The Pāṭikavagga (literally 'Chapter on Pātika') comprises of 11 suttas (or discourses) is the
third division of the Dīgha Nikāya. This Introduction to the Abstracts of these
suttas gives a short description of each of these suttas. The Abstracts of these suttas
follow this Introduction.
The title of the first sutta D 24 Pāṭika Sutta
is misleading because Pāṭika does not figure in it, but his son Pāṭikaputta
does. The principal character is Sunakkhatta, a foolish disciple of the Buddha who at the end
leaves him. The next sutta D 25 Udumbharika Sutta
is a dialogue between the Buddha
and a wanderer Nigrodha on ascetics who engage in self mortification. Even though Nigrodha is polite towards the Buddha he does not become a follower of the Buddha.
The next sutta D 26 Cakkavatthi Sīhanāda Sutta
tells of a line of mythical righteous
Kings when the human lifespan was 40,000 years! Then an unrighteous King comes along and the lifespan falls
gradually to 10 years. But a revival takes place and the story ends with the coming of Metteyya Buddha. The sutta D 27 Aggañña Sutta
is addressed to Brahmins and gives what the Buddha considers to be the correct origin of the caste system as against the Brahmin version. The next Sutta D 28 Sampasādanīya Sutta
has Sāriputta saying why he has complete faith in the Buddha.
The sutta D 29 Pāsadika Sutta
is about good and bad teachers. The next Sutta D 30 Lakkaṇa Sutta
explains the 32 physical marks in the body of a 'Great Man' (mahāpurisa
), the Buddha being considered to possess these marks on his body. The next sutta D 31 Sigalaka Sutta
is advice given to a Brahmin youth which is generally considered as advice given to all
the Buddha's lay followers. The sutta D 32 Aṭānāṭiya
is a charm taught by one of the Four Great Kings of the deva world so that people, especially monks meditating in lonely forests, could
recite it to protect themselves from malevolent acts of devas and yakkahs who are opposed to the teaching of the Buddha. The next sutta D 33
is a Chanting lead by Sāriputta giving the names of Dhamma topics preached by the Buddha. The last sutta D 32
gives an abridged version of the material in the previous sutta. It is the only sutta
for which no formal Abstract has been provided.
D 24. Pāṭhika Sutta
Once while staying among the Mallas at Anupiya in the Great Wood the Buddha set out on his alms round but thinking that it was too early instead he visited the wanderer Bhaggava. Then Bhaggava told the Buddha that Sunakkhatta a Liccavi who had been a follower of the Buddha had told him that he had left the Buddha. The Buddha confirmed this saying that Sunakkhatta complained that the Buddha had not worked a miracle but had asked him to take him (i.e the Buddha) as Sunakkhatta's teacher. The Buddha had pointed out to Sunakkhatta that he does not perform for the sake of it and that he had not asked Sunakkhattta to take him (i.e. the Buddha) as his teacher. Whereupon Sunakkhatta had left him. The Buddha had reminded Sunakkhatta that in the past he had praised the Buddha, the Teaching and the Order but people will say that Sunakkhatta could not live the holy life under Gotama and had left.
The Buddha then told Bhaggava that at one time at Uttarakā there was a Canine Ascetic (i.e one who behaved like a dog) called Korakkhattiya, but Sunakkhatta thought that he was an Arhat. When the Buddha disagreed Sunakkhatta said that the Buddha begrudged others being Arhats. Then the Buddha made a prophesy that in seven days time Korakkhattiya will die of indigestion and arise among the Kalakanjas, the lowest of the Asuras, who would cast him on a bed of grass in a charnel field. Sunakkhatta then waited for seven days and found that the Buddha's prophesy had come true. He reported this to the Buddha who asked him if that was not the miracle he had been looking for. But Sunakhatta had simply left him.
Then the Buddha told Bhaggava of another incident. In Vesali there was a naked ascetic called Kandaramasuka who had taken vows that he will remain naked for life, lead a life of chastity, eat meat and drink spirituous liquor, and not leave the confines of Vesali. He kept these vows and gained much fame. Sunakkhatta thought that he too was an arhat, and went to see him to ask a question but he got angry so Sunakkhatta left so as not to create a conflict with him. Then Sunakhatta came to the Buddha who pointed out that this so-called Arhat could not control his anger and made the prophesy that he will soon die. This happened to the surprise of Sunakhatta but Sunakhatta again left the Buddha accusing him again of begrudging the Arhat-ship of others.
The next incident relates to another naked ascetic Pāthikaputta (i.e. son of Pāthika after whom this sutta is named even though the father does not figure in it). Pāthikaputta publicly challenged Gotama to a contest on miracle performance which challenge Sunakkhatta duly reported to the Buddha. He also said that Pāthikaputta said that the Buddha's prophesies of ascetics dying were wrong as as they could come in an altered shape. The Buddha said that he would meet Pathikaputta in his park. Many people congregated to witness this contest but Pathikaputta got so frightened that he went to the Tinduka Park instead. Then a man went to Pāthikaputta and asked him to come to meet the Buddha but even though he said that he would come he could not get up from his seat however much he tried.
Then a Liccavi counsellor too tried to get Pāthikaputta to come but with the same result. It was not even possible to drag him away using bullocks. Then Jaliya a pupil of the ascetic Dārupatthika said he would try to bring Pāthikaputta to the assembly. He tried a different tactic of relating a parable of a lion and a hyena. The hyena grew fat on scraps left behind by the lion and thought that he could get fresh meat if he imitated the lion by uttering the lion's roar to attract prey. But he could not imitate the lion roar with the jackal howl. Then Jaliya told Pāthikaputta: "Even so, you living among the exploits of the Wellfarer, feeding on food left over after the Wellfarer has been served, fancy you can reach up to those who are Tathagatas and the supreme Buddha!". But even this parable did not succeed in making Pāthikaputta confront the Buddha. Jaliya returned and reported this to the crowd and the Buddha said: "Incompetent is the naked ascetic Pāthikaputta to meet me face-to-face!".
Then the Buddha gave a Dhamma discourse performed a miracle of rising into the air amid flames and then being transported back to the Great Wood in Anupiya. Then Sunakhatta again came to him said that his miracles were performed through a superhuman gift and departed for the last time. All this was related to Bhaggava. The Buddha then changed the topic and said that he knew the ultimate beginning of things but would not misuse this knowledge.
In the final section of the sutta the Buddha changes the subject to the story of the beginning of the world. [N.B.
This is given at great length in the Agañña Suttta (D. 27) and will not be repeated here in great detail.] In this connection the views of certain recluses and Brahmins on this topic are refuted. Some of
- [37-40] The traditional view that Brahmā (God) created the
world. After every period of evolution the world is emptied of beings. Then an
empty abode for Brahmins appears. This is soon occupied by the first-come and the repopulation of the world begins. This theory is debunked.
- [41-42] Some think that things originate due to a debauch of pleasure (khiḍḍāpadosikaṃ). While there are gods of that kind (khiḍḍāpadosikā nāma devā) they perish due to their sensual indulgence.
- [43-44] Some think that things originate due to a debauch of
(mental) pleasure (manopadosikaṃ). There are certainly gods of that designation (manopadosikā nāma devā) but due to their state of confusion they cannot propagate.
- [45-47] Others say that the beginning is due to chance. Still others say that the world originated through unconscious beings. But I do not say that these and other speculations about beginnings are true.
Then the Buddha concluded his address to Bhaggava thus: "Hard is it for you who hold different views, approve of different things, set different aims, strive after them, and are trained in a different system to attain to and abide in the deliverance that is beautiful. Look therefore to it, Bhaggava, that you foster well this faith of yours in me".
Bhaggava replied: "If, Sir, it be hard for me doing all that you have said to attain to and abide in the deliverance that is beautiful, then will I, at least, foster well my faith in the Exalted One". And Bhaggavagotta, the Wanderer, pleased in heart, took delight in the words of the Exalted One.
Much of this sutta is devoted to the ability of holy teachers to do miracles. Even though the Buddha has declared this is not a condition for holiness and declares also in this sutta that he is against performing miracles for pure demonstration he actually does this not only in his prophesies about the coming death of ascetics but also in his final demonstration of ascending to the air and disappearing from the scene. His tolerance of Sunakkhatta, calling him only a foolish man despite his attempts to prove the Buddha wrong may be taken as a sign of compassion.
The other topic of the beginning of things is discussed more extensively in the Brahmajāla and the Agañña Suttas (both in this Long Collection) and its brief appearance here seems out of place.
D 25. Udumbrika Sīhanāda Sutta
Once the Buddha was staying at the Vultures' Peak near Rajagaha and the wanderer Nigrodha was staying at at the Undumbrika Park with a large following. Then Sandahana a householder follower of the Buddha wanted to visit the Buddha and thinking that it was too early decided to visit Nigrodha instead. After the formalities he told Nigrodha: "You wanderers when you meet you talk with loud voices, with noise and clamour, carrying on childish talk of various kinds. But the Exalted One haunts the lonely and remote places where there is hardly any noise except breezes from the pastures, suitable for self-communing". Then Nigrodha said: "With whom does the Samana Gotama converse? He is not at home in assemblies. He is not ready in conversation. He is occupied only with the fringes of things like a one-eyed cow that observes only the outskirts. If the Samana Gotama comes here with a single question we can roll him over like an empty pot".
The Buddha heard this with his divine ear and descended from the Vultures' Peak and began pacing to and fro at the Peacock Feeding ground. Nigrodha saw this and called his followers to silence. Then the Buddha approached Nigrodha and and after the formalities took the prepared seat. Then he asked what the conversation was about and Nigrodha posed his question: "What, lord, is the doctrine of the Samana Gotama in which he trains his disciples who give it their utmost support and the make it the fundamental principle for the holy life?".
The Buddha said: "It is hard for you to understand my doctrine; suppose we
consider your doctrine". At this wanderers made a big commotion but Nigrodha silenced them and said: "We teach the higher austerities and we adhere to them". Then the Buddha listed the austerities practiced by ascetics. [N.B.
Most of this is repeated from the Maha Sihanāda Sutta (D 8)
. See the Abstract of that discourse (sections 394-396) as it is not
Then Nigrodha asked: "In what way can you say that our practices are faulty". In answer to this the Buddha gave several blemishes in the practice of an adherent to
austerities, such as:
- He becomes self-complacent that his goal has been reached. he despises others becomes inebriated, infatuated and careless.
-  The fame he gets makes him complacent, fastidious regarding his food, and expects favours from kings and householders.
- [60-61] He grumbles at other recluses and Brahmins and becomes envious of them because they have a
comfortable life-style while he himself undergoes various kinds of discomfort and privation.
-  He sits in public places, slinks furtively during the alms round without expressing his real intentions. He does not appreciate the way that a Tathagata or his disciple teaches.,
-  He loses his temper and bears enmity. He is liable to be hypocritical and deceitful, as well as envious and grudging; he becomes cunning and crafty, hard- hearted and vain, he entertains evil wishes and becomes captive to them; he entertains false opinions, becomes possessed of metaphysical dogma, misinterprets his experience and is avaricious and adverse from renunciation.
Here Nigrodha intervenes to say that these blemishes may exist in some ascetics but not
in all of them.
The Buddha then concedes some of this point and takes the opposite case, assuming a negation of the blemishes he had identified earlier. To that extent the Buddha says that there is some purification. Then he asked Nigrodha: "That being so, does the austerity by these things become genuinely pure, or not ?" To this Nigrodha replied: "Verily, lord, the austerity of these things becomes genuinely pure, and not impure; it wins topmost rank, it reaches the pith". The Buddha disagrees and says: "No, Nigrodha, not yet does the austerity become of topmost rank, nor reach the pith; it has but reached only the outside".
Then Nigrodha wanted to know "In what way, lord, does an austerity win top-most rank, and reach the pith ?". The Buddha began by giving the Restraint of the Fourfold Watch: (1) Not inflicting injury on no living thing; (2) not taking what is not given; (3) , not uttering lies; and (4) not craving for sensual pleasures. Then he sits at a lonely spot. He puts away hankering after the world, purifies his mind of covetousness, puts away the canker of ill-will, he abides free from enmity, becomes benevolent and compassionate towards every living thing, purifies his mind of malevolence, puts away sloth and torpor, flurry and worry. Then he purifies his mind of doubt and extends loving kindness, compassion, sympathetic joy and equanimity to all quarters of the world.
Answering another query the Buddha said that the ascetic should cultivate the ability to remember past lives and then develop the divine eye. It is only then that the austerity is purified so as to reach the peak and penetrate the pith. The Buddha said this is my doctrine which you had asked for in your original question. Nigrodha then apologized that he had said that the Samana Gotama could be rolled over like a pot by a simple question.
The the Budddha said: "It it was an offence that overcame you. Inasmuch as you, Nigrodha, looking upon it as an offence, confess according to your deeds, we accept your confession. Let that which is your rule be your rule still, your mode of livelihood be so still". So the wanderers could continue with their beliefs and way of life. But the Buddha thought: "Every one of these foolish men is pervaded by the Evil One, so that to not even one of them will the thought occur 'Let us now live the holy life taught by the Samana Gotama' ".
Having uttered the Lion's Roar at the Udumbrika Park the Buddha rose up and went through the air, and alighted on the Vulture's Peak.
The rival religious doctrines that the Buddha had to contend with were the Brahmanical religion and that of various wanderers and recluses. The Buddha disagreed with some aspects of the Brahmanical system such as the
sacrificial cult and the caste system. As far as the wanderers were concerned he considered their customs as futile. But many
instances of his Lion's Roar were directed at the wanderers. The system of self-mortification has declined in India and nowhere else had it got established. Today the "Lion's Roar" has to be directed
at religions like Christianity or Islam which were not known in India at the Buddha's time.
D 26. Cakkavatti-Sīhanāda Sutta
Once the Buddha was staying at Mātulā in Magadha. There he addressed the monks: "Be as islands to yourselves, as a refuge with none other than the Dhamma. Contemplate the body as body, feelings as feelings, the mind as mind and mind objects as mind objects. Keep to your pastures, those of your fathers. Then Mara will find no footing to attack you."
A long, long time ago there was a Wheel-turning (Cakkavatti) king called Daḷhanemi, a righteous world ruler. Amongst his seven treasures was the Wheel Treasure, the others being the Elephant, the Horse, the Gem, the Woman, the Householder, and the Counsellor. When after many thousands of years this Treasure slipped from its position he summoned his eldest son the Crown prince and announced that the Wheel Treasure had slipped and he had not much longer to live. After installing his son into kingship he donned the yellow
cloth and went into homelessness. Seven days after that the Wheel Treasure disappeared.
The King was saddened at the loss of the Wheel Treasure and went to the Royal Sage who told him that if he carried out the Aryan duty of a Cakkavatti king the Wheel Treasure will return. This duty consisted of acting according to Dhamma and protecting all those who depended on him from his troops, his nobles, ascetics, Brahmins, householders, right down to the birds and beasts. This he did and the Wheel Treasure duly returned.
It was believed that if the Wheel rolls over any territory followed by the King and his troops then that territory falls under sovereignty of the King. The Wheel rolled in all the four directions and all that territory came under the rule of the Cakkavtti King. It returned and rested at its appointed place in the Palace.
The Chakkavatti King was followed by six successors all of whom followed him in the same footsteps. There was Dhamma rule and peace, prosperity and plenty was assured for all the people,. Things changed with the seventh king. The Wheel slipped again and the King did not consult the Royal Sage but followed his own wishes.
The result was that the prosperity came to an end. One man took what was not given thus introducing theft where
there had been none. He was brought before the King and he said that he did this as he had nothing to eat. The King gave him some property and asked him to use it to set himself up to do some occupation. Then another man and then another began taking what was not given. The King realized that he could not continue with his policy of giving property, so he got the next person indulging in theft to be publicly executed.
As a result of capital punishment being instituted for theft people began arming themselves with swords so that when they robbed someone they cut off his head also. One person who was caught for doing that denied having done it so that telling lies was introduced into the kingdom. Thus a vicious circle was established. By not providing funds for the poor, poverty became widespread. When poverty became widespread, stealing became widespread. When stealing became widespread, armed violence became widespread. When armed violence became widespread, life-taking became widespread. When life-taking became widespread, lying became widespread. When lying became widespread, slander became widespread. When slander became widespread, sexual misconduct became widespread.
There was also another consequence of this decay of society. The lifespan and beauty of people began to decline (āyuvaṇṇādipariyāna
). Originally the life-span was 40000 years !. Theft alone halved it to 20000. Slander halved it again to 10,000. Sexual misconduct halved it again to 5000. Harsh and idle speech reduced it again to 2500. Covetousness and ill-will brought it down to 1000 years. Wrong view brought it down to 500 years. Abnormal lust brought it down to 250 years. The bottom will be reached when the lifespan becomes 10 years. Beauty will also decline proportionately even though no quantitative
measure is given,. If that is not enough a seven-day war will take place after
which there will be only grass to eat.
It is only then that common sense will begin to dawn. Then people begin to show respect towards mother, respect towards father, respect towards recluse-ship, respect towards celibacy, and respect for family elders etc. In short they will undertake this wholesome state as their practice. In an unstated time period the life-span will go up to 80000 years and the capital Baraṇāsi, then to be called Ketumati, will be full of people. The new King will be called Sañkha and will start giving free food to bhikkhus, poor etc. the Seven Precious Treasures including the Wheel Treasure will return.
Then the Buddha Metteyya will come and establish an order with hundreds of monks. All this is prophesied by the Buddha Gotama to his Bhikkhus. The sutta ends as it began. Monks are urged to keep to their pastures. Comeliness to a monks is right conduct, restrained according to the Pātimokkha. Wealth to a monk is to pervade the entire world with thoughts of loving-kindness, compassion, sympathetic joy and equanimity. Power to a monk is the destruction of the deadly taints.
There is nothing new in the instruction to the monks with which this sutta starts and ends. But in between is a fantastic story that defies credulity. The life-spans spoken of are beyond belief. This is neither history relating to the past, nor prophesy relating to the future. It is surmised that this sutta is a late addition composed well after the death of the Buddha Gotama. The old myth of the Cakkavatti Kings may have been revived during the reign of Asoka, and this was a period when the Bhikkhus were losing confidence. Hence the yearning of a return of the Buddha in the form of Metteyya.
D 27. Aggañña Sutta
While the Buddha was staying in the Pubbārāma in Sāvatthi the Brahmins Vāseṭṭha and Bhāradvājā, who were training to become monks, visited him. The Buddha asked them: "You have gone forth from a Brahmin family to lead the homeless life, do the Brahmins blame and revile you?". They answered "Yes" and explained that the Brahmins say: "Only a Brahmin is of the best social grade ; others are low. Only a Brahmin is of a clear complexion, others are swarthy. Only Brahmins are of pure breed, being children of Brahma, born of his mouth, offspring of Brahma, created by Brahma, heirs of Brahma. You have renounced the best rank, and have gone over to that low class of shaven recluses with swarthy skins".
The Buddha said that the Brahmins have forgotten their past; they are all womb-born, not of Brahma's mouth; they make a travesty of Brahmā. Then the Buddha said: "Both bad and good qualities, blamed and praised respectively by the wise, are distributed among each of the four castes; the wise do not admit those claims which the Brahmins put forward". He gave the example of King Pasanedi of Kosala and himself who respect each other even though neither of them is a Brahmin. The morality he refers to is that which he expounds. He concludes with the refrain made frequently in this sutta: "Dhamma is the best thing for people, In this life and the next as well".
Next comes the Buddha's exposition on how the world evolves (samvattati
). At each transformation the world is denuded of people (those existing are transferred into a different dimension) and there is only darkness and water. Then the land emerges from the water and it tastes sweet. Then beings appear (perhaps reborn due to their kamma, although this is not said). They initially feasted on the savoury earth but due to their self pride the savouriness disappeared, but there were outgrowths from the soil (bhūmipappaṭaka
) which they used as food. But differences in their comeliness emerged and the better looking became vain and proud. As a result the outgrowths disappeared and much coarser creepers (padālatā
) appeared. These made their bodies more solid but the differences between people increased. The creepers were soon replaced by rice which grew wild. This food increased the differentiation between them, and sexuality arose and with it lust. Thus immorality arose.
Soon the wild rice was not sufficient for all and cultivation began with the earth divided into plots and fields. This would create dispues and to settle them and establish a system of law an authrity has to be establsihed. This was called the Great Elect or Mahā Sammata. Other descriptions would be (the Chief) Noble (Khattiya) or King (Rajah), He would rule according to Dhamma (the Norm). He would be assisted by other nobles, thus forming the class of nobles (khattiyā
). Now all kinds of evil customs and practices will arise. So a class of people will emerge who will give up evil practices qnd retire to the forest. They form the class of Brahmins. They seek their food from village and town dwelles and spend their time in meditation. Thus was the second class of persons formed.
There were others who got married and estalished households and set themselves up in various trades (vessa
) and occupations. They formed the third class the Vessas. Those remaining took to other occupations like hunting and they formed the fourth class of Suddas. Thjus the four classe3s came into being. Some persons who could belong to any of these four classes left the household life and became recluses and Samanas. Unlike ther others set lived by a set of rules of their own which constituted their Norm.
A person whether he is a Khattiya, Brahmin, Vessa or Sudra who has led a bad life in deed, word or thought will after death be reborn in a woeful state even in Hell. But if he has led a good life in word, deed and thought will after death by reborn in a happy, bright destination. A person who has led a mixed life doing both good and bad will be reborn after death suffering both happiness and unhappiness. But a person who is self-restrained in deed, word and thought, and has practiced the seven principles which are the Wings of Wisdom attains to complete extinction (parinibbayati
) of in this present life. But to be the chief in Dhamma he should as a monk destroyed the intoxicants and the fetter of re-becoming. The Buddha concluded by quoting a stanza of the Brahmā Sanaṅtakumara:
The Khattiya is the best among this folk
Who put their trust in lineage.
But one in wisdom and in virtue clothed,
Is best of all among devas and men.
This sutta does not seek to explain ultimate beginning (Genesis) but only the
current cycle of the universe. What it portrays is a process of evolution both geologic and human. The
details differ from what is now known to Science, but compare to the theistic theory of creation by God it is a massive advance. So the point is not to quibble about the details.
The main issue in this sutta is the caste system postulated by the Vedic theory and still accepted by Hindus. Here the Buddha gives a socio-economic explanation. While the details may be differ the fundamental approach is that of modern sociological explanations of this phenomenon.
D 28. Sampasādanīya Sutta
Once when the Buddha was saying in the Pāvārika Mango Wood near Nāḷandā Sāriputa came to him and said: "I have such faith in the Exalted One, that I think there never has been, nor will there be, anyone greater or wiser than him". Then the Buddha asked him if he had heard of previous Buddhas and future ones and Sāriputta simply said: "No, lord". Then the Buddha said that Sāriputta's "lion's roar" was only true of the present time when he is the only Buddha. Sāriputta said that the idea came to him when the Buddha was explaining the Dhamma point by point.
Then Sāriputta gave a list of the teachings in which the Buddha excelled as a teacher
more than anyone else. These included the following:
-  Righteous Doctrines (kusalā dhammā). These include the Four Foundations of Mindfulness, the Four Supreme Efforts, the Four Roads to Arhat-ship, the Five Moral Powers, the Five Forces, the Seven Branches of Enlightenment, and the Aryan Eightfold Path. There has been no other recluse or Brahmin who has expounded such doctrines.
-  The Six Sense Fields (āyatanapaṇṇatta). These fields which were explained subjectively and objectively as consisting of sight and visible things, hearing and sounds, smell and odours, taste and flavours, touch and tangible things, and mind and mental objects.
-  The Four Modes of Rebirth (gabbāvakkana). These are (1) descending into the mother's womb, abiding there and depaarting thence all unknowingly; (2) one descending there knowingly but persisting there and departing thence unknowingly; (3) descending and persisting there knowingly but departing unknowingly; and (4) descending, persisting there and departing thence knowingly.
-  The Four Methods of Mind Reading (ādesanavidhā). These are: (1) by reading visible signs; (2) by hearing a sound made by humans or non-humans (e.g. yakkas or devas); (3) through hearing a rational sound made intelligently and deliberately; and (4) by achieving concentration, without thinking or pondering (as in the second jhāna) one then knows intuitively the thoughts of another.
-  Methods of Attaining Vision (dassanasamāpatta). There are four methods of doing this: (1) by the contemplation of the organs of the body and its various impurities from the sole of the feet to the top of the headl (2) by meditating on the human skeleton covered with skin, flesh and blood; (3) meditating on the flux of human consciousness established in this or another world; and (4) the same as not established either in this world or in another world.
-  The Classification of individuals (puggalapaṇṇatta). There are seven categories of individuals, those who are: freed-both-ways, freed by insight, having bodily testimony, having gained the view, freed by confidence, follower of wisdom, follower of confidence. This is an unsurpassable classification individuals.
-  Right Effort (padhāna). These are the seven factors of Enlightenment: mindfulness, investigation, energy, zest, serenity, concentration and equanimity.
-  Methods of Progress in Dhamma (paṭipadā). These are four in number: (1) difficult progress and slow comprehension; (2) difficult progress but rapid comprehension; (3) easy progress and slow comprehension; (4) easy progress ra[id compehension. The first three are reckoned unsatisfactory but the last is excellent.
-  Proper Conduct of Speech in Teaching Dhamma (bhassasamācārāda) One should not utter falsehoods, nor use calumny, abuse or contentous speech. One should use gentle words of wisdom and speak at the right time.
- Proper Way of giving a man Ethical Instruction (purisasīlasmācāra. The man should be true and believing, not a trickster, not a diviner, not an exorcist, nor a gain seeker, should be guarded as to sense doors, etc.
-  On the modes of receiveing Instruction (anusāsanavidhā). Here there are four modes: (1) To know through one's experience that the individual will become a Stream Winner; (2) will be able through diminshed passion, hate and illusion to become a Once-Returner; (3) through the complete destruction of the Five Fetters, will be reborn in a deva- world never to return; and (4) by the destruction of the Intoxicants will come to know and realize in this very life emancipation.
-  The Knowledge of the Liberation of Others (parapuggalavimuttiñāṇa). This is how to know is the individual will become a Stream-winner, a Once-Returner, Non-Returner, or Arahant.
-  The Teaching of Eternalism (sassatavādat). This gives the three doctrines of Eternalism nd how they could be refuted.
-  The knowledge of former births (pubbenivāsānussatiñṇa). This is the first of the three kinds of knowledge that a meditator can acquire who has completed the four jhānas.
-  The knowledge of the decease and rebirth of beings (cutūpapātañāṇa). This is the second of the three kinds of knowledge that a meditator can acquire who has compleed the four jhānas.
-  Super-normal Powers (iddhividhā). These are twofold: (1) Ignoble power prompted by mental intoxicants and worldly aims; and (2) Noble powers such as those displayed by Arhats. especially the Buddha himself.
The Lord has achieved whatsoever a clansman can achieve through faith, human steadfastness, energy, progress, and patience. He is not attracted by worldly desires, especially sensuality, nor does he follow the habitual practice of self-mortification. He is able to obtain at will, with ease and in full measure, that earthly happiness of a loftier kind which the Four Jhānas afford.
Then Sāriputts said that if he were asked (a) if there were in the past or will be in the future ascetics and Brahmins more exalted than Buddha Gotama he would answer "No"; (b) if there were in the past or will be in the future equally enlightened persons like the Buddha Gotama he would answer "Yes". The Buddha endorsed these replies. Then ven. Udayin said that it was marvellous that the Buddha with all his excellent qualities does not make a display of himself while wanderers if they discern
even a single of these qualities in themselves would make a banner of it. The Buddha endorsed this too.
Then the Buddha said that Sāriputta should speak about this matter frequently to bhikkhus, bhikkhunis and lay persons so that they could resolve any doubts that they may have.
This sutta, sometimes called Sāriputta's "Lion's Roar". It contains a catalogue of the principal teachings of the Buddha. As such it would be useful but it is by not clear how it will put any doubts about any specific teaching.
D 29. Pāsādika Sutta
The Buddha was travelling among the Sakyans when Nigaṇṭa Nāṭaputta died in Pava. On his death the Nigaaṇas became disunited. This news was conveyed to Ananda by Cunda a novice monk from Pava. Together they decided to inform the Buddha. The Buddha said of the Nigaṇṭas that "their doctrine and discipline are badly set forth, badly imparted, ineffectual for guidance, not conducive to peace, not imparted by one supremely enlightened". In such a situation disciples tend to follow the minor aspects not the major ones.
The Buddha then contrasted this with a doctrine that is the opposite. This is the case when a teacher arises in the world, an Arahant supremely enlightened with a doctrine well set out and well imparted. If such a teacher were to die it would be a great affliction. But if that teacher had disciples who had become proficient in the teaching his passing away will not be an affliction to his disciples.
If a religion (brahmacāriyā
) exists without a senior teacher with long experience wise, trained and learned then it will be imperfect. But if there is such a senior teacher then that system could not be perfect in a number of circumstances. If there are no novice brother or sister disciples, or if there are no laymen who are disciples, or no householders of the white robe, or if there are none among those laymen and lay-women who are wealthy, or if the system be not successful, prosperous, widespread and popular in its full extent, or not attained the foremost place in public fame and support then by any one such circumstance the system is rendered imperfect.
I have now arisen a supremely enlightened Arhat, the Dhamma has been well proclaimed, I have many well trained disciples, some Arhats, others are fully trained bhikkhus. There are many lay supporters some of them wealthy men and women.
Of the teachers arisen in the world I cannot find any who have risen to such a leading position as myself. If any one describes a religion that is in every way successful and complete, neither defective nor redundant, it is this religion that he would be describing. Now Cunda it is you to whom I have made known the truth who should come together to rehearse, compare meaning with meanings, phrase with phrase, so that the pure religion will last long. What I have proclaimed are these: The Four Foundations of Mindfulness, the Four Supreme Efforts, the Four Paths to Efficacy, the Five Powers, the Five Forces, the Seven Factors of Enlightenment, and the Ariyan Eightfold Path.
If a co-religionist gives a wrong meaning but has the right form of words, you are neither to approve of, nor to blame him. You should say this is the meaning or that is the meaning and ask which fits them better. If he gives a different meaning to yours neither is he to be set aside , nor to be upbraided. You explain to him, with careful attention, the right meaning.
I teach Dhamma not only for restraint of present corruptions only nor for their destruction in a future life only. I teach it for both these purposes. The robe allowed is simply for warding off cold, insects and for modesty. The food allowed is simply for sustaining the body. The medicines are for sickness and preservation of health.
Some wanderers accuse the sons of the Sakyan to be devoted to the four pleasures. They mean by this the four jhānas. But these are not for mundane pleasure but for dispassion and revulsion. The first jhāna is detached from sensual pleasures and leads to initial application, The second leads to inner tranquillity and oneness of mind. The third to equanimity and mindfulness. The fourth takes the meditator beyond pleasure and pain. There are four fruits to be expected from these "pleasures": that of stream-winner, that of once returner, that of non returner and finally arhat-hood.
Some wanderers claim that the Buddha's doctrine is not well-founded. He is an Arhat and all Arhats have destroyed the intoxicants, and broken the fetter of becoming. They are incapable of nine things: (1) killing living beings; (2) theft; (3) sexual intercourse; (4) telling lies; (5) storing goods for sensual indulgence; (6) acting wrongly through attachment; (7) acting wrongly through hatred; (8) acting wrongly through folly; (9) acting wrongfully through fear.
Some wanderers claim that the Buddha knows the past but not the future. As far as the past is concerned he can go back as far he wants but he will reveal only that which is true, that which is good and that which redounds to the good. Of the future that too he will reveal what conforms to these three conditions. Otherwise he says nothing. This is why he is silent on the unanswered questions which relate to maters like the origin of the world, the relation of the soul and the body and whether the Tathagata exists after death.
The Buddha says that there are ascetics and Brahmins who hold views on these matters he had not declared. When asked for their reasons they do not give any but merely repeat their assertions. The Buddha does not admit their claims because beings can have their own views but he does not consider them equal to his own,
As for the destruction of all views about the past and present the Buddha said that he had laid down the four foundations of mindfulness. It is through them that these speculations about the past and the future can be laid aside and overcome.
During this time the Buddha was speaking venerable Upavana had been standing behind the Buddha fanning him. He then said "Lord, your exposition of Dhamma has been wonderful and delightful". The Buddha said: "Then you can remember it as the Delightful Discourse".
This is a wide ranging discourse. The news of the death of the Jain leader and the subsequent disagreements amongst his followrs led the Buddha to what makes a teching secure. He said that the Jains were disunited because their system was well founded. He then shoed that his group did not suffer from this and that it was well organized and well led. While this was true of the time that the lived in the longer perspective of time things have been different. The Janins have beeb able to hold on to their teaching from the time of their founder until the present day. But Buddhism died out almost completely in India. Many attribute this to the persecution of later Muslim rulers of India but the Jans and the Hindus suffered under Muslim rule without being destroyed completely.
The Buddha also mentions that the Buddhist community had the support of many rich people, and also support from Kings like Pasanedi and Ajatasatru. When the patronage from Kings and he Rich declined in later times Buddhism in India was virtually doomed. What prevailed outside India was different from the original Buddhism of the Buddha.
D 30 Lakkaṇa Sutta
The text of this Sutta is interspersed with stanzas rendering in verse what is said in prose. These stanzas have been omitted in this Abstract.]
While staying at Jetavana i Sāvatthi the Buddha addressed the bhikkhus as follows: "There are thirty-two special marks on the Super Man (mahāpurisa
) possessing which he has two careers: If he stays in the home life he will be a chakkavatti
King if he goes forth into homelessness he will becomes a Buddha". These Marks are:
1. He has feet with level tread. 2. On the soles of his feet, wheels appear thousand-spoked, with tyre and hub. 3. He has projecting heels. 4. He is long in the fingers and toes. 5. Soft and tender are his in hands and feet. 6. Hands and feet like a net. 7.His ankles are like rounded shells. 8. His legs are like an antelope's. 9. Standing and without bending he can touch and rub his knees with either hand. 10. His male organs are concealed in a sheath.. 11. His complexion is like bronze, the colour of gold. 14. His skin is so delicately smooth that no dust cleaves to his body. 13. The down on it grows in single hairs one to each pore. 14. The down on his body turns upward, every hair of it, blue black in colour like eye-paint, in little curling rings, curling to the right. 15. He has a frame divinely straight. 16. He has the seven convex surfaces. 17. The front half of his body is like a lion's. 18. There is no furrow between his shoulders. 19. His proportions have the symmetry of the banyan-tree. 20. His bust is equally rounded. 21. His taste is supremely acute. 22. His jaws are as a lion's. 23. He has forty teeth. 24. Teeth are narrow. 25. Teeth are Continuous. 26. The eye teeth are very lustrous. 27. His tongue is long. 28. He has a divine voice like the karavika bird's. 29. His eyes are intensely blue. 30. He has eyelashes like a cow's. 31. Between the eyebrows appears a hairy mole white and like soft cotton down. 32. His head is like a royal turban.
The seers of old knew these but they did not know what kamma was done to acquire each of them.
Each of these marks was accumulated doing good deeds in various existences of the Great Man. The mark #1was due to his dispensing gifts, keeping of festivals, filial duties, piety to recluse and Brahmins, and honouring the head of the house. The mark #2 he got by his care for the weal of the many, dispelling of dread and panic, protection and warden-ship, and the giving of supplies. The marks #3, #4, #15 he got by the not taking of life, putting aside the scourge and sword, being gentle and compassionate to all living creatures. The marks #5, and #6 were got for sympathy, generosity, pleasing speech, beneficial speech and impartiality. The marks #7 and #14 he got for his work for the welfare of others and dispensing Dhamma. He got Mark #12 for learning from a recluse or Brahmin what was good and bad, what gave happiness and sorrow. He got #11 for not displaying anger or resentment and giving away good cloths. He got #10 for reuniting divided families.
The Marks #9 and #19 he got for knowing the differences between people and what each deserved. He acquired the three Marks #17, #18, and #20 for increasing in faith, learning, morality and renunciation. He acquired Mark 21 for avoiding harm to being sby hand, stones or stick. The Marks #29 and #30 he got for looking at people openly, straight-forwardly and with a kind glance. The Mark #32 he got for skilled behaviour, virtuous conduct and generosity.The Marks #13 and #31 he got for being a truth speaker. The marks #23 and #25 were got for reconciling those at variance and promoting peace. The Marks #27 and #28 were got for rejecting harsh speech and speaking that which was gentle and blameless. Mark #22 he got for rejecting idle chatter and speaking at the right time. The Marks #24 and #26 he acquired for right livelihood, avoiding cheating, bribery, robbery and similar things. Thus did he acquire the 32 marks of a Great Man.
These marks of the Great Man were probably earlier to the time of Gotama but it was in relation to the Buddha that they have acquired so much prominence. This became significant when iconography came to Buddhism. But statues of the Buddha made did not generally depict all these Marks. So these Marks have to be regarded as purely mythical and not as representations of human anatomy.
D 31. Siṅgala Sutta
Once the Buddha was staying at Rajagaha in the Veḷuvana. On his alms round he met the Brahmin youth Siṅgala with wet hair and clothes doing his usual morning round worshipping the six directions (the cardinal points, the zenith and the nadir). He asked the youth what he was doing and got the reply: "My father on his death bed asked me to worship the six quarters and out of reverence to him I am doing this". The Buddha said "This is not the way that the six quarters should be worshipped in the Ariyan way". Then asked how it should be done the Buddha gave the following sermon.
The Buddha said that the Aryan disciple puts away the the four vices in conduct, avoids doing evil actions from four motives, does not pursue the six channels for dissipating wealth he covers the six quarters and conquers both worlds. He tastes success in this world and after death he is reborn to a happy destiny in heaven. The four vices of conduct are the destruction of life, the taking what is not given, moral licentiousness, and lying speech. These he puts away. The evil deeds are those done from motives of partiality, enmity, stupidity and
There are six channels for dissipating wealth. These are:
- Addiction to liquor. The dangers here are: actual loss of wealth; increase of quarrels; susceptibility to disease; loss of good character; indecent exposure; and impaired intelligence.
-  Frequenting streets at unseemly hours. The perils here are: he himself is without guard or protection and so also are his wife, children and property; he becomes suspected of crimes; false rumours fix on him; and many are other troubles he meets.
-  Frequenting Fairs. Here the perils are: there is dancing; there is singing; there is music; there is is recitation; there are cymbals and tam-tams.
-  Gambling The perils are: As winner he begets hatred; when beaten he mourns his lost wealth ; his actual substance is wasted ; his word has no weight in a court of law ; he is despised by friends and officials ; he is not sought after in mariage because they say a gambler cannot afford to keep a wife.
-  Evil Companions A person who is a gambler, a libertine, a tippler, a cheat, a swindler, and any person of violence should be avoided as a friend orcompanion.
- [252-253] Idleness. A person who does not work sayng 'it is too cold', ot 'it is too hot', or 'it is too early (late)', or 'I am too hungry (full)' is an idle person. What he cand do remains undone, new wealth he does not get, and such wealth as he has dwindles away. Such are the perils of idleness.
There are four kinds of persons who are foes but who come in the guise of frients:
-  The rapacious person. He is rapacious; he gives little and asks much; he does his duty out of fear; he pursues his own interests.
-  The man of words not deeds. He makes friendly profession as regards the past; the same as regards the future; he tries to gain favour by empty sayings; when the opportunity for service arises he avows his disability.
-  The flatterer. He agrees to do wrong things but not right tings; he praises you to your face but speaks ill of you to others.
-  The fellow-waster. He is your companion and associate in all the wrong things listed above such ass gambling and in frequenting streets and fairs.
The Buddha then lists persons who should be considered as sound. honest and reliable friends. They include those who are genuine helpers, those who share happiness and adversity with you, persons who gives good counsel and those who sympathise with you in adversity. They provide protection to you and your property and are the ones with whom you can share secrets. Such a person would restrain you from doing wrong. enjoin you to do what is right, inform you of what you had not heard before, and reveal the way to heaven. He does not rejoice over your misfortunes but rejoices over your prosperity, he restrains others speaking ill of you and commends those who praise you.
The Buddha then goes on to consider how the Aryan disciple would regard the six
directions. When Siṅgala was worshipping the six directions we were not told what they represented. They were presumably the Vedic deities even though none of them are mentioned by name. To the Aryan disciple these six directions do not represent deities b specific persons y are specific persons worthy of respect which is what "worship" means in this context. The Buddha thus identifies the dix directions in thiws way: The East consists of one's parents; the South consists of one;s teacherw; the West cnsists of one's family (spouse and children); the North consists of one's friends and companions; the Nadir of ones servants and employees, and the Zenith of religious teachers and brahmins. They are then considered in a little more detail.
[267-278] EAST Parents.
The child should support the parents in a material sense, perform duties incumbent on him, keep to their lineage and tradition, make himself worthy of the family heritage. The parents should reciprocate by showing their love, restrain him from vice, exhort him to virtue, they him to a profession, contract a suitable marriage for him, and in due time hand?over his inheritance.
 SOUTH Teachers.
29. In five ways should pupils minister to their teachers as the southern quarter : by rising in salutation, by waiting upon them, by eagerness to learn, by personal service, and by attention when receiving their teaching. The teachers in turn should
love their pupil, train him in that wherein he has to be well trained, make him hold fast that which they should hold high, thoroughly instruct him in the lore of every art, speak well of him among his friends and companions, and provide for his safety in every way. In this way the southern quarter is made safe and secure.
 WEST Family.
In five ways should a wife as western quarter be ministered to by her husband : by respect, by courtesy, by faithfulness, by handing over authority to her, by providing her with adornment. The wife should minister to her husband by loving him, by providing hospitality to the kin of both, by faithfulness, by watching over the goods he brings, and by skill and industry in discharging all her business. Thus is this way the western quarter is made safe and secure.
 NORTH Friends.
Friends and acquaintences should be treated with generosity, courtesy and benevolence, by treating them as he treats himself, and by being as good as his word. In turn these friends should protect him and his property when he is off his guard, become a refuge in danger and not forsake him in his troubles, and they show consideration for his family.
 NADIR Servants.
An Ariyan master should minister to his servants and employees as the nadir by assigning them work according to their strength, by supplying them with food and wages, by tending them in sickness, by sharing with them unusual delicacies and by granting leave at times. In return the servants and employees should love their master by rising (waking up) before him, going to bed after him, they should be content with what is given to them, they should do their work well, and carry about his praise and good fame. Thus is the nadir to be protected and made safe and secure.
 ZENITH Religious Teachers.
In five ways should the clansman minister to recluses and Brahmins as the zenith: by affection in act and speech and mind, by keeping open house to them, by supplying their temporal needs. Thus ministered to as the zenith, recluses and Brahmins should show their love for the clansman in six ways: they should restrain him from evil, exhort him to good, love him with kindly thoughts, teach him what he had not heard, correct and purify what he has heard, reveal to him the way to heaven. Thus is the zenith protected and made safe and secure.
When the Buddha had thus spoken, Siṅgala said "Beautiful, lord, beautiful !" He then in the usual phraseology expressed his appreciation of what the Buddha had said, He then asked to be a a lay-disciple of the Buddha as one who has taken his refuge in him from this day forth as long as life endures.
This sutta is usually considered the only one directly addressed to the lay supportres of the Buddha although it is given to a Brahin youth. Most of the Buddha;s higher teaching was directed to the monks who hd gone forth from the householders.
D 32. Aṭānāṭiya Sutta
Once the Buddha was staying at the Gijjakuta mountain near Rajagaha when the Four Great [Heavenly] Kings with a vast retinue of Yakkhas, Gandabbas and Kumbandhas came to the mountain and greeted the Buddha and took their seats near him.
Then King Vessavana said "There are many non-human beings from the most eminent to the least who do not believe the Buddha and they form the majority. This is because the Buddha teaches a code such as abstaining from taking life and the other moral rules which are distasteful to them. But there are human followers of the Buddha both male and female who live in remote areas engaged in meditation. Those non-humans who have no faith in the Buddha also live in these areas. So that those humans who have faith in the Buddha may not be hurt by these non-humans who have no faith in the Buddha may they learn this Aṭāmāṭiya Charm? The Buddha gave consent and the King recited the following Aṭāmāṭiya Charm.
Then the Charm was recited by the King. [N.B.
An Abstract of this Charm is not given here. It consists basically of a verse praising the Buddha and his predecessors
from Vipassi onwards.]
Then a list of the deities to whom the Charm is addressed was given by King Vessabana. [N.B.
This list is not reproduced in this Abstract. It consists for the most part of the deities of the Vedic pantheon, and the Thrity-Three gods who live in the Heaven of he Four Great Kings.]
Then the Four Kings and their retinue took leave of the Buddha and left.
Then in the morning the Buddha assembled the bhikkhus and repeated to them the Charm which King Vessavana had recited.
The Buddha then told the monks: "Learn by heart, monks, this Aṭānāṭiya Charm, master it and recollect it. This Charm pertains to your good and by it brethren and sisters of the Order, laymen and laywomen may dwell at ease, guarded, protected and unscathed".
This sutta is most likely a later composition after the death of the Buddha when
magic, charms and supernaturalism became part of popular Buddhism.
D 33. Saṅgīti Sutta
This sutta is significant as it is the first one in the Pali Canon to introduce group chanting (saṅgīta
) as a method of Dhamma propagation. Here the chanting is led by Sāriputta and consists of reciting the titles of the concepts and doctrines introduced by the Buddha. They were organized into 10 Groups of sets of terms based on the number of terms in each set in each group. Some 229 sets are mentioned in this sutta. It is not feasible to reproduce all these in an Abstract like the present so only a few sets in each of the Groups are given so as to convey the flavour of this Chanting.]
When the Buddha with the monks were touring of the Malla country he came to Pava and there he resided in the mango grove of Cunda the Smith. At the time a new mote-hall called Ubbhataka had been completed. The people of Pava came to see the Buddha and invited him to occupy the new mote hall. The Buddha consented by his usual silence. The Hall was then prepared for the Buddha's occupation. The Buddha went there the next day and gave a Dhamma discourse to the people assembled there well into the night after which the people dispersed.
The Buddha then surveyed the silent Bhikkhus and told Sāriputta to give a Dhamma discourse as the Buddha's back was aching. He then rested himself in the lion's pose. Recently Nigaṇṭa Nāṭaputta had died and soon afterwards his followers became divided with much strife between the parties. Sāriputta referred to this when he started his discourse and said that unlike the Nigaṇṭa the Exalted One had set forth the Dhamma clearly and there was no dissention. To demonstrate that unity Sāriputta suggested that there should be a communal chanting of the terms used by the Buddha in propagating the Dhamma. Then a recital was organized in ten Groups each based on the number of terms in each set of topics in each Group.
The first Group of single term sets. There was only one set of one item and this simply stated: "All beings exist on nutriment (āhāra
) and conditions (sankhāra
In the second Group of two-term sets there are 33 sets as given below:
(i) Mind and body; (ii) Ignorance and craving for rebirth; (iii) Opinion as to rebirth or no rebirth; (iv) Unconscientiousness and indiscretion; (v) Conscientiousness and discretion; (vi) Contumacy and friendship with evil. (vii) Suavity and friendship with good; (viii) Proficiency as to offences and restoration from them; (ix) Jhana or no Jhana; (x) Proficiency in elements and in understanding them; (xi) Knowledge of spheres of sense and relation to the causal formula; (xii) Skill in knowing causes, and in eliminating tht which is not causal; (xiii) Rectitude and modesty; (xiv) Patience and gentleness; (xv) Mildness of speech and courtesy; (xvi) Kindness 3 and love; (xvii) Absence of mind-fulness and of awareness; (xviii) Mindfulness and intelligence; (xix) Unguarded faculties and intemperance in eating; (xx) Guardedness of faculties and moderateness in eating; (xxi) Powers of judging and of cultivation; (xxii) Powers of mindfulness and concentration; (xxiii) Calm and insight; (xxiv) Causes of calm and of mental rasp; (xxv) Mental grasp and balance; (xxvi) Attainment in conduct and belief; (xxvii) Failure in conduct and belief;
(xxviii) Purity in conduct and belief; (xxix) Purity in belief and the struggle according to the belief one holds; (xxx) Agitation over agitating conditions and the systematic exertion of one agitated;
(xxxi) Discontent in meritorious acts and perseverance in exertion; (xxxii) The higher wisdom and emancipation; (xxxiii) Knowledge how to extirpate and knowledge how to prevent recrudescence.
These are the double doctrines to be chanted in unison with no discord. This is for the welfare and happiness of devas and humans.
In the third Group of three-term sets there are 60 sets as given below:
i. Three bad roots. ii. Three good roots. iii. Three kinds of evil conduct.. iv. Three kinds of bad conduct. v. Three kinds of bad thoughts. vi. Three kinds of good thoughts. vii. Three kinds of bad purposes. viii. Three kinds of good purposes. ix. Three kinds of bad notions. x. Three kinds of good notions. xi. Three bad elements. xii. Three good elements. xiii.Three more elements. xiv. Other more elements. xv. Three more elements. xvi. Three kinds of craving. xvii. Three more kinds of craving. xviii. Three more kinds of craving. xix. Three fetters. xx. Three intoxicants. xxi. Three Kinds of Becoming. xxii. Three Quests. xxiii. Three Forms of Conceit . xxiv. Three Times
xxv. Three "Ends". xxvI. Three Feelings. xxvii. Three Kinds of Suffering. xxviii. Three accumulations. xxIi. Three Obstruction. xxx. Three Things a Tathagata needs no guarding. xxxi. Three Obstacles. xxxii. Three Fires. xxxiiI. Three More Fires. xxxIv. Threefold Classification of Matter. xxxv. Three Kinds of Karmic Formation. xxxvI. Three Types of Persons. xxxvii. Three Types of Elders. xxxviiI. Three Grounds Based on Merit. xxxIx. Three Grounds for Reproof
xl. Three Kinds of Rebirth in the Realm of Sense Desire. xli. Three Happy Rebirths. xlii. Three Kinds of Wisdom. xliiI. Three More Kinds of Wisdom. xlIv. Three Armaments. xlv. Three Faculties. xlvI. Three Eyes. xlvii. Three Kinds of Training. xlviiI. Three Kinds of Development
xlix. Three "Unsurpassables". l. Three Kinds of Concentration. li. Three More Kinds of Concentration. lii. Three Purities. liii. Three Qualities of the Sage.
liv. Three Skills. lv. Three Intoxications. lvi. Three Predominant Influences, lvii. Three Topics of Discussion. lviii. Three Knowledge's. lix. Three Abidings. lx. Three Miracles.
In the fourth Group of 4-term sets there are 50 sets as given below:
i. Four applications of mindfulness. ii. Four supreme efforts. iii. Four stages to iddhi. iv. Four Jhanas. v. Four developments of concentration. vi. Four ' infinitudes'. vii. Four Jhanas of Arupa-consciousness. viii. Four Bases of Conduct. ix. Four Arlyan lineages. x. Four exertions.
xi. Four knowledges. xii. More knowledges such as knowledge regarding suffering. xiii. Four factors in ' Stream-winning. xiv. Four factors of one who has attained the stream. xv. Four fruits of the life of a recluse. xvi. Four elements. xvii. Four supports [or foods]. xviii. Four stations of consciousness. xix. Four ways of going astray. xx. Four uprisings of craving. xxi. Four rates of progress. xxii. Other four modes of progress. xxiii. Four divisions of doctrine. xxiv. Four religious undertakings. xxv. Four bodies of doctrine. xxvi. Four powers. xxvii. Four resolves.
xxviii. Four modes of answering questions. xxix. Four kinds of action. xxx. Four matters to be realized. xxxi. Four floods. xxxii. Four bonds. xxxiii. Four bond-loosenings. xxxiv. Four knots.
xxxv. Four graspings. xxxvi. Four matrices. xxxvii. Four classes of conception at rebirth. xxxviii. Four methods of acquiring new personality. xxxix. Four modes of purity in offerings. xl. Four grounds of popularity. xli. Four un-Ariyan modes of speech. xlii. Four Ariyan modes of speech. xliii. Four more un-Ariyan modes of speech. xliv. Other four Ariyan modes of speech.
xlv. Four more un-Ariyan modes of speech. xlvi. Four more Ariyan modes of speech. xlvii. Four classes of individuals. xlviii. Four more individuals. xlix. Four more individuals. xl. Four moe individuals.
In the fifth Group of 5-term sets there are 26 sets as given below:
i. Five aggregates. ii. Five aggregates [regarded as vehicles] of grasping. iii. Five kinds of sensuous pleasures. iv. Five ways of destiny. v. Five forms of meanness. vi. Five hindrances. vii. Five fetters as to lower worlds. viii. Five fetters as to upper worlds. ix. Five branches of moral training. x. Five impossibles. xi. Five kinds of losses. xii. Five kinds of prosperity. xiii. Five disasters to the immoral by lapse from virtuous habits. xiv. Five advantages to the moral man through his success in virtuous conduct. xv. Five points to consider before rebuking a monk. xvi. Five factors in spiritual wrestling. xvi. Five factors in spiritual wrestling. xvii. Five Pure Abodes. xix. Five spiritual barrennesses. xx. Five bondages of the mind. xxi. Five faculties. xxii. Other five faculties. xxiii. Other five faculties. xxiv. Five elements tending to deliverance. xxv. Five occasions of emancipation. xxvi. Five thoughts by which emancipation 2 reaches maturity, to wit. the notion of impermanence, the notion of suffering in impermanence, the notion of no-soul in suffering, the notion of elimination, the notion of passionlessness.
In the sixth Group of 6-term sets there are 22 sets as given below:
i. Six fields of personal experience. ii. Six external fields of objects of experience. iii. Six groups of consciousness. iv. Six groups of contacts. v. Six groups of feeling by sensory Stimulus. vi. Six groups of perceptions. vii. Six groups of volitions. viii. Six craving-groups. ix. Six forms of irreverence. x. Six forms of reverence. xi. Six pleasurable investigations. xii. Six disagreeable investigations. xiii. Six investigations of indifference. xiv. Six occasions of fraternal living. xv. Six roots of contention. xvi. Six elements. xvii. Six elements tending- to deliverance. xviii. Six unsurpassable experiences. xix. Six matters for recollection. xx. Six chronic states. xxi. Six modes of heredity. xxii. Six ideas conducing to Nibbāna.
In the seventh Group of 7-term sets there are 14 sets as given below:
i. Seven treasures. ii. Seven factors of enlightenment. iii. Seven requisites of concentration. iv. Seven vicious qualities. v. Seven virtuous qualities. vi. Seven qualities of the good. vii. Seven bases of Arahantship. viii. Seven perceptions. ix. Seven powers. x. Seven stations of consciousness. xi. Seven [types of] persons worthy of ofterings. xii. Seven kinds of latent bias.
xiii. Seven fetters, to wit, compliance, opposition, false opinion, doubt, conceit, lust for rebirth, ignorance. xiv. Seven rules for the pacifying and suppression of disputed questions that have been raised.
In the eighth Group of 8-term sets there are 11 sets as given below:
i. Eight wrong factors of character and conduct. ii. Eight right factors of character and conduct. iii. Eight types of persons worthy of offerings. iv. Eight bases of slackness. v. Eight bases of setting afoot an undertaking. vi. Eight bases for giving. vii. Eight kings of rebirth due to generosity. viii. Eight assemblies. ix. Eight worldly conditions. x.Eight stges of mastery. xi. Eight deliverences.
In the ninth Group of 9-term sets there are 6 sets as are given below:
i. Nine bases of quarrelling. ii. Nine suppressions of quarrelling. iii. Nine spheres inhabited by beings. iv. Nine untimely unseasonable intervals for life in a religious order. v. Nine successional states. vi. Nine successional cessations.
In the final tenth Group of 9-term sets there are 6 sets as are given below:
i. Ten doctrines conferring protection. ii. Ten objects for self-hypnosis. iii. Ten bad channels of action, iv. Ten good channels of action. v. Ten Ariyan methods of living. vi. Ten qualities belonging to the adept.
Now when the Exalted One had arisen fom his rest he addressed the venerable Sāriputta, saying: "Excellent, Sāariputta, excellent ! Excellently, Sāriputta, have you uttered the scheme of chanting together for the brethren". Thus the Master signified his assent. The brethren were pleased and delighted with the venerable Sariputta's discourse.
It will be seen that the Buddha wanted Sāriputta to give a talk on Dhamma. Instead he converted it into a communal chanting. Today this kind of chanting in the form of the
communal recitation of verses of protection (paritta
) has become standard practice in Buddhism even treated with greater
devotion that listening to or discussing the Dhamma. This sutta may have been composed after the Buddha died but his
posthumous approval has been obtained.
The 229 sets of Dhamma terms may well provide a glossary of the Buddha's
teaching. From that point of view it has some positive merit. While some explanation of the terms given (which we have not given to keep the Abstract to normal length)
this is a compensatory factor but in
many cases no explanation is given of the cursory title of the dhamma involved does not make this a suitable method for propagation of the Dhamma.
D 34. Dasuttara Sutta
There will be no Abstract of this sutta (D 34) which is the last sutta in the Dīgha Nikāya (the Long Collection). D 34 is basically a reorganization and abridgement of the Sangīti Sutta (D 33) which comes immediately before it in this collection. An Abstract of D 33 is given in this series of Abstracts of suttas in the Sutta Piṭaka
of the Pali Canon.
Both these suttas are attributed to Sāriputta who is considered as the Chief Disciple of the Buddha. Whereas the D 33 followed a request from the Buddha to give a Dhamma talk to the bhikkhus there is no such request as far as D 34 is concerned. As noted in its Summary Analysis D 33 is the first communal Chanting recorded in the Pali Canon. An Abstract of D 33 is given in this series of Abstracts. Both discourses were probably composed after the death of the Buddha.
Both suttas consist of sets of technical and other terms used by the Buddha in
his exposition of the Dhamma. Sutta D 33 contains 230 sets of terms while this sutta (D 34) has only 100 sets most of theing being already contained in the other sutta. That is why there is no need to provide an Abstract for this sutta.