This filled Mara with anger.

[343] The Buddha said "Monks, the host of Mara have come and gone. Know them and beware of them". Those who were not liberated strove hard to free themselves from the defilements, but not even a hair of the Arhats was touched by Mara's army. Mara then said: "These monks are victors in the war of passions; they are free from fear, glorious, and renowned among mankind. They live rejoicing with Aryan disciples". Then Mara departed.

D 21. Sakkpañha Sutta

[344-348] Once the Buddha was living in the Indasala cave on Mount Vediya north of the village of Ambasanda in Magadha. Then Sakka King of the Devas wanted to see the Buddha and divined where he was. He then asked the Thirty-Three gods and they too expressed the same desire. Then all of them together with the Gandhabba Pancasikha magically transported themselves to near the Indasala cave lighting up the whole area giving the impression that the village was on fire. Then Sakka asked Pancasikha to play a song extolling the Buddha on his lute to attract the attention of the Buddha. Panchasikha came nearer the cave and sang a love song (with some praise of the Buddha) accompanied by his lute.

[349-356] Then the Buddha asked Pancasikha where he had composed this song and was told that it was during the period of the Buddha's enlightenment when he was in love with the daughter of the Gandhabba King Timbaru (but did not win the favour of the lady). Noting that Pancasikha had established good rapport with the Buddha Sakka asked him to announce the desire of the devas to meet the Buddha. This Pancasikha did and the Buddha consented. Then Sakka and his party entered the Indadsala cave.

The Buddha welcomed Sakka and Sakka said that he wanted to see the Buddha for a long time and recounted an attempted former meeting at Sāvatthi when Bhunjati, wife of Vesssavana was paying homage to the Buddha. Sakka had told her to tell him of his arrival but the Buddha had gone into retreat. Sakka also related the story of a Kapilavatthu daughter called Gopika who had great faith in the Buddha and the Dhamma. After death she was born into communion with the Gods of the Thirty-three. She even upbraided three monks who were reborn as lower Gandhabbas because they did to fully follow the instruction of the Buddha. Gopika's song of devotion was then repeated for the benefit of those present.

The Buddha then told Sakka: "Question me whatever your mind desires, and on each problem put I will end your doubts !". Thus having been given leave by the Blessed One the following dialogue took place in which Sakka puts his questions and the Buddha gives his answers. After each answer Sakka praises the Buddha for putting his doubts on that matter to rest before posing his next question.
SAKKA [357] Fettered with what though they think, "May we live free from hostility, violence, rivalry, and ill-will" do beings of all kinds (humans, devas, etc,) nevertheless live in hostility, violence, rivalry, and ill will?".
BUDDHA  Because they are fettered with envy and stinginess.
SAKKA [358] What is the cause of envy and stinginess?
BUDDHA Its cause is dear-and-not dear (piyāppiyam).
SAKKA [359] What is the origin of this dear-and-not-dear?
BUDDHA Thinking (cando) is the cause. [N.B. Other interpretations like "desire" have been given to this Pali term]
SAKKA [360] What is the reason and cause for this thinking (or desire)?
BUDDHA It is mental proliferation (vitakka) that is the case of cando.
SAKKA [361] What is the cause of this mental proliferation?
BUDDHA It is the proliferation of perception (papañcasaññāsa).
SAKKA [362-363] What practice can a monk undertake to eliminate this tendency?
BUDDHA Happiness, Grief and Equanimity have two aspects to be pursued or not to be pursued. Those aspects which lead to the creation or increase of these proclivities should be avoided, and those aspects which lead to their diminution or elimination should be adopted.
SAKKA [364] How, sir, has that bhikkhu gone about who has acquired the self-restraint enjoined by the Patimokkha?
BUDDHA Behaviour in act, in speech, or in what we seek are two-fold, according as they are undertaken or not. One way of behaving lead to bad quaoities, the other leads to good qualities. The former kind of behaviour should not be followed, the latter should.
SAKKA [365] But how, sir, has that bhikkhu gone about who has acquired control of his faculties ?
BUDDHA I say that the objects of the senses visible (eye), audible (ear), odorous (nose), sapid (tongue), tangible (body) and thoughts (mind). They are twofold, either to be followed after or to be avoided.
SAKKA [366] Sir, are all ascetics and Brahmins fully proficient, freed from bonds, perfect in the holy life, have they perfectly reached the goal?
BUDDHA Those recluses and Brahmins who are set free through the entire destruction of craving, only they are perfectly proficient, only they are perfectly saved, only they are living perfectly the best life and have attained the ideal. Not all recluses have realized these objectives.

[367] Then Sakka spoke thus: "Passion is disease, a cancer, a dart; it drags a man from birth to birth now up, now down. Unlike other recluses and brahmins the Exalted One has answered my questions and put doubt and perplexity to rest.

[368] Then the Buddha inquired what the other teachers had said and Sakka answered: "Instead of answering me they counter-questioned me and I had to teach them the Dhamma I knew as a stream-winner. I have never experienced as much satisfaction and happiness as I now feel after listening to you, Lord."

Then Sakka said further: "During the war with the Asuras I led the Devas and we won but I did have much satisfation for what satisfaction is there when wrought by blows and wounds? But this satisfaction and happiness that I have experienced in hearing the Dhamma of the Exalted One conduces to detachment, to disinterestedness, to cessation, to peace, to spiritual knowledge, to enlightenment, to Nirvana".

[369] The Buddha then asked: "What things are present in your mind when you experience listening to the Dhamma?". Sakka answered that they were six:
  1. I have incurred the destiny to live again once more to hear the Dhamma.
  2. Deceasing from the gods I shall go unerring to that womb I would choose.
  3. I can then live delighting in the word of the Lord, live righteously, mindful and self-possessed.
  4. If my life thus rightly led Enlightenment should come, then shall I dwell as one who knows this shall be the end.
  5. Deceasing from the human sphere, I then forsake the life of men, and once more a deva I will be the best in the Deva-world.
  6. Finer than Devas are the Peerless Gods all glorious, with them my last span of life shall come and go, there my (last) home will be.
[370] Then Sakka uttered this stanza [rendered into verse by Rhys Davids]:
With aspirations unfulfilled, perplexed
And doubting, long I wandered seeking him
Who-had-on-That -wise-Thither-Come.
But since I've seen the Buddha, seen my doubts
Dispelled, now would I, all my fears allayed,
On him, the Enlightened One, adoring wait.
Him do I worship who hath drawn the dart
Of craving, him the Buddha, peerless Lord.
Hail, mighty hero ! hail, kin to the sun !
E'en as by gods is Brahma reverenced,
Lo ! even thus to-day we worship thee.
Thou art the Enlightened One, Teacher Supreme
Art thou, nor in the world, with all its heav'ns
Of gods, is any found like unto thee ! '
[371] Then Sakka addressed Pancasika the Gandhabba this: "You have been a great help to me. I will take the place of father to you, and you shall be king of the Gandhabbas, and I will give to you Bhadda, the Sun- maiden, whom you have longed for unsuccessfully". Then touching the earth to witness Sakka called out thrice: "Honour to the Exalted One, to the Arahant, to the Buddha Supreme !"

While he was speaking the stainless spotless Eye for the Dhamma arose in Sakka, the ruler of the gods, to wit : "Whatsoever things can come to be, that must also cease to be'. This also happened to eighty thousand of devas besides.

Summary Analysis
This is the last of the mythological suttas in this section of the Dīgha Nikāya. It has to be treated as such. While it is a splendid narrative it gives little new by way of Dhamma. However it gives a clear view of Devas which figure so much in the Buddhist suttas. When it comes to knowledge and insight they are little better than humans. They may have super-normal powers but they rarely reach enlightenment in their heavenly form. Even Sakka the King of the Devas gets his spotless vision of the Dhamma in this late stage.

$$D 22. Mahā Satipaṭṭhāna Sutta

[N.B. There are two main suttas on Satipaṭṭhāna (Mindfulness) in the Pali Canon. One is the Majjhima Nikāya sutta M10 Satipaṭṭhānasutta and the other (called the 'great') is this one. It has an additional section on the Noble Truths added towards the end (from [387] below). Otherwise both versions are identical.]

[372] This sutta was given to the monks Kammasadhamma in the Kuru country [near modern Delhi].

[373] It starts with Buddha saying that there is a "direct path" (ekāyano) to purification, often mistranslated as the only path. This is called direct as it enables a person in isolation to reach the goal of purification (visuddhiyā). Purification may not mean the goal of enlightenment but only the avoidance of gross wrongdoing. The method given is usually considered as one involving only meditation which is only one element in the broader Eightfold Path which leads towards Enlightenment.

The method given is a series of four of contemplations: (1) on the body, (2) on feelings, (3) on the mind, and (4) on mental qualities. These are considered in sequence in the sutta.

[374 - 379] 1. Contemplation on the body (kāyānupassanā. This begins with the posture to be adopted either in the forest or under a tree or in an empty place (perhaps a room). The usual "lotus position" is recommended. Then the meditator first begins by giving attention to breathing (usually called anāpānassati although that term does not occur in the sutta). Attention should be focussed both internally and externally on the body. The knowledge of anatomy at that time was derived partly from the widespread practice of animal sacrifice in old Vedic religion in which animals were killed and dismembered and their flesh eaten and given to the gods. The tradition listing of body parts given in this sutta runs as follows: "head hairs, body hairs, nails, teeth, skin, flesh, tendons, bones, bone marrow, kidneys, heart, liver, pleura, spleen, lungs, large intestines, small intestines, gorge, faeces, bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, fat, tears, skin-oil, saliva, mucus, fluid in the joints, urine." .

After attention to sitting meditation focus is shifted to walking, standing and lying down. Finally comes the cemetery contemplations. It was the custom to leave dead bodies to decompose naturally and the contemplation of dead bodies in various stages of decomposition is recommended. In modern times it is not possible to do this kind of morbid reflection and abstract contemplation is often substituted.

[380-382] 2. Contemplation on feelings (vedanānupassanā) The feelings mentioned are those that are painful, pleasant or neutral. The meditator is urged to be aware of these feelings, to reflect on their cause and also to be aware of their passing away.

No specific instruction is given how to rid one self from these feelings, especially painful feelings which might make it impossible to continue with the meditation. The implication seems to be that these feelings rise and fall automatically.

[383-384] 3. Contemplation on the mind (Cittānupassanā). The reflection mentioned here is to the emotion that is currently experienced in the mind. The mind could be charged with passion (rāga) or with aversion (dosa) or with delusion (moha). These are the three main negative emotions that could beset the mind. The meditator should be aware if his mind is charged or not charged with these three kinds of feeling.

[385-386] 4. Contemplation on the dhammas (Dhammānupassanā) [N.B. The term dhamma is a polyglot term in Buddhism. It could refer to doctrine or simply to a thing material or mental. Which of these are meant here is not clear. Many people interpret it as referring to the latter, especially to mental qualities. This is strengthened by the reference to five hindrances (pañca nīvaraṇa).]

There are five hindrances in Buddhism: (1) sensual desire, (2) ill will, (3) sloth & drowsiness, (4) restlessness & anxiety, and (5) uncertainty. With respect to each of these the meditator is asked to contemplate if he has the particular hindrance, how it arises, how it ceases, and how it could be abandoned.

Finally looking at Dhamma in the doctrinal sense the meditator is asked to consider the four noble truths and the other doctrines expounded by the Buddha. This then becomes more of an intellectual exercise rather than a purely psycho-mental activity. Clearly the scope of this activity could cover the whole of the doctrinal teaching of the Buddha. In what follows it is only one doctrine that is dealt with – the Four Noble Truths. This is probably because it is the most fundamental of the doctrines proclaimed by the Buddha. It is the only doctrine that is discussed in detail in this sutta.

[387-389] The discussion of the Noble Truths starts with the First Noble Truth that of Suffering (dukkha). The traditional list of elements of suffering are given: Birth, ageing, death, grief, lamentation, pain, distress, despair, association with the unloved, separation from the loved, misery, not getting what is wished for, and so on. Then each one of these is explained at length.

[400] Next is considered the Second Noble Truth – the Cause of Suffering. This is traced to Craving (taṇhā) for things dear and pleasant. They arise through the organs of sense: the eye, ear, nose, tongue, body and mind. The contact which results from the consciousness resulting from the forms (shapes), sounds, smells, tastes, touches and ideas lead to feelings. These lead to perceptions and these result in Craving. This is the origin of Suffering.

[401-2] Next is considered the Third Noble Truth – the Cessation of Suffering. This is none other than the abandonment of Craving. The way of doing this is given in the Fourth Noble Truth that of the Noble Eightfold Path, that is right view, right aspiration, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration. Each of these are then explained in detail. This ends the digression on the Four Noble Truths.

[403-405] "In this way a monk developing mindfulness considers internally mental qualities, or considers them externally, or considers them both internally and externally." These qualities are considered in and of themselves. Or he considers the phenomenon of the origination with regard to mental qualities, or of their passing away, or of their origination and passing away. with regard to mental qualities. The consciousness that "There are mental qualities" is maintained until mindfulness is established to the extent of knowledge and remembrance. He abides independent not clinging to anything in the world. This is how a monk remains focused on mental qualities with respect to thefour noble truths.

[404] If anyone develops these four applications of mindfulness two fruits can be expected: if there are no residual remnants of clinging he would acquire full knowledge (i.e. enlightenment) here and now. But if some residual clinging exists he would become a non-returner. The period of time that a person has to develop these applications could be seven years or even less right down to two weeks.

[405] The Buddha concluded: "This is the direct path for the purification of beings, for the overcoming and disappearance of suffering and distress, the attainment of the right method, and the realization of Nibbāna." The Bhikkhus delighted in the words of the Buddha.

Summary Analysis
As far as the first part of this sutta (sections 372-386) is concerned see the analysis made of the sutta M10. Satipaṭṭhāna Sutta as these sections replicate what is said in that sutta (M10) word for word.

As far as the new addition (in sections 387-402) on the Four Noble Truths are concerned there is nothing that is not given in classic expositions like the First Sermon (Dhammacakkapavattanasutta) which will be referred to when the Aṅguttara Nikāya Abstracts are made.



D 23. Pāyāsi Sutta

[N.B. This is the last sutta in the Mahāvagga Section of the Dīgha Nikāya. It is a debate between a Buddhist monk Kumāra Kassapa and the king Pāyāsi who was ruling Savetya on a warrant from the King of Kosala. The subjects of the debate are the doctrines of kamma and rebirth, subjects which are not challenged in other suttas of the Pali Canon. In that respect it is unique. This debate took place after the death of the Buddha, therefore the views expressed in it are not endorsed by the Buddha.]

[406-409] The Buddhist monk venerable Kumāra Kassapa came to Savetya with some 500 bhikkhus when Pāyāsi was the ruler. The following evil thought came to Pāyāsī: "Neither is there any other world, nor are there beings reborn otherwise than from parents, nor is there fruit or result of deeds well done or ill done (itipi natthi paro loko, natthi sattā opapātikā, natthi sukatadukkaṭānaṃ kammānaṃ phalaṃ vipāko)". Pāyāsī saw people going to the Grove where Kassapa was staying and finding the cause decided to go there himself. He then went there accompanied by the brahmins and householders of Savetya. After the usual compliments with Kassapa he sat on the side.

[410] Payasi then told Kassapa of his view that there is no other world, that there no rebirth except normally through parents, and that there is no fruit of good or bad deeds. Kassapa then said that he had not heard of such a view or opinion being held by anyone and that he will cross-examine the Prince on this. [N.B. The method employed by Kassapa is to ask for the reason why Pāyāsi holds on to a particular view and then give a simile or parable with the intention of refuting the reason given by Pāyāsi. Then Kassapa asks if there is a further reason, and this cycle is repeated many times. Some 14 similes are given and these will considered in turn.]
  1. [411-412] The Sun and Moon Simile (Chandimasūriya-upamā). This appears to be the principal argument of Kassapa to show that Pāyāsi is wrong when he says that there no other world and deities. Kassapa asks Pāyāsi: 'Are the sun and the moon in this world or another, are they gods (deva) or humans'. Pāyāsi agrees that they are in another world and that they are gods. This is taken by Kassapa as an admission by Pāyāsi himself that his views are wrong.

    This argument is of course superficial. Pāyāsi's view is the non-existence of another world into which people are reborn. It is clear that the sun and the moon are not such a world. Thus his proposition remains unrefuted. The statement that the sun and the moon are devas reflects the conventional view of the time that celestial bodies are gods. The etymology of 'deva' is a shining being. But clearly they are not the kind of deva who visit the earth and asks questions from the Buddha as stated in several discourses.

    Thus the sun and moon simile does not refute Pāyāsi's original contention. So Pāyāsi continues to hold on to his view.

  2. [413-414] The Thief Simile (Cora-upamā) Pāyāsi's next argument is that he knows of people who had violated all the precepts, and at death he had asked them to report to him if after death they reach a state of woe (apāya, niraya). He then says that none of them had reported thus. To refute this Kassapa gives the thief simile. He says that just as a thief sentenced to be executed will not be able to get permission from his executioner to visit his relatives, so too will a person reaching the hell destination be given permission by the warders of hell (nirayapālā) to return back to earth to report his fate to Pāyāsi. Thus Pāyāsi not hearing from these people does not prove that there is no hell, only that those condemned to hell are not able to have contact with the human world.

    While this argument can be accepted it does not still prove that these people who had violated all the precepts had actually gone to hell after death. All we can say that we do not know what their fate is. Apparently Pāyāsi seem to reason like this because he still repeats his denials about the world after (death) , etc.

  3. [415-416] The Man-in-the-Cesspit Simile (Gūthakūpapurisa-upamā) When questioned further Pāyāsi gives the opposite scenario to that in the previous simile. He now says that he knows of people who had lived good lives, not violated the precepts or committed sins (pāpaṃ). Just prior to their death he had approached them and asked them to report to him if they had gone to the heavenly world. Once again he never heard from them.

    Kassapa counters this with the man-in-the-cesspit parable. He considers the case of a man who has fallen into a foul cesspit. People pull him out of the cesspit, clean him, dress him in fine raiment, give him a luxurious palace where he can enjoy the pleasures of the five senses, etc. Then Kassapa asks if this man would prefer to return to the cesspit. The answer is clearly no. The point which Kassapa makes is that heavenly world is even better than the luxuries the man who had been rescued from cesspit was given, while the human world is comparable to a cesspit. So a deva would not want to go to the human cesspit to report to Pāyāsi.

    This parable is open to the same objection as the thief simile. The fact that the deva does not report to Pāyāsi does not necessarily mean that he has actually reached the heavenly world. But unlike in the case of the thief simile there are now no keepers of hell who will prevent the man from leaving the hell realm to report to Pāyāsi. In fact devas are supposed to frequently visit the human world, live in trees, etc. So it would have been possible for Pāyāsi to hear from a deva than from a man who had gone to the Hell realm.

  4. [417] The 'Thirty-three Gods' Simile (Tavatiṃsadeva-upamā) This simile is similar to the previous one. Here the person whom Pāyāsi has asked to report to him had done even more meritorious work and according to traditional expectation should has gone to the Heaven of the Thirty-Three Gods. This is one of highest heavens according to the traditional cosmology. But once again Pāyāsi does not hear from him. This leads Pāyāsi to think that this person had not reached is destination.

    Kassapa's explanation for this is that a day in the Heaven of the Thirty-Three Gods is equivalent to a hundred earthly years. So even if the person spends only a couple of days in that heaven before reporting, Pāyāsi would have been long dead. Pāyāsi is made to admit as such;

    Pāyāsi then asks: 'But who lets Master Kassapa know that there are Three-and-Thirty Gods, or that the Three-and-Thirty Gods live so many years. We do not believe him when he says these things.'

  5. [418-419] The Born Blind Simile (Jaccandha-upamāa) This was related in answer to Pāyāsi's direct challenge to Kassapa to show how he knows so much about these heavenly realms that Kassapa give the simile of the person born blind.

    Kassapa says that a person born blind will not see dark, light or coloured objects, will not see the sun or the moon, etc. He will then be inclined to say that these things do not exist. But a person with vision can see that they do exist. The heavenly worlds will not be visible to those without the right kind of vision; they become visible only to those with the special kind of vision. This kind of vision is called the 'heavenly (or divine) eye' (dibbachakku).

    The divine eye can be acquired by 'ascetics and Brahmins who seek in the jungle-thickets and the recesses of the forest for a resting place that is quiet with little noise (samaṇabrhāmaṇā ara''avanapatthāni pantāni senāsanānipaṭisevanti, te tattha appamattā ātāpino pahitattā viharantā dibbacakkhuṃ visodhenti)'. It is not clear if Kassapa himself has acquired the divine eye and is speaking from personal knowledge, or whether he is merely reporting what ascetics and Brahmins who have developed the divine eye has said. But even if Kassapa has acquired the divine eye Pāyāsi would not have any way of ascertaining this. So Pāyāsi remains unconvinced and reiterates belief in the non-existence of the other world, etc.

  6. [420-421] The Pregnant Woman Simile (Gabbhini-upamā) This simile is occasioned by a new argument adduced by Pāyāsi. Pāyāsi says that he knows of ascetics and Brahmins who observe morality and are well conducted, and would thus be assured of a heavenly existence after death. Yet he notes that these ascetics still want to live and not die (for instance by committing suicide) and thereby going to a better existence in the heavenly world. According to the previous parable such ascetics and Brahmins would have been convinced of the existence of the heavenly world and their certain destiny of going there. Pāyāsi is puzzled why they would want to continue in their present existence rather than go to the heavenly state.

    The parable given to deal with Pāyāsi's argument relates to a Brahmin who had two wives when he died. He had a son by the first while the second was pregnant. The son by the first wife said to the pregnant co-wife that he as the sole child will inherit all the wealth of the deceased father. In her haste to find out if her child will be a male the co-wife took a knife and cut open her belly thereby killing both herself and the embryo. Thus she lost her share of the inheritance which would have come to her if she had delivered a child in the normal course of things.

    Kassapa explains the relevance of this to Pāyāsi's question by saying: '... those ascetics and Brahmins ... do not seek to hasten the ripening of that which is not yet ripe, but rather wisely await its ripening'. It is not clear if in Kassapa's view an act of suicide will negate the good deeds done previously and not allow them to ripen. Certainly many questions relating to the nexus between the deed (kamma) and the fruit (vipāka) are raised by this parable which remain unresolved. So this parable too does not lead Pāyāsi to abandon his view of the non-existence of the other world etc.

  7. [422-423] The Dream Simile (Supinaka-upamā) This relates to an experiment proposed by Pāyāsi to find out if a life-force (jivaṃ), sometimes translated as 'soul', exists for re-birth to take place. A convicted felon is placed inside a hermetically sealed jar and allowed to die. When the man is dead the jar is carefully broken to see if his 'soul' escapes. But nothing is obsreeved escaping and Pāyāsi says 'that is why I believe there is no other world ...'

    Kassapa then asks Pāyāsi if while he is having a siesta and dreaming watched over by attendants if these attendants see his soul leaving and entering his body. Pāyāsi answers in the negative. Then Kassapa says: 'So they do not see your soul entering or leaving your body while you are alive. So how can you see the soul leaving the body of a dead man''

    While Pāyāsi's attempt at empirical verification if a soul exists may be commended, both he and Kassapa are mistaken about seeing the soul arrive or depart. Here Kassapa's conjecture is the more absurd because he seems to think that while dreaming the soul actually leaves the body and wanders about in the places seen in the dream!

  8. [424-425] The Heated Iron Ball Simile (Santatta-ayoguna-upamā) This records another attempt by Pāyāsi to verify if a soul exists. He thinks that a dead body should be lighter than a living body. He get a condemned man to be strangled and has him weighed before and after he dies. To his surprise he finds that after death he weighs more not less than when he was alive. This too leads him to conclude that at death the is no soul departing to seek rebirth elsewhere.

    Kassapa's parable to answer Pāyāsi is to ask if an iron ball weighs more or less when it is heated to a glowing state than when it is cold. Pāyāsi answers that it would weigh less in the heated state. Kassapa answers that in the same way the body when it is full of life and heat will weigh less than when it is cold and dead.

  9. [426-427] The Trumpeter Simile (Saṅkhadhama-upamā) This simile is given in response to another experiment suggested by Pāyāsi, Here a thief is tortured so that while he is still alive he loses control over all his senses, i.e. he does not see, hear, taste, etc. But no 'soul' is seen escaping from him, the theory being that it is the soul that enables a man to use his senses.

    Kassapa counters with his trumpeter analogy. A trumpeter takes his trumpet to a 'border region' (paccantajanapadaṃ) [inhabited by backward people], sounds it once and lays it down. The people think that the trumpet can make sound on its own and despite their many entreaties for the trumpet to do so it remains silent. Then the trumpeter blows on it again, makes sound, and takes it away. Kassapa implies that the physical body is like the trumpet while it is 'life, heat and intelligence' (āyu, usmā, vi''āṇa) which activates it making it see, hear, taste, etc.

    It is difficult to see how this simile refutes the argument of Pāyāsi.

  10. [428-429] Fire Worshiper Simile (Aggikajṭila-upamā) Pāyāsi's next argument also relates to another futile attempt to prove that a 'soul' exists. He speaks of a thief whose organs are systematically removed but no 'soul' is found. This leads Pāyāsi not to abandon his views about the other world, etc.

    Kassapa replies with the fire worshiper simile. A fire worshiper living in the forest finds an abandoned baby and rears him as his son. When the boy was 10 or 12 years old the fire-worshiper had to leave his hut for a short time and he gave detailed instructions to the boy how to restart the fire should it go out. The fire did go out but the boy had misunderstood the instructions and could not relight the fire. The fire worshiper had to do it himself after his return.

    Kassapa compares Pāyāsi to the boy, trying useless ways to find the other world. But Pāyāsi remains unconvinced.

  11. [430-431] Caravan Leaders Simile (Dvesatthavāha-upamā) This parable relates to two caravan leaders trying to cross a dessert. They both stock up with grass and water for the journey. One caravan sets out first and soon it encounters a donkey chariot coming the opposite way with all the signs of having gone through severe rainy weather. On enquiry about the road ahead the caravan leader was told that there was plenty of water and vegetation ahead. On this instruction the caravan leader abandoned his supplies of grass and water. But he did not encounter any rain or water and came to grief in the dessert.

    The second caravan leader also encountered the same man (who in reality was a yakka spirit) who gave the same false instruction. But this caravan leader was more cautious and did not abandon his supplies. As such he was able to survive the hot dessert and reach his destination. Kassapa compares Pāyāsi to the foolish caravan leader who took the instruction of the yakka spirit.

    This parable has little or no relevance to the subject of the debate. The remaining three similes do not introduce any new arguments. These parables contrast a foolish person with a wise one and Pāyāsi is shown as being similar to the foolish person.

  12. [432-433] The Dung Carrier Simile (Gūthabhārika-upamā) This parable relates the story of a person who comes across a lump of dried-up dung. He collects it to be used in his pig sty and carries it bundled up on his head. On the way he gets caught up in a heavy rain and the dung turns into slime which drenches his whole person. People make fun of him and he of course cannot use the dung which he had so carefully scooped up for any useful purpose.

  13. [434-435] The Gambler Simile (Akkadhuttaka-upamā) This relates a story of two gamblers, one of whom is a cheat. The other gambler manages to get the better of the cheat. Kassapa compares Pāyāsi to the cheat. There does not seem to be any relevance of this parable to the subject of the discussion.

  14. [436] The Hemp Heap Simile (Saṇabhārika-upamā) This parable deals with two people roaming about the country. They come across a heap of abandoned hemp and decide to divide it between them. While one kept his heap of hemp the other kept on discarding his hemp for other things which are more valuable that they come across. The parable ends with both returning to their village but while the first had only the heap of hemp he had originally picked up the other had been able to exchange it to a quantity of gold. Kassapa compares Pāyāsi to the hemp bearer.

[437] The denouement of the Sutta comes when Pāyāsi gives up his views and accepts the position of Kassapa. In fact he says that had been convinced of the rightness of Kassapa's position all along from the very first simile that he used (the Simile of the Sun and Moon), but he kept up the debate because he considered Kassapa to be a worthy opponent. In the end Pāyāsi takes refuge in the Buddha, Dhamma and the Sangha. He thus becomes a Dhamma-farer. But at the same time he says that he wants "to offer a great sacrifice. Let Master Kassapa instruct me herein that it may bring me long welfare and happiness."

[438] But Kassapa discourages the Prince from a sacrifice that involves the killing of animals and instead he should follow the noble eightfold path. Then the benefits would be like what a farmer gets when he plants seeds.

[439-400] This leads Pāyāsi to establish a charity for ascetics, Brahmins, wayfarers, and the needy. He puts a young Brahmin Uttara in charge. Despite his establishment of this charity Pāyāsi is not wholehearted in his generosity and provides food of poor quality. But Uttara is generous and gave the best that he could provide. The result was that after death Uttara joined the company of the Thirty-Three Gods while Pāyāsi is reborn in a lower heaven called the realm Four Great Kings in the empty Serisaka mansion.

[441] Venerable Gavampati was having his siesta in an empty mansion nearby when Pāyāsi, now a god, appeared before him. He identified himself as the former ruler who had sceptical views about the Dhamma but was converted to the truth by venerable Kassapa. He gave an account of what happened to him and to Uttara after death. Through Gavampati this information became common knowledge.

Summary Analysis
There is little doubt that re-birth is the most contentious doctrine in Buddhism. Maurice Walsh in the Introduction to his translation of this sutta says:
"There are some people in the West who are attracted in many ways to Buddhism, but who find the idea of rebirth a stumbling-block, either because they find it distasteful and/or incredible in itself, or in some cases because they find it hard to reconcile with the 'non-self' idea. Some such considerations as any of these sometimes even lead people to declare that the Buddha did not actually teach rebirth at all, or that if he did so, this was only for popular consumption, because his hearers could not have accepted the truth.'
Even though Prince Pāyāsi recanted his views these views are still common. The question is whether Kassapa was able to refute them. Kassapa's only method is argument from analogy (simile and parable). This is not a logically accepted method today. It is impossible to establish the truth or falsity of the "evil views" of Pāyāsi using this method. As the debate progresses its quality begins to deteriorate. The last few similes do not contribute any thing at all to the discussion and are merely used by Kassapa to impute that Pāyāsi is something of a fool on the analogy to someone in the parable is clearly foolish. On the more substantiative issues we can conclude as follows.
    1. The other world (paraloko). Clearly Pāyāsi's denial that after death individuals go to some other world is not refuted. Kassapa in the Simile of the Sun and Moon seems to imply that these celestial objects are 'other worlds'. They may be so but they are are not what is not meant by the deva realms and the niraya realm.
    2. Beings of 'spontaneous birth' (sattā opaptikā). Spontaneous appearance (or birth) is the unique characteristic of devas. But there is no demonstration that such beings exist. In the Simile of the Thrity-Three Gods it is said that such beings are not visble to the ordinary oy physical eye. They are only visible to the divine eye. This is the closest one comes to the statement that they are purely hypothetical or metaphysical beings who exist only in the mind's eye. This may be a reasonable rationalization but many people, certainly uneducated ordinary persons, think of them as real beings.
    3. Rebirth. Even though a term for 'rebirth' (such as punaruppatti or punabbhāva) does not appear in the text of the debate this concept is implicit in the very notion of the 'other world'. There is of course no empirical evidence for this in the early Buddhist writings even though the idea is implicit in the notion of saṃsra. Once again it is said that evidence is only available for persons who have developed the divine eye, or the abiity to recall past existences.
    4. The soul or life principle (jīvaṃ). Such a concept is essential if we are to establish a nexus between the deceased individual and his (or her) reborn self. Pāyāsi even proposes some bold experiments (like weighting a man immediately before and after death) to find if such an entity exists. But the results are always negative. The problem with the hypothesis of a 'life principle' is that it conflicts with the Buddha's anatta theory and there is no component that corresponds to such a concept in the five elements (khandā) into which the Buddha divided the empirical person.
    5. Post-mortem kamma-vipāka. The theory that the karmic consequences of actions occur after physical death in a non-terrestrial realm is of course not established as the requirements for this listed above are not met.

    For a more detailed analysis of this sutta see the article http://www.vgweb.org/bsq/payasi.htm

    Dīgha Nikāya Abstracts


    The Pāṭikavagga (literally 'Chapter on Pātika') comprises of 11 suttas (or discourses) is the third division of the Dīgha Nikāya. This Introduction to the Abstracts of these suttas gives a short description of each of these suttas. The Abstracts of these suttas follow this Introduction.

    The title of the first sutta D 24 Pāṭika Sutta is misleading because Pāṭika does not figure in it, but his son Pāṭikaputta does. The principal character is Sunakkhatta, a foolish disciple of the Buddha who at the end leaves him. The next sutta D 25 Udumbharika Sutta is a dialogue between the Buddha and a  wanderer Nigrodha on ascetics who engage in self mortification. Even though Nigrodha is polite towards the Buddha he does not become a follower of the Buddha.

    The next sutta D 26 Cakkavatthi Sīhanāda Sutta tells of a line of mythical righteous Kings when the human lifespan was 40,000 years! Then an unrighteous King comes along and the lifespan falls gradually to 10 years. But a revival takes place and the story ends with the coming of Metteyya Buddha. The sutta D 27 Aggañña Sutta is addressed to Brahmins and gives what the Buddha considers to be the correct origin of the caste system as against the Brahmin version. The next Sutta D 28 Sampasādanīya Sutta has Sāriputta saying why he has complete faith in the Buddha.

    The sutta D 29 Pāsadika Sutta is about good and bad teachers. The next Sutta D 30 Lakkaṇa Sutta explains the 32 physical marks in the body of a 'Great Man' (mahāpurisa), the Buddha being considered to possess these marks on his body. The next sutta D 31 Sigalaka Sutta is advice given to a Brahmin youth which is generally considered as advice given to all the Buddha's lay followers. The sutta D 32 Aṭānāṭiya Sutta is a charm taught by one of the Four Great Kings of the deva world so that people, especially monks meditating in lonely forests, could recite it to protect themselves from malevolent acts of devas and yakkahs who are opposed to the teaching of the Buddha. The next sutta D 33 Sangīti Sutta is a Chanting lead by Sāriputta giving the names of Dhamma topics preached by the Buddha. The last sutta D 32 Dasattara Sutta gives an abridged version of the material in the previous sutta. It is the only sutta for which no formal Abstract has been provided.

    D 24. Pāṭhika Sutta

    [1-6] Once while staying among the Mallas at Anupiya in the Great Wood the Buddha set out on his alms round but thinking that it was too early instead he visited the wanderer Bhaggava. Then Bhaggava told the Buddha that Sunakkhatta a Liccavi who had been a follower of the Buddha had told him that he had left the Buddha. The Buddha confirmed this saying that Sunakkhatta complained that the Buddha had not worked a miracle but had asked him to take him (i.e the Buddha) as Sunakkhatta's teacher. The Buddha had pointed out to Sunakkhatta that he does not perform a miracle for the sake of it and that he had not asked Sunakkhattta to take him (i.e. the Buddha) as his teacher. Whereupon Sunakkhatta had left him. The Buddha had reminded Sunakkhatta that in the past he had praised the Buddha, the Teaching and the Order but people will say that Sunakkhatta could not live the holy life under Gotama and had left.

    [7-10] The Buddha then told Bhaggava that at one time at Uttarakā there was a Canine Ascetic (i.e one who behaved like a dog) called Korakkhattiya, but Sunakkhatta thought that he was an Arhat. When the Buddha disagreed Sunakkhatta said that the Buddha begrudged others being Arhats. Then the Buddha made a prophesy that in seven days time Korakkhattiya will die of indigestion and arise among the Kalakanjas, the lowest of the Asuras, who would cast him on a bed of grass in a charnel field. Sunakkhatta then waited for seven days and found that the Buddha's prophesy had come true. He reported this to the Buddha who asked him if that was not the miracle he had been looking for. But Sunakhatta simply left him.

    [11-14] Then the Buddha told Bhaggava of another incident. In Vesali there was a naked ascetic called Kandaramasuka who had taken vows that he will remain naked for life, lead a life of chastity, eat meat and drink spirituous liquor, and not leave the confines of Vesali. He kept these vows and gained much fame. Sunakkhatta thought that he too was an arhat, and went to see him to ask a question but he got angry so Sunakkhatta left so as not to create a conflict with him. Then Sunakhatta came to the Buddha who pointed out that this so-called Arhat could not control his anger and made the prophesy that he will soon die. This happened to the surprise of Sunakhatta but Sunakhatta again left the Buddha accusing him again of begrudging the Arhat-ship of others.

    [15-33] The next incident relates to another naked ascetic Pāthikaputta (i.e. son of Pāthika after whom this sutta is named even though the father does not figure in it). Pāthikaputta publicly challenged Gotama to a contest on miracle performance which challenge Sunakkhatta duly reported to the Buddha. He also said that Pāthikaputta said that the Buddha's prophesies of ascetics dying were wrong as as they could come in an altered shape. The Buddha said that he would meet Pathikaputta in his park. Many people congregated to witness this contest but Pathikaputta got so frightened that he went to the Tinduka Park instead. Then a man went to Pāthikaputta and asked him to come to meet the Buddha but even though he said that he would come he could not get up from his seat however much he tried.

    Then a Liccavi counsellor too tried to get Pāthikaputta to come but with the same result. It was not even possible to drag him away using bullocks. Then Jaliya a pupil of the ascetic Dārupatthika said he would try to bring Pāthikaputta to the assembly. He tried a different tactic of relating a parable of a lion and a hyena. The hyena grew fat on scraps left behind by the lion and thought that he could get fresh meat if he imitated the lion by uttering the lion's roar to attract prey. But he could not imitate the lion roar with the jackal howl. Then Jaliya told Pāthikaputta: "Even so, you living among the exploits of the Wellfarer, feeding on food left over after the Wellfarer has been served, fancy you can reach up to those who are Tathagatas and the supreme Buddha!". But even this parable did not succeed in making Pāthikaputta confront the Buddha. Jaliya returned and reported this to the crowd and the Buddha said: "Incompetent is the naked ascetic Pāthikaputta to meet me face-to-face!".

    [34-35] Then the Buddha gave a Dhamma discourse performed a miracle of rising into the air amid flames and then being transported back to the Great Wood in Anupiya. Then Sunakhatta again came to him said that his miracles were performed through a superhuman gift and departed for the last time. All this was related to Bhaggava. The Buddha then changed the topic and said that he knew the ultimate beginning of things but would not misuse this knowledge.

    [36] In the final section of the sutta the Buddha changes the subject to the story of the beginning of the world. [N.B. This is given at great length in the Agañña Suttta (D. 27) and will not be repeated here in great detail.] In this connection the views of certain recluses and Brahmins on this topic are refuted. Some of these are:
    • [37-40] The traditional view that Brahmā (God) created the world. After every period of evolution the world is emptied of beings. Then an empty abode for Brahmins appears. This is soon occupied by the first-come and the repopulation of the world begins. This theory is debunked.
    • [41-42] Some think that things originate due to a debauch of pleasure (khiḍḍāpadosikaṃ). While there are gods of that kind (khiḍḍāpadosikā nāma devā) they perish due to their sensual indulgence.
    • [43-44] Some think that things originate due to a debauch of (mental) pleasure (manopadosikaṃ). There are certainly gods of that designation (manopadosikā nāma devā) but due to their state of confusion they cannot propagate.
    • [45-47] Others say that the beginning is due to chance. Still others say that the world originated through unconscious beings. But I do not say that these and other speculations about beginnings are true.

    [48] Then the Buddha concluded his address to Bhaggava thus: "Hard is it for you who hold different views, approve of different things, set different aims, strive after them, and are trained in a different system to attain to and abide in the deliverance that is beautiful. Look therefore to it, Bhaggava, that you foster well this faith of yours in me".

    Bhaggava replied: "If, Sir, it be hard for me doing all that you have said to attain to and abide in the deliverance that is beautiful, then will I, at least, foster well my faith in the Exalted One". And Bhaggavagotta, the Wanderer, pleased in heart, took delight in the words of the Exalted One.

    Summary Analysis
    Much of this sutta is devoted to the ability of holy teachers to do miracles. Even though the Buddha has declared this is not a condition for holiness and declares also in this sutta that he is against performing miracles for pure demonstration he actually does this not only in his prophesies about the coming death of ascetics but also in his final demonstration of ascending to the air and disappearing from the scene. His tolerance of Sunakkhatta, calling him only a foolish man despite his attempts to prove the Buddha wrong may be taken as a sign of compassion.

    The other topic of the beginning of things is discussed more extensively in the Brahmajāla and the Agañña Suttas (both in this Long Collection) and its brief appearance here seems out of place.

    D 25. Udumbrika Sīhanāda Sutta

    [49-53] Once the Buddha was staying at the Vultures' Peak near Rajagaha and the wanderer Nigrodha was staying at at the Undumbrika Park with a large following. Then Sandahana a householder follower of the Buddha wanted to visit the Buddha and thinking that it was too early decided to visit Nigrodha instead. After the formalities he told Nigrodha: "You wanderers when you meet you talk with loud voices, with noise and clamour, carrying on childish talk of various kinds. But the Exalted One haunts the lonely and remote places where there is hardly any noise except breezes from the pastures, suitable for self-communing". Then Nigrodha said: "With whom does the Samana Gotama converse? He is not at home in assemblies. He is not ready in conversation. He is occupied only with the fringes of things like a one-eyed cow that observes only the outskirts. If the Samana Gotama comes here with a single question we can roll him over like an empty pot".

    [54-55] The Buddha heard this with his divine ear and descended from the Vultures' Peak and began pacing to and fro at the Peacock Feeding ground. Nigrodha saw this and called his followers to silence. Then the Buddha approached Nigrodha and and after the formalities took the prepared seat. Then he asked what the conversation was about and Nigrodha posed his question: "What, lord, is the doctrine of the Samana Gotama in which he trains his disciples who give it their utmost support and the make it the fundamental principle for the holy life?".

    [56-57] The Buddha said: "It is hard for you to understand my doctrine; suppose we consider your doctrine". At this wanderers made a big commotion but Nigrodha silenced them and said: "We teach the higher austerities and we adhere to them". Then the Buddha listed the austerities practiced by ascetics. [N.B. Most of this is repeated from the Maha Sihanāda Sutta (D 8). See the Abstract of that discourse (sections 394-396) as it is not reproduced here.]

    [58] Then Nigrodha asked: "In what way can you say that our practices are faulty". In answer to this the Buddha gave several blemishes in the practice of an adherent to austerities, such as:
    1. He becomes self-complacent that his goal has been reached. he despises others becomes inebriated, infatuated and careless.
    2. [59] The fame he gets makes him complacent, fastidious regarding his food, and expects favours from kings and householders.
    3. [60-61] He grumbles at other recluses and Brahmins and becomes envious of them because they have a comfortable life-style while he himself undergoes various kinds of discomfort and privation.
    4. [62] He sits in public places, slinks furtively during the alms round without expressing his real intentions. He does not appreciate the way that a Tathagata or his disciple teaches.,
    5. [63] He loses his temper and bears enmity. He is liable to be hypocritical and deceitful, as well as envious and grudging; he becomes cunning and crafty, hard- hearted and vain, he entertains evil wishes and becomes captive to them; he entertains false opinions, becomes possessed of metaphysical dogma, misinterprets his experience and is avaricious and adverse from renunciation.
    Here Nigrodha intervenes to say that these blemishes may exist in some ascetics but not in all of them.

    [64-69] The Buddha then concedes some of this point and takes the opposite case, assuming a negation of the blemishes he had identified earlier. To that extent the Buddha says that there is some purification. Then he asked Nigrodha: "That being so, does the austerity by these things become genuinely pure, or not ?" To this Nigrodha replied: "Verily, lord, the austerity of these things becomes genuinely pure, and not impure; it wins topmost rank, it reaches the pith". The Buddha disagrees and says: "No, Nigrodha, not yet does the austerity become of topmost rank, nor reach the pith; it has but reached only the outside".

    [70-71] Then Nigrodha wanted to know "In what way, lord, does an austerity win top-most rank, and reach the pith ?". The Buddha began by giving the Restraint of the Fourfold Watch: (1) Not inflicting injury on no living thing; (2) not taking what is not given; (3) , not uttering lies; and (4) not craving for sensual pleasures. Then he sits at a lonely spot. He puts away hankering after the world, purifies his mind of covetousness, puts away the canker of ill-will, he abides free from enmity, becomes benevolent and compassionate towards every living thing, purifies his mind of malevolence, puts away sloth and torpor, flurry and worry. Then he purifies his mind of doubt and extends loving kindness, compassion, sympathetic joy and equanimity to all quarters of the world.

    [72-76] Answering another query the Buddha said that the ascetic should cultivate the ability to remember past lives and then develop the divine eye. It is only then that the austerity is purified so as to reach the peak and penetrate the pith. The Buddha said this is my doctrine which you had asked for in your original question. Nigrodha then apologized that he had said that the Samana Gotama could be rolled over like a pot by a simple question.

    [77-79] The the Budddha said: "It it was an offence that overcame you. Inasmuch as you, Nigrodha, looking upon it as an offence, confess according to your deeds, we accept your confession. Let that which is your rule be your rule still, your mode of livelihood be so still". So the wanderers could continue with their beliefs and way of life. But the Buddha thought: "Every one of these foolish men is pervaded by the Evil One, so that to not even one of them will the thought occur 'Let us now live the holy life taught by the Samana Gotama' ".

    Having uttered the Lion's Roar at the Udumbrika Park the Buddha rose up and went through the air, and alighted on the Vulture's Peak.

    Summary Analysis
    The rival religious doctrines that the Buddha had to contend with were the Brahmanical religion and that of various wanderers and recluses. The Buddha disagreed with some aspects of the Brahmanical system such as the sacrificial cult and the caste system. As far as the wanderers were concerned he considered their customs as futile. But many instances of his Lion's Roar were directed at the wanderers. The system of self-mortification has declined in India and nowhere else had it got established. Today the "Lion's Roar" has to be directed at religions like Christianity or Islam which were not known in India at the Buddha's time.

    D 26. Cakkavatti-Sīhanāda Sutta

    [80] Once the Buddha was staying at Mātulā in Magadha. There he addressed the monks: "Be as islands to yourselves, as a refuge with none other than the Dhamma. Contemplate the body as body, feelings as feelings, the mind as mind and mind objects as mind objects. Keep to your pastures, those of your fathers. Then Mara will find no footing to attack you."

    [81-84] A long, long time ago there was a Wheel-turning (Cakkavatti) king called Daḷhanemi, a righteous world ruler. Amongst his seven treasures was the Wheel Treasure, the others being the Elephant, the Horse, the Gem, the Woman, the Householder, and the Counsellor. When after many thousands of years this Treasure slipped from its position he summoned his eldest son the Crown prince and announced that the Wheel Treasure had slipped and he had not much longer to live. After installing his son into kingship he donned the yellow cloth and went into homelessness. Seven days after that the Wheel Treasure disappeared.

    The King was saddened at the loss of the Wheel Treasure and went to the Royal Sage who told him that if he carried out the Aryan duty of a Cakkavatti king the Wheel Treasure will return. This duty consisted of acting according to Dhamma and protecting all those who depended on him from his troops, his nobles, ascetics, Brahmins, householders, right down to the birds and beasts. This he did and the Wheel Treasure duly returned.

    [85-87] It was believed that if the Wheel rolls over any territory followed by the King and his troops then that territory falls under sovereignty of the King. The Wheel rolled in all the four directions and all that territory came under the rule of the Cakkavtti King. It returned and rested at its appointed place in the Palace.

    [88-94] The Chakkavatti King was followed by six successors all of whom followed him in the same footsteps. There was Dhamma rule and peace, prosperity and plenty was assured for all the people,. Things changed with the seventh king. The Wheel slipped again and the King did not consult the Royal Sage but followed his own wishes.

    The result was that the prosperity came to an end.  One man took what was not given thus introducing theft where there had been none. He was brought before the King and he said that he did this as he had nothing to eat. The King gave him some property and asked him to use it to set himself up to do some occupation. Then another man and then another began taking what was not given. The King realized that he could not continue with his policy of giving property, so he got the next person indulging in theft to be publicly executed.

    [95-105] As a result of capital punishment being instituted for theft people began arming themselves with swords so that when they robbed someone they cut off his head also. One person who was caught for doing that denied having done it so that telling lies was introduced into the kingdom. Thus a vicious circle was established. By not providing funds for the poor, poverty became widespread. When poverty became widespread, stealing became widespread. When stealing became widespread, armed violence became widespread. When armed violence became widespread, life-taking became widespread. When life-taking became widespread, lying became widespread. When lying became widespread, slander became widespread. When slander became widespread, sexual misconduct became widespread.

    There was also another consequence of this decay of society. The lifespan and beauty of people began to decline (āyuvaṇṇādipariyāna). Originally the life-span was 40000 years !. Theft alone halved it to 20000. Slander halved it again to 10,000. Sexual misconduct halved it again to 5000. Harsh and idle speech reduced it again to 2500. Covetousness and ill-will brought it down to 1000 years. Wrong view brought it down to 500 years. Abnormal lust brought it down to 250 years. The bottom will be reached when the lifespan becomes 10 years. Beauty will also decline proportionately even though no quantitative measure is given,. If that is not enough a seven-day war will take place after which there will be only grass to eat.

    [106-110] It is only then that common sense will begin to dawn. Then people begin to show respect towards mother, respect towards father, respect towards recluse-ship, respect towards celibacy, and respect for family elders etc. In short they will undertake this wholesome state as their practice. In an unstated time period the life-span will go up to 80000 years and the capital Baraṇāsi, then to be called Ketumati, will be full of people. The new King will be called Sañkha and will start giving free food to bhikkhus, poor etc. the Seven Precious Treasures including the Wheel Treasure will return.

    Then the Buddha Metteyya will come and establish an order with hundreds of monks. All this is prophesied by the Buddha Gotama to his Bhikkhus. The sutta ends as it began. Monks are urged to keep to their pastures. Comeliness to a monks is right conduct, restrained according to the Pātimokkha. Wealth to a monk is to pervade the entire world with thoughts of loving-kindness, compassion, sympathetic joy and equanimity. Power to a monk is the destruction of the deadly taints.

    Summary Analysis
    There is nothing new in the instruction to the monks with which this sutta starts and ends. But in between is a fantastic story that defies credulity. The life-spans spoken of are beyond belief. This is neither history relating to the past, nor prophesy relating to the future. It is surmised that this sutta is a late addition composed well after the death of the Buddha Gotama. The old myth of the Cakkavatti Kings may have been revived during the reign of Asoka, and this was a period when the Bhikkhus were losing confidence. Hence the yearning of a return of the Buddha in the form of Metteyya.

    D 27. Aggañña Sutta

    [111-118] While the Buddha was staying in the Pubbārāma in Sāvatthi the Brahmins Vāseṭṭha and Bhāradvājā, who were training to become monks, visited him. The Buddha asked them: "You have gone forth from a Brahmin family to lead the homeless life, do the Brahmins blame and revile you?". They answered "Yes" and explained that the Brahmins say: "Only a Brahmin is of the best social grade ; others are low. Only a Brahmin is of a clear complexion, others are swarthy. Only Brahmins are of pure breed, being children of Brahma, born of his mouth, offspring of Brahma, created by Brahma, heirs of Brahma. You have renounced the best rank, and have gone over to that low class of shaven recluses with swarthy skins".

    The Buddha said that the Brahmins have forgotten their past; they are all womb-born, not of Brahma's mouth; they make a travesty of Brahmā. Then the Buddha said: "Both bad and good qualities, blamed and praised respectively by the wise, are distributed among each of the four castes; the wise do not admit those claims which the Brahmins put forward". He gave the example of King Pasanedi of Kosala and himself who respect each other even though neither of them is a Brahmin. The morality he refers to is that which he expounds. He concludes with the refrain made frequently in this sutta: "Dhamma is the best thing for people, In this life and the next as well".

    [119-129] Next comes the Buddha's exposition on how the world evolves (samvattati). At each transformation the world is denuded of people (those existing are transferred into a different dimension) and there is only darkness and water. Then the land emerges from the water and it tastes sweet. Then beings appear (perhaps reborn due to their kamma, although this is not said). They initially feasted on the savoury earth but due to their self pride the savouriness disappeared, but there were outgrowths from the soil (bhūmipappaṭaka) which they used as food. But differences in their comeliness emerged and the better looking became vain and proud. As a result the outgrowths disappeared and much coarser creepers (padālatā) appeared. These made their bodies more solid but the differences between people increased. The creepers were soon replaced by rice which grew wild. This food increased the differentiation between them, and sexuality arose and with it lust. Thus immorality arose.

    [130-135] Soon the wild rice was not sufficient for all and cultivation began with the earth divided into plots and fields. This would create disputes and to settle them and establish a system of law an authority has to be established. This was called the Great Elect or Mahā Sammata. Other descriptions would be (the Chief) Noble (Khattiya) or King (Rajah), He would rule according to Dhamma (the Norm). He would be assisted by other nobles, thus forming the class of nobles (khattiyā). Now all kinds of evil customs and practices will arise. So a class of people will emerge who will give up evil practices and retire to the forest. They form the class of Brahmins. They seek their food from village and town dwellers and spend their time in meditation. Thus was the second class of persons formed.

    There were others who got married and established households and set themselves up in various trades (vessa) and occupations. They formed the third class the Vessas. Those remaining took to other occupations like hunting and they formed the fourth class of Suddas. Thus the four classes came into being. Some persons who could belong to any of these four classes left the household life and became recluses and Samanas. Unlike the other set they lived by a set of rules of their own which constituted their Norm.

    [136-140] A person whether he is a Khattiya, Brahmin, Vessa or Sudra who has led a bad life in deed, word or thought will after death be reborn in a woeful state even in Hell. But if he has led a good life in word, deed and thought will after death by reborn in a happy, bright destination. A person who has led a mixed life doing both good and bad will be reborn after death suffering both happiness and unhappiness. But a person who is self-restrained in deed, word and thought, and has practiced the seven principles which are the Wings of Wisdom attains to complete extinction (parinibbayati) of in this present life. But to be the chief in Dhamma he should as a monk have destroyed the intoxicants and the fetter of re-becoming. The Buddha concluded by quoting a stanza of the Brahmā Sanaṅtakumara:
    The Khattiya is the best among this folk
    Who put their trust in lineage.
    But one in wisdom and in virtue clothed,
    Is best of all among devas and men.

    Summary Analysis
    This sutta does not seek to explain ultimate beginning (Genesis) but only the current cycle of the universe. What it portrays is a process of evolution both geologic and human. The details differ from what is now known to Science, but compare to the theistic theory of creation by God it is a massive advance. So the point is not to quibble about the details.

    The main issue in this sutta is the caste system postulated by the Vedic theory and still accepted by Hindus. Here the Buddha gives a socio-economic explanation. While the details may be differ the fundamental approach is that of modern sociological explanations of this phenomenon.

    D 28. Sampasādanīya Sutta

    [141-144] Once when the Buddha was saying in the Pāvārika Mango Wood near Nāḷandā Sāriputa came to him and said: "I have such faith in the Exalted One, that I think there never has been, nor will there be, anyone greater or wiser than him". Then the Buddha asked him if he had heard of previous Buddhas and future ones and Sāriputta simply said: "No, lord". Then the Buddha said that Sāriputta's "lion's roar" was only true of the present time when he is the only Buddha. Sāriputta said that the idea came to him when the Buddha was explaining the Dhamma point by point.

    Then Sāriputta gave a list of the teachings in which the Buddha excelled as a teacher more than anyone else. These included the following:
    1. [145] Righteous Doctrines (kusalā dhammā). These include the Four Foundations of Mindfulness, the Four Supreme Efforts, the Four Roads to Arhat-ship, the Five Moral Powers, the Five Forces, the Seven Branches of Enlightenment, and the Aryan Eightfold Path. There has been no other recluse or Brahmin who has expounded such doctrines.
    2. [146] The Six Sense Fields (āyatanapaṇṇatta). These fields which were explained subjectively and objectively as consisting of sight and visible things, hearing and sounds, smell and odours, taste and flavours, touch and tangible things, and mind and mental objects.
    3. [147] The Four Modes of Rebirth (gabbāvakkana). These are (1) descending into the mother's womb, abiding there and departing thence all unknowingly; (2) one descending there knowingly but persisting there and departing thence unknowingly; (3) descending and persisting there knowingly but departing unknowingly; and (4) descending, persisting there and departing thence knowingly.
    4. [148] The Four Methods of Mind Reading (ādesanavidhā). These are: (1) by reading visible signs; (2) by hearing a sound made by humans or non-humans (e.g. yakkas or devas); (3) through hearing a rational sound made intelligently and deliberately; and (4) by achieving concentration, without thinking or pondering (as in the second jhāna) one then knows intuitively the thoughts of another.
    5. [149] Methods of Attaining Vision (dassanasamāpatta). There are four methods of doing this: (1) by the contemplation of the organs of the body and its various impurities from the sole of the feet to the top of the head; (2) by meditating on the human skeleton covered with skin, flesh and blood; (3) meditating on the flux of human consciousness established in this or another world; and (4) the same as not established either in this world or in another world.
    6. [150] The Classification of individuals (puggalapaṇṇatta). There are seven categories of individuals, those who are: freed-both-ways, freed by insight, having bodily testimony, having gained the view, freed by confidence, follower of wisdom, follower of confidence. This is an unsurpassable classification of individuals.
    7. [151] Right Effort (padhāna). These are the seven factors of Enlightenment: mindfulness, investigation, energy, zest, serenity, concentration and equanimity.
    8. [152] Methods of Progress in Dhamma (paṭipadā). These are four in number: (1) difficult progress and slow comprehension; (2) difficult progress but rapid comprehension; (3) easy progress and slow comprehension; (4) easy progress rapid comprehension. The first three are reckoned unsatisfactory but the last is excellent.
    9. [153] Proper Conduct of Speech in Teaching Dhamma (bhassasamācārāda) One should not utter falsehoods, nor use calumny, abuse or contentious speech. One should use gentle words of wisdom and speak at the right time.
    10. Proper Way of giving a man Ethical Instruction (purisasīlasmācāra. The man should be true and believing, not a trickster, not a diviner, not an exorcist, nor a gain seeker, should be guarded as to sense doors, etc.
    11. [154] On the modes of receiving Instruction (anusāsanavidhā). Here there are four modes: (1) To know through one's experience that the individual will become a Stream Winner; (2) will be able through diminshed passion, hate and illusion to become a Once-Returner; (3) through the complete destruction of the Five Fetters, will be reborn in a deva- world never to return; and (4) by the destruction of the Intoxicants will come to know and realize in this very life emancipation.
    12. [155] The Knowledge of the Liberation of Others (parapuggalavimuttiñāṇa). This is how to know is the individual will become a Stream-winner, a Once-Returner, Non-Returner, or Arahant.
    13. [156] The Teaching of Eternalism (sassatavāda). This gives the three doctrines of Eternalism nd how they could be refuted.
    14. [157] The knowledge of former births (pubbenivāsānussatiñṇa). This is the first of the three kinds of knowledge that a meditator can acquire who has completed the four jhānas.
    15. [158] The knowledge of the decease and rebirth of beings (cutūpapātañāṇa). This is the second of the three kinds of knowledge that a meditator can acquire who has completed the four jhānas.
    16. [159] Super-normal Powers (iddhividhā). These are twofold: (1) Ignoble power prompted by mental intoxicants and worldly aims; and (2) Noble powers such as those displayed by Arhats. especially the Buddha himself.

    [160] The Tathāgata has achieved whatsoever a clansman can achieve through faith, human steadfastness, energy, progress, and patience. He is not attracted by worldly desires, especially sensuality, nor does he follow the habitual practice of self-mortification. He is able to obtain at will, with ease and in full measure, that earthly happiness of a loftier kind which the Four Jhānas afford.

    [161-162] Then Sāriputta said that if he were asked (a) if there were in the past or will be in the future ascetics and Brahmins more exalted than Buddha Gotama he would answer "No"; (b) if there were in the past or will be in the future equally enlightened persons like the Buddha Gotama he would answer "Yes". The Buddha endorsed these replies. Then ven. Udayin said that it was marvellous that the Buddha with all his excellent qualities does not make a display of himself while wanderers if they discern even a single of these qualities in themselves would make a banner of it. The Buddha endorsed this too.

    [163] Then the Buddha said that Sāriputta should speak about this matter frequently to bhikkhus, bhikkhunis and lay persons so that they could resolve any doubts that they may have.

    Summary Analysis
    This sutta is sometimes called Sāriputta's "Lion's Roar". It contains a catalogue of the principal teachings of the Buddha. As such it would be useful but it is by not clear how it will put any doubts about any specific teaching.

    D 29. Pāsādika Sutta

    [164-167] The Buddha was travelling among the Sakyans when Nigaṇṭa Nāṭaputta died in Pava. On his death the Nigaṇtas became disunited. This news was conveyed to Ananda by Cunda a novice monk from Pava. Together they decided to inform the Buddha. The Buddha said of the Nigaṇṭas that "their doctrine and discipline are badly set forth, badly imparted, ineffectual for guidance, not conducive to peace, not imparted by one supremely enlightened". In such a situation disciples tend to follow the minor aspects not the major ones.

    [168-171] The Buddha then contrasted this with a doctrine that is the opposite. This is the case when a teacher arises in the world, an Arahant supremely enlightened with a doctrine well set out and well imparted. If such a teacher were to die it would be a great affliction. But if that teacher had disciples who had become proficient in the teaching his passing away will not be an affliction to his disciples.

    [172-174] If a religion (brahmacāriyā) exists without a senior teacher with long experience wise, trained and learned then it will be imperfect. But if there is such a senior teacher then that system could not be perfect in a number of circumstances. If there are no novice brother or sister disciples, or if there are no laymen who are disciples, or no householders of the white robe, or if there are none among those laymen and lay-women who are wealthy, or if the system be not successful, prosperous, widespread and popular in its full extent, or not attained the foremost place in public fame and support then by any one such circumstance the system is rendered imperfect.

    I have now arisen a supremely enlightened Arhat, the Dhamma has been well proclaimed, I have many well trained disciples, some Arhats, others are fully trained bhikkhus. There are many lay supporters some of them wealthy men and women.

    [175-178] Of the teachers arisen in the world I cannot find any who have risen to such a leading position as myself. If any one describes a religion that is in every way successful and complete, neither defective nor redundant, it is this religion that he would be describing. Now Cunda it is you to whom I have made known the truth who should come together to rehearse, compare meaning with meanings, phrase with phrase, so that the pure religion will last long. What I have proclaimed are these: The Four Foundations of Mindfulness, the Four Supreme Efforts, the Four Paths to Efficacy, the Five Powers, the Five Forces, the Seven Factors of Enlightenment, and the Ariyan Eightfold Path.

    If a co-religionist gives a wrong meaning but has the right form of words, you are neither to approve of, nor to blame him. You should say this is the meaning or that is the meaning  and ask which fits them better. If he gives a different meaning to yours neither is he to be set aside , nor to be upbraided. You explain to him, with careful attention, the right meaning.

    [179-183]I teach Dhamma not only for restraint of present corruptions only nor for their destruction in a future life only. I teach it for both these purposes. The robe allowed is simply for warding off cold, insects and for modesty. The food allowed is simply for sustaining the body. The medicines are for sickness and preservation of health.

    [184-185] Some wanderers accuse the sons of the Sakyan to be devoted to the four pleasures. They mean by this the four jhānas. But these are not for mundane pleasure but for dispassion and revulsion. The first jhāna is detached from sensual pleasures and leads to initial application, The second leads to inner tranquillity and oneness of mind. The third to equanimity and mindfulness. The fourth takes the meditator beyond pleasure and pain. There are four fruits to be expected from these "pleasures": that of stream-winner, that of once returner, that of non returner and finally arhat-hood.

    [186] Some wanderers claim that the Buddha's doctrine is not well-founded. He is an Arhat and all Arhats have destroyed the intoxicants, and broken the fetter of becoming. They are incapable of nine things: (1) killing living beings; (2) theft; (3) sexual intercourse; (4) telling lies; (5) storing goods for sensual indulgence; (6) acting wrongly through attachment; (7) acting wrongly through hatred; (8) acting wrongly through folly; (9) acting wrongfully through fear.

    [187-189] Some wanderers claim that the Buddha knows the past but not the future. As far as the past is concerned he can go back as far he wants but he will reveal only that which is true, that which is good and that which redounds to the good. Of the future that too he will reveal what conforms to these three conditions. Otherwise he says nothing. This is why he is silent on the unanswered questions which relate to maters like the origin of the world, the relation of the soul and the body and whether the Tathagata exists after death.

    [190-196] The Buddha says that there are ascetics and Brahmins who hold views on these matters he had not declared. When asked for their reasons they do not give any but merely repeat their assertions. The Buddha does not admit their claims because beings can have their own views but he does not consider them equal to his own,

    As for the destruction of all views about the past and present the Buddha said that he had laid down the four foundations of mindfulness. It is through them that these speculations about the past and the future can be laid aside and overcome.

    During this time the Buddha was speaking venerable Upavana had been standing behind the Buddha fanning him. He then said "Lord, your exposition of Dhamma has been wonderful and delightful". The Buddha said: "Then you can remember it as the Delightful Discourse".

    Summary Analysis
    This is a wide ranging discourse. The news of the death of the Jain leader and the subsequent disagreements amongst his followrs led the Buddha to what makes a teching secure. He said that the Jains were disunited because their system was well founded. He then shoed that his group did not suffer from this and that it was well organized and well led. While this was true of the time that the lived in the longer perspective of time things have been different. The Janins have beeb able to hold on to their teaching from the time of their founder until the present day. But Buddhism died out almost completely in India. Many attribute this to the persecution of later Muslim rulers of India but the Jans and the Hindus suffered under Muslim rule without being destroyed completely.

    The Buddha also mentions that the Buddhist community had the support of many rich people, and also support from Kings like Pasanedi and Ajatasatru. When the patronage from Kings and he Rich declined in later times Buddhism in India was virtually doomed. What prevailed outside India was different from the original Buddhism of the Buddha.

    D 30 Lakkaṇa Sutta

    [N.B. The text of this Sutta is interspersed with stanzas rendering in verse what is said in prose. These stanzas have been omitted in this Abstract.]

    [198-200 While staying at Jetavana in Sāvatthi the Buddha addressed the bhikkhus as follows: "There are thirty-two special marks on the Super Man (mahāpurisa) possessing which he has two careers: If he stays in the home life he will be a chakkavatti King if he goes forth into homelessness he will becomes a Buddha". These Marks are:
    1. He has feet with level tread. 2. On the soles of his feet, wheels appear thousand-spoked, with tyre and hub. 3. He has projecting heels. 4. He is long in the fingers and toes. 5. Soft and tender are his in hands and feet. 6. Hands and feet like a net. 7.His ankles are like rounded shells. 8. His legs are like an antelope's. 9. Standing and without bending he can touch and rub his knees with either hand. 10. His male organs are concealed in a sheath.. 11. His complexion is like bronze, the colour of gold. 14. His skin is so delicately smooth that no dust cleaves to his body. 13. The down on it grows in single hairs one to each pore. 14. The down on his body turns upward, every hair of it, blue black in colour like eye-paint, in little curling rings, curling to the right. 15. He has a frame divinely straight. 16. He has the seven convex surfaces. 17. The front half of his body is like a lion's. 18. There is no furrow between his shoulders. 19. His proportions have the symmetry of the banyan-tree. 20. His bust is equally rounded. 21. His taste is supremely acute. 22. His jaws are as a lion's. 23. He has forty teeth. 24. Teeth are narrow. 25. Teeth are Continuous. 26. The eye teeth are very lustrous. 27. His tongue is long. 28. He has a divine voice like the karavika bird's. 29. His eyes are intensely blue. 30. He has eyelashes like a cow's. 31. Between the eyebrows appears a hairy mole white and like soft cotton down. 32. His head is like a royal turban.
    The seers of old knew these but they did not know what kamma was done to acquire each of them.

    [201-221] Each of these marks was accumulated doing good deeds in various existences of the Great Man. The mark #1was due to his dispensing gifts, keeping of festivals, filial duties, piety to recluse and Brahmins, and honouring the head of the house. The mark #2 he got by his care for the weal of the many, dispelling of dread and panic, protection and warden-ship, and the giving of supplies. The marks #3, #4, #15 he got by the not taking of life, putting aside the scourge and sword, being gentle and compassionate to all living creatures. The marks #5, and #6 were got for sympathy, generosity, pleasing speech, beneficial speech and impartiality. The marks #7 and #14 he got for his work for the welfare of others and dispensing Dhamma. He got Mark #12 for learning from a recluse or Brahmin what was good and bad, what gave happiness and sorrow. He got #11 for not displaying anger or resentment and giving away good cloths. He got #10 for reuniting divided families.

    [222-241] The Marks #9 and #19 he got for knowing the differences between people and what each deserved. He acquired the three Marks #17, #18, and #20 for increasing in faith, learning, morality and renunciation. He acquired Mark 21 for avoiding harm to being sby hand, stones or stick. The Marks #29 and #30 he got for looking at people openly, straight-forwardly and with a kind glance. The Mark #32 he got for skilled behaviour, virtuous conduct and generosity.The Marks #13 and #31 he got for being a truth speaker. The marks #23 and #25 were got for reconciling those at variance and promoting peace. The Marks #27 and #28 were got for rejecting harsh speech and speaking that which was gentle and blameless. Mark #22 he got for rejecting idle chatter and speaking at the right time. The Marks #24 and #26 he acquired for right livelihood, avoiding cheating, bribery, robbery and similar things. Thus did he acquire the 32 marks of a Great Man.

    Summary Analysis
    These marks of the Great Man were probably earlier to the time of Gotama but it was in relation to the Buddha that they have acquired so much prominence. This became significant when iconography came to Buddhism. But statues of the Buddha made did not generally depict all these Marks. So these Marks have to be regarded as purely mythical and not as representations of human anatomy.

    D 31. Siṅgala Sutta

    [242-243] Once the Buddha was staying at Rajagaha in the Veḷuvana. On his alms round he met the Brahmin youth Siṅgala with wet hair and clothes doing his usual morning round worshipping the six directions (the cardinal points, the zenith and the nadir). He asked the youth what he was doing and got the reply: "My father on his death bed asked me to worship the six quarters and out of reverence to him I am doing this". The Buddha said "This is not the way that the six quarters should be worshipped in the Ariyan way". Then asked how it should be done the Buddha gave the following sermon.

    [244-247] The Buddha said that the Aryan disciple puts away the the four vices in conduct, avoids doing evil actions from four motives, does not pursue the six channels for dissipating wealth he covers the six quarters and conquers both worlds. He tastes success in this world and after death he is reborn to a happy destiny in heaven. The four vices of conduct are the destruction of life, the taking what is not given, moral licentiousness, and lying speech. These he puts away. The evil deeds are those done from motives of partiality, enmity, stupidity and fear.

    There are six channels for dissipating wealth. These are:
    1. Addiction to liquor. The dangers here are: actual loss of wealth; increase of quarrels; susceptibility to disease; loss of good character; indecent exposure; and impaired intelligence.
    2. [248] Frequenting streets at unseemly hours. The perils here are: he himself is without guard or protection and so also are his wife, children and property; he becomes suspected of crimes; false rumours fix on him; and many are other troubles he meets.
    3. [249] Frequenting Fairs. Here the perils are: there is dancing; there is singing; there is music; there is is recitation; there are cymbals and tam-tams.
    4. [250] Gambling The perils are: As winner he begets hatred; when beaten he mourns his lost wealth ; his actual substance is wasted ; his word has no weight in a court of law ; he is despised by friends and officials ; he is not sought after in mariage because they say a gambler cannot afford to keep a wife.
    5. [251] Evil Companions A person who is a gambler, a libertine, a tippler, a cheat, a swindler, and any person of violence should be avoided as a friend orcompanion.
    6. [252-253] Idleness. A person who does not work saying 'it is too cold', ot 'it is too hot', or 'it is too early (late)', or 'I am too hungry (full)' is an idle person. What he cand do remains undone, new wealth he does not get, and such wealth as he has dwindles away. Such are the perils of idleness.
    [254] There are four kinds of persons who are foes but who come in the guise of friends: These are:
    1. [255] The rapacious person. He is rapacious; he gives little and asks much; he does his duty out of fear; he pursues his own interests.
    2. [256] The man of words not deeds. He makes friendly profession as regards the past; the same as regards the future; he tries to gain favour by empty sayings; when the opportunity for service arises he avows his disability.
    3. [257] The flatterer. He agrees to do wrong things but not right tings; he praises you to your face but speaks ill of you to others.
    4. [258] The fellow-waster. He is your companion and associate in all the wrong things listed above such ass gambling and in frequenting streets and fairs.
    [259-265] The Buddha then lists persons who should be considered as sound. honest and reliable friends. They include those who are genuine helpers, those who share happiness and adversity with you, persons who gives good counsel and those who sympathise with you in adversity. They provide protection to you and your property and are the ones with whom you can share secrets. Such a person would restrain you from doing wrong. enjoin you to do what is right, inform you of what you had not heard before, and reveal the way to heaven. He does not rejoice over your misfortunes but rejoices over your prosperity, he restrains others speaking ill of you and commends those who praise you.

    [266] The Buddha then goes on to consider how the Aryan disciple would regard the six directions. When Siṅgala was worshipping the six directions we were not told what they represented. They were presumably the Vedic deities even though none of them are mentioned by name. To the Aryan disciple these six directions do not represent deities but specific persons worthy of respect which is what "worship" means in this context. The Buddha thus identifies the six directions in this way: The East consists of one's parents; the South consists of one's teacherw; the West cnsists of one's family (spouse and children); the North consists of one's friends and companions; the Nadir of ones servants and employees, and the Zenith of religious teachers and Brahmins. They are then considered in more detail.

    [267-278] EAST Parents. The child should support the parents in a material sense, perform duties incumbent on him, keep to their lineage and tradition, make himself worthy of the family heritage. The parents should reciprocate by showing their love, restrain him from vice, exhort him to virtue, they him to a profession, contract a suitable marriage for him, and in due time hand?over his inheritance.

    [269] SOUTH Teachers. 29. In five ways should pupils minister to their teachers as the southern quarter : by rising in salutation, by waiting upon them, by eagerness to learn, by personal service, and by attention when receiving their teaching. The teachers in turn should love their pupil, train him in that wherein he has to be well trained, make him hold fast that which they should hold high, thoroughly instruct him in the lore of every art, speak well of him among his friends and companions, and provide for his safety in every way. In this way the southern quarter is made safe and secure.

    [270] WEST Family. In five ways should a wife as western quarter be ministered to by her husband : by respect, by courtesy, by faithfulness, by handing over authority to her, by providing her with adornment. The wife should minister to her husband by loving him, by providing hospitality to the kin of both, by faithfulness, by watching over the goods he brings, and by skill and industry in discharging all her business. Thus is this way the western quarter is made safe and secure.

    [271] NORTH Friends. Friends and acquaintances should be treated with generosity, courtesy and benevolence, by treating them as he treats himself, and by being as good as his word. In turn these friends should protect him and his property when he is off his guard, become a refuge in danger and not forsake him in his troubles, and they show consideration for his family.

    [272] NADIR Servants. An Ariyan master should minister to his servants and employees as the nadir by assigning them work according to their strength, by supplying them with food and wages, by tending them in sickness, by sharing with them unusual delicacies and by granting leave at times. In return the servants and employees should love their master by rising (waking up) before him, going to bed after him, they should be content with what is given to them, they should do their work well, and carry about his praise and good fame. Thus is the nadir to be protected and made safe and secure.

    [273] ZENITH Religious Teachers. In five ways should the clansman minister to recluses and Brahmins as the zenith: by affection in act and speech and mind, by keeping open house to them, by supplying their temporal needs. Thus ministered to as the zenith, recluses and Brahmins should show their love for the clansman in six ways: they should restrain him from evil, exhort him to good, love him with kindly thoughts, teach him what he had not heard, correct and purify what he has heard, reveal to him the way to heaven. Thus is the zenith protected and made safe and secure.

    [274] When the Buddha had thus spoken, Siṅgala said "Beautiful, lord, beautiful !" He then in the usual phraseology expressed his appreciation of what the Buddha had said, He then asked to be a a lay-disciple of the Buddha as one who has taken his refuge in him from this day forth as long as life endures.

    Summary Analysis
    This sutta is usually considered the only one directly addressed to the lay supporters of the Buddha although it is given to a Brahmin youth. Most of the Buddha's higher teaching was directed to the monks who had gone forth from the householders.

    D 32. Aṭānāṭiya Sutta

    [275- 276] Once the Buddha was staying at the Gijjakuta mountain near Rajagaha when the Four Great [Heavenly] Kings with a vast retinue of Yakkhas, Gandabbas and Kumbandhas came to the mountain and greeted the Buddha and took their seats near him.

    [276] Then King Vessavana said "There are many non-human beings from the most eminent to the least who do not believe the Buddha and they form the majority. This is because the Buddha teaches a code such as abstaining from taking life and the other moral rules which are distasteful to them. But there are human followers of the Buddha both male and female who live in remote areas engaged in meditation. Those non-humans who have no faith in the Buddha also live in these areas. So that those humans who have faith in the Buddha may not be hurt by these non-humans who have no faith in the Buddha may they learn this Aṭāmāṭiya Charm? The Buddha gave consent and the King recited the following Aṭāmāṭiya Charm.

    [277-281] Then the Charm was recited by the King. [N.B. An Abstract of this Charm is not given here. It consists basically of a verse praising the Buddha and his predecessors from Vipassi onwards.]

    [282-283] Then a list of the deities to whom the Charm is addressed was given by King Vessabana. [N.B.  This list is not reproduced in this Abstract. It consists for the most part of the deities of the Vedic pantheon, and the Thrity-Three gods who live in the Heaven of he Four Great Kings.]

    [284] Then the Four Kings and their retinue took leave of the Buddha and left.

    [285-294] Then in the morning the Buddha assembled the bhikkhus and repeated to them the Charm which King Vessavana had recited.

    [295] The Buddha then told the monks: "Learn by heart, monks, this Aṭānāṭiya Charm, master it and recollect it. This Charm pertains to your good and by it brethren and sisters of the Order, laymen and laywomen may dwell at ease, guarded, protected and unscathed".

    Summary Analysis
    This sutta is most likely a later composition after the death of the Buddha when magic, charms and supernaturalism became part of popular Buddhism.


    D 33. Saṅgīti Sutta

    [NOTE: This sutta is significant as it is the first one in the Pali Canon to introduce group chanting (saṅgīta) as a method of Dhamma propagation. Here the chanting is led by Sāriputta and consists of reciting the titles of the concepts and doctrines introduced by the Buddha. They were organized into 10 Groups of sets of terms based on the number of terms in each set in each group. Some 229 sets are mentioned in this sutta. It is not feasible to reproduce all these in an Abstract like the present so only a few sets in each of the Groups are given so as to convey the flavour of this Chanting.] [296-299] When the Buddha with the monks were touring of the Malla country he came to Pava and there he resided in the mango grove of Cunda the Smith. At the time a new mote-hall called Ubbhataka had been completed. The people of Pava came to see the Buddha and invited him to occupy the new mote hall. The Buddha consented by his usual silence. The Hall was then prepared for the Buddha's occupation. The Buddha went there the next day and gave a Dhamma discourse to the people assembled there well into the night after which the people dispersed.

    [300-303] The Buddha then surveyed the silent Bhikkhus and told Sāriputta to give a Dhamma discourse as the Buddha's back was aching. He then rested himself in the lion's pose. Recently Nigaṇṭa Nāṭaputta had died and soon afterwards his followers became divided with much strife between the parties. Sāriputta referred to this when he started his discourse and said that unlike the Nigaṇṭa the Exalted One had set forth the Dhamma clearly and there was no dissention. To demonstrate that unity Sāriputta suggested that there should be a communal chanting of the terms used by the Buddha in propagating the Dhamma. Then a recital was organized in ten Groups each based on the number of terms in each set of topics in each Group.

    The first Group of single term sets. There was only one set of one item and this simply stated: "All beings exist on nutriment (āhāra) and conditions (sankhāra)".

    [304] In the second Group of two-term sets there are 33 sets as given below:
    (i) Mind and body; (ii) Ignorance and craving for rebirth; (iii) Opinion as to rebirth or no rebirth; (iv) Unconscientiousness and indiscretion; (v) Conscientiousness and discretion; (vi) Contumacy and friendship with evil. (vii) Suavity and friendship with good; (viii) Proficiency as to offences and restoration from them; (ix) Jhana or no Jhana; (x) Proficiency in elements and in understanding them; (xi) Knowledge of spheres of sense and relation to the causal formula; (xii) Skill in knowing causes, and in eliminating tht which is not causal; (xiii) Rectitude and modesty; (xiv) Patience and gentleness; (xv) Mildness of speech and courtesy; (xvi) Kindness 3 and love; (xvii) Absence of mind-fullness and of awareness; (xviii) Mindfulness and intelligence; (xix) Unguarded faculties and intemperance in eating; (xx) Guardedness of faculties and moderateness in eating; (xxi) Powers of judging and of cultivation; (xxii) Powers of mindfulness and concentration; (xxiii) Calm and insight; (xxiv) Causes of calm and of mental rasp; (xxv) Mental grasp and balance; (xxvi) Attainment in conduct and belief; (xxvii) Failure in conduct and belief; (xxviii) Purity in conduct and belief; (xxix) Purity in belief and the struggle according to the belief one holds; (xxx) Agitation over agitating conditions and the systematic exertion of one agitated; (xxxi) Discontent in meritorious acts and perseverance in exertion; (xxxii) The higher wisdom and emancipation; (xxxiii) Knowledge how to extirpate and knowledge how to prevent recrudescence.
    These are the double doctrines to be chanted in unison with no discord. This is for the welfare and happiness of devas and humans.

    [305] In the third Group of three-term sets there are 60 sets as given below:
    i. Three bad roots. ii. Three good roots. iii. Three kinds of evil conduct.. iv. Three kinds of bad conduct. v. Three kinds of bad thoughts. vi. Three kinds of good thoughts. vii. Three kinds of bad purposes. viii. Three kinds of good purposes. ix. Three kinds of bad notions. x. Three kinds of good notions. xi. Three bad elements. xii. Three good elements. xiii. Three more elements. xiv. Other more elements. xv. Three more elements. xvi. Three kinds of craving. xvii. Three more kinds of craving. xviii. Three more kinds of craving. xix. Three fetters. xx. Three intoxicants. xxi. Three Kinds of Becoming. xxii. Three Quests. xxiii. Three Forms of Conceit . xxiv. Three Times xxv. Three "Ends". xxvI. Three Feelings. xxvii. Three Kinds of Suffering. xxviii. Three accumulations. xxIi. Three Obstruction. xxx. Three Things a Tathagata needs no guarding. xxxi. Three Obstacles. xxxii. Three Fires. xxxiiI. Three More Fires. xxxIv. Threefold Classification of Matter. xxxv. Three Kinds of Karmic Formation. xxxvI. Three Types of Persons. xxxvii. Three Types of Elders. xxxviii Three Grounds Based on Merit. xxxix. Three Grounds for Reproof xl. Three Kinds of Rebirth in the Realm of Sense Desire. xli. Three Happy Rebirths. xlii. Three Kinds of Wisdom. xliii. Three More Kinds of Wisdom. xlIv. Three Armaments. xlv. Three Faculties. xlvi. Three Eyes. xlvii. Three Kinds of Training. xlviii. Three Kinds of Development xlix. Three "Unsurpassables". l. Three Kinds of Concentration. li. Three More Kinds of Concentration. lii. Three Purities. liii. Three Qualities of the Sage. liv. Three Skills. lv. Three Intoxications. lvi. Three Predominant Influences, lvii. Three Topics of Discussion. lviii. Three Knowledge's. lix. Three Abidings. lx. Three Miracles.
    [306-314] In the fourth Group of 4-term sets there are 50 sets as given below:
    i. Four applications of mindfulness. ii. Four supreme efforts. iii. Four stages to iddhi. iv. Four Jhanas. v. Four developments of concentration. vi. Four ' infinitudes'. vii. Four Jhanas of Arupa-consciousness. viii. Four Bases of Conduct. ix. Four Arlyan lineages. x. Four exertions. xi. Four knowledges. xii. More knowledges such as knowledge regarding suffering. xiii. Four factors in ' Stream-winning. xiv. Four factors of one who has attained the stream. xv. Four fruits of the life of a recluse. xvi. Four elements. xvii. Four supports [or foods]. xviii. Four stations of consciousness. xix. Four ways of going astray. xx. Four uprisings of craving. xxi. Four rates of progress. xxii. Other four modes of progress. xxiii. Four divisions of doctrine. xxiv. Four religious undertakings. xxv. Four bodies of doctrine. xxvi. Four powers. xxvii. Four resolves. xxviii. Four modes of answering questions. xxix. Four kinds of action. xxx. Four matters to be realized. xxxi. Four floods. xxxii. Four bonds. xxxiii. Four bond-loosenings. xxxiv. Four knots. xxxv. Four graspings. xxxvi. Four matrices. xxxvii. Four classes of conception at rebirth. xxxviii. Four methods of acquiring new personality. xxxix. Four modes of purity in offerings. xl. Four grounds of popularity. xli. Four un-Ariyan modes of speech. xlii. Four Ariyan modes of speech. xliii. Four more un-Ariyan modes of speech. xliv. Other four Ariyan modes of speech. xlv. Four more un-Ariyan modes of speech. xlvi. Four more Ariyan modes of speech. xlvii. Four classes of individuals. xlviii. Four more individuals. xlix. Four more individuals. xl. Four moe individuals.
    [315-322] In the fifth Group of 5-term sets there are 26 sets as given below:
    i. Five aggregates. ii. Five aggregates [regarded as vehicles] of grasping. iii. Five kinds of sensuous pleasures. iv. Five ways of destiny. v. Five forms of meanness. vi. Five hindrances. vii. Five fetters as to lower worlds. viii. Five fetters as to upper worlds. ix. Five branches of moral training. x. Five impossibles. xi. Five kinds of losses. xii. Five kinds of prosperity. xiii. Five disasters to the immoral by lapse from virtuous habits. xiv. Five advantages to the moral man through his success in virtuous conduct. xv. Five points to consider before rebuking a monk. xvi. Five factors in spiritual wrestling. xvi. Five factors in spiritual wrestling. xvii. Five Pure Abodes. xix. Five spiritual baronesses. xx. Five bondages of the mind. xxi. Five faculties. xxii. Other five faculties. xxiii. Other five faculties. xxiv. Five elements tending to deliverance. xxv. Five occasions of emancipation. xxvi. Five thoughts by which emancipation 2 reaches maturity, to wit. the notion of impermanence, the notion of suffering in impermanence, the notion of no-soul in suffering, the notion of elimination, the notion of passionless-ness.
    [323-329] In the sixth Group of 6-term sets there are 22 sets as given below:
    i. Six fields of personal experience. ii. Six external fields of objects of experience. iii. Six groups of consciousness. iv. Six groups of contacts. v. Six groups of feeling by sensory Stimulus. vi. Six groups of perceptions. vii. Six groups of volitions. viii. Six craving-groups. ix. Six forms of irreverence. x. Six forms of reverence. xi. Six pleasurable investigations. xii. Six disagreeable investigations. xiii. Six investigations of indifference. xiv. Six occasions of fraternal living. xv. Six roots of contention. xvi. Six elements. xvii. Six elements tending- to deliverance. xviii. Six unsurpassable experiences. xix. Six matters for recollection. xx. Six chronic states. xxi. Six modes of heredity. xxii. Six ideas conducing to Nibbāna.
    [330-332] In the seventh Group of 7-term sets there are 14 sets as given below:
    i. Seven treasures. ii. Seven factors of enlightenment. iii. Seven requisites of concentration. iv. Seven vicious qualities. v. Seven virtuous qualities. vi. Seven qualities of the good. vii. Seven bases of Arahant-ship. viii. Seven perceptions. ix. Seven powers. x. Seven stations of consciousness. xi. Seven [types of] persons worthy of ofterings. xii. Seven kinds of latent bias. xiii. Seven fetters, to wit, compliance, opposition, false opinion, doubt, conceit, lust for rebirth, ignorance. xiv. Seven rules for the pacifying and suppression of disputed questions that have been raised.
    [333-339] In the eighth Group of 8-term sets there are 11 sets as given below:
    i. Eight wrong factors of character and conduct. ii. Eight right factors of character and conduct. iii. Eight types of persons worthy of offerings. iv. Eight bases of slackness. v. Eight bases of setting afoot an undertaking. vi. Eight bases for giving. vii. Eight kings of rebirth due to generosity. viii. Eight assemblies. ix. Eight worldly conditions. x. Eight stages of mastery. xi. Eight deliverances.
    [340-344] In the ninth Group of 9-term sets there are 6 sets as are given below:
    i. Nine bases of quarrelling. ii. Nine suppressions of quarrelling. iii. Nine spheres inhabited by beings. iv. Nine untimely unseasonable intervals for life in a religious order. v. Nine successional states. vi. Nine successional cessations.
    [345-348] In the final tenth Group of 9-term sets there are 6 sets as are given below:
    i. Ten doctrines conferring protection. ii. Ten objects for self-hypnosis. iii. Ten bad channels of action, iv. Ten good channels of action. v. Ten Ariyan methods of living. vi. Ten qualities belonging to the adept.
    [349] Now when the Exalted One had arisen from his rest he addressed the venerable Sāriputta, saying: "Excellent, Sāriputta, excellent ! Excellently, Sāriputta, have you uttered the scheme of chanting together for the brethren". Thus the Master signified his assent. The brethren were pleased and delighted with the venerable Sāriputta's discourse.

    Summary Analysis.
    It will be seen that the Buddha wanted Sāriputta to give a talk on Dhamma. Instead he converted it into a communal chanting. Today this kind of chanting in the form of the communal recitation of verses of protection (paritta) has become standard practice in Buddhism even treated with greater devotion that listening to or discussing the Dhamma. This sutta may have been composed after the Buddha died but his posthumous approval has been obtained.

    The 229 sets of Dhamma terms may well provide a glossary of the Buddha's teaching.  From that point of view it has some positive merit. While some explanation of the terms given (which we have not given to keep the Abstract to normal length) this is a compensatory factor but in many cases no explanation is given of the cursory title of the dhamma involved does not make this a suitable method for propagation of the Dhamma.

    D 34. Dasuttara Sutta

    There will be no Abstract of this sutta (D 34) which is the last sutta in the Dīgha Nikāya (the Long Collection). D 34 is basically a reorganization and abridgement of the Sangīti Sutta (D 33) which comes immediately before it in this collection. An Abstract of D 33 is given in this series of Abstracts of suttas in the Sutta Piṭaka of the Pali Canon.

    Both these suttas are attributed to Sāriputta who is considered as the Chief Disciple of the Buddha. Whereas the D 33 followed a request from the Buddha to give a Dhamma talk to the bhikkhus there is no such request as far as D 34 is concerned. As noted in its Summary Analysis D 33 is the first communal Chanting recorded in the Pali Canon. An Abstract of D 33 is given in this series of Abstracts. Both discourses were probably composed after the death of the Buddha.

    Both suttas consist of sets of technical and other terms used by the Buddha in his exposition of the Dhamma. Sutta D 33 contains 230 sets of terms while this sutta (D 34) has only 100 sets most of them being being already contained in the other sutta. That is why there is no need to provide an Abstract for this sutta. .