# Saṃyutta Nikāya Abstracts Sagāthāvagga

## 1. Devasaṃyutta – Chapter on Devas

[N.B. Suttas in which a Deva visits the Buddha follow a common pattern. The visit takes place late night or early morning, the place is brilliantly lit up. The deva greets the Buddha and stands on a side. The a conversation ensues. In these Abstracts only a condensed version of the conversation is given. The place is not particularly relevant and is not given.]

### 1. Nāḷavagga – Section on Reeds

 [1] 1. Crossing the Flood DEVA Tell me, dear sir, how didst thou cross the flood ? BUDDHA Unstayed, friend, and unstriving did I cross the flood. DEVA But how did you without stay and striving, cross the flood ? BUDDHA When stayed I sank; when I strove hard I was whirled about. So doing neither I crossed the flood. [2] 2. Deliverance DEVA Do you know what get them that live deliverance, freedom, detachment? BUDDHA When life-lust and becoming are no more then mind that marks and works by sense is dead and feelings turmoil ceases. [3] 3. Led to its Doom DEVA Life to its doom is led, our years are few, no shelters stand. Whoso doth fear death, let him do merit bringing him bliss. BUDDHA Life to its doom is led, our years are few, no shelters stand. Whoso doth fear let him reject the bait of all the worlds and aspire after the final peace. [4] 4. Passing by DEVA Hours pass by, nights drive us on, life abandons us. Whoso fears death, let him so act that merit brings bliss. BUDDHA Hours pass by, nights drive us on, life abandons us. Whoso fears death, let him reject the bait of all the worlds and aspire after the final peace. [5] 5. How many should he cut? DEVA How many ties should a monk who has crossed the flood cut, how many leave, how many further cultivate, how many can he win? BUDDHA There are the Five (Hindrances) in each of these cases. [6] 6. Vigil. DEVA How many sleep, when others are awake, wake when others are asleep, how many work while we gather dust, how many are wholly cleansed? BUDDHA Again it is the Five in all cases. [7] 7. Not Grasped. DEVA Those who never have pierced the truth are led astray among other creeds. Now is the hour for them to wake. BUDDHA They who have well pierced the truth are not led astray among other creeds. Wholly awake are they, walk through the  uneven with an even stride. [8] 8. Wholly blurred. DEVA Now is the time for those to whom truth is blurred and stray into other creeds to wake up. BUDDHA Those for whom the truth is not blurred are wholly awake and fully know as they walk through the uneven with even stride. [9] 9. Desire for delusions. DEVA Those who are conceited and are not tamed even if they dally in lonely woods they will not overcome the realm of Death. BUDDHA He who has left all conceits, is well concentrated and lovely in heart, dwelling lonely and working earnestly will cross over the realm of Death. [10] 10. In the Forest. DEVA Why do those who live the holy life in forests, take daily a single meal and look so serene? BUDDHA They look serene because they do not lament the past, nor yearn for the future, but maintain themselves for now. Those who yearn for the future and lament the past, wither up as as a tender reed cut by the sickle.

### 2. Nandanavagga – Section on 'Paradise'

 [11] 1. The 'Paradise' Sutta DEVA 1 They know no bliss that do not see Nandana. DEVA 2 O fool, the saints say all conditioned things are impermanent, happy is the mastery of them than the peace (of Nandana)'. [12] 2. The Arising of Pleasure DEVA Parents take pleasure in sons as the swain in his cattle. Pleasure comes through sense, the man with no sense has no pleasure. BUDDHA Parent mourn their sons as the swain his cattle. Mourning arises due to sense; the man with no sense has no sadness. [13] 3. As we love the child DEVA Our child we love the most, his kine is the owner's treasure, sunshine has no match, as in water the ocean is supreme. BUDDHA We love our self the most, corn is the (farmer's) treasure, wisdom the best radiance, and rain supreme of all water. [14] 4. Of Khattiya (Noble} Blood DEVA Best of bipeds is he of noble blood, as the steer of all beasts, she of noble bred is best wives, as the first born son of the parent. BUDDHA The fully enlightened is the best biped, the fully trained the finest of the four-footed, she who best ministers is the best wife as the obedient son is of the parents. [15] 5. Forest Sounds DEVA At noon when the birds are silent the forest sound is most fearsome to me. BUDDHA At noon when the birds are singing the forest sound is enchanting to me. [16] 6. Sloth and Drowsiness DEVA Sloth does the weary not overcome as over-eating the best effort to some. BUDDHA The Ariyan path is cleansed by strenuous effort overcoming sloth and not over-eating. [17] 7. The Tortoise DEVA It is hard for the fool to fulfil recluse-ship, difficult to live the holy life with unrestrained impulses. Step by step he will decline subject to his whims. BUDDHA As the tortoise seeks shelter in its shell so the monk intent, mindful, not relying on any, not injuring any is free of evil not speaking ill of any other. [18] 8. The Shameful DEVA Where can you find the man who is restrained by shame. He hates being blamed like the horse the whip. BUDDHA The few who are restrained by shame , who are heedful in life, have come to the end of sorrow and walk the uneven with an even stride. [19] 9. The Hut DEVA He who has no little hut (mother), no nest (the wife), no line stretched (children) , no binding ties (desires) is happy and free. BUDDHA No hut is mine, nor any nest, and the line is not stretched out. Yes I am free from ties. [20] 10. The Samiddhi Story

Once at dawn Venerable Samiddhi went to bathe at the Tapoda Hot Spring in Rajagaha and after bathing was drying his limbs when a devatā appeared and said: "Not having had your fill you have taken to seeking alms". Samiddhi replied that he has given up things taking up time (that is sensual things) and taken up things of the present (that is practicing the Dhamma). But the deity was not satisfied and queried further. At this Samiddhi said that he was a newcomer to the Dhamma and suggested that they go the Buddha, which they did.

The Buddha tried in various ways to enlighten the deity but she did not understand what the Buddha said always saying that it was said in outline and wanting a more detailed explanation. Finally the Buddha describes a person who has cut all craving, freed from bonds, and asked the deity if she knew of such a one. The deity said that she understood that such a one would commit no evil in speech, mind or body, drop all desires, be mindful and understanding, and not torment oneself which is useless. But whether she knew of such a one she did not say.

### 3. Sattisuttam – Section on the Sword Suttas

 [21] 1. By the Sword DEVA Like one by sword threatened, or hair and turban on fire let the monk, go forth passions abandoned. BUDDHA Like one by sword threatened, or hair and turban on fire let the monk, go forth soul fallacy abandoned. [22] 2. The Touch. DEVA He who does not touch (another) is not himself touched). If he wreaks injury on an innocent he too will be injured. BUDDHA The act of one who wrongs a pure error-free one of no guile recoils on the doer as dust thrown against the wind. [23] 3. The Tangle DEVA All sentient beings are tangled within and without I ask Gotama who is it who can disembroil from this tangle. BUDDHA The man or monk who is discreet, virtuous, intelligent, ardent and discriminating - he can disembroil the tangle. The Arahant free of the intoxicants, whose mind and body wholly cease is utterly tangle-free. [24] 4. Mind-checking DEVA He whose mind is in check does not go the way of misery. To be free of woe the mind should be checked on all sides. BUDDHA Only if evil things do arise should mind be checked; With self-control there is no need to check the mind. [25] 5. The Arahant DEVA An Arahant who has done what needs to be done and is free of intoxication may say "I say" or "It is mine". BUDDHA An Arahant who says ""I say" or "It is mine" is merely using common terms in their ordinary meaning. [26] 6. Light DEVA How many things light up the world making things clear and plain, this we would like to know. BUDDHA The sun gives light by day, the moon by night, the fire by night or day, but the light of a Buddha is the best of all. [27] 7. The Tides DEVA When does the tide ebb, the whirlpool stop? When will this body and mind come to an utter end? BUDDHA When the four elements find no further footing nor does the tide and the whirlpool stop but the final end comes to this compounded thing of body and mind. [28] 8. Goodly Treasures DEVA Those with great wealth, treasure and domain have insatiate sense desires and envy each other, they drift form birth to birth. Are any found who have left envy and greed behind and live serene and restful? BUDDHA Those who have abandoned home and child, herds and what the heart desires, abandoned lust, ill-will and the intoxicants, like the Arahants, they dwell serene and restful. [29] 9. The Four-Wheeled DEVA This four-wheeled fulsome thing with nine doors, begotten from a bog, where can it be left behind? BUDDHA Let the thongs be cut, greed and evil wishes left behind, let craving be utterly rooted out, then there will be egress. [30] 10. The Antelope DEVA We ask thee who has antelope limbs, of sober diet, faring lonely like a lion or elephant, indifferent to the call of sense, how can we be set free from all ill? BUDDHA On your six sense faculties when you no longer set desire then you will be free of every ill.

### 4. Satullapakāyikavagga – Section on the Satullapa Devas

[In this section a group of Satullapa devas (usually seven) visit the Buddha on a number of separate occasions each of which is related in a separate sutta.]

[31] 1. With good men (sabbhisutta). Here seven devas spoke to the effect "With good men should you consort, practice intercourse and know how good shapes life". Each deva added his refrain the last being: "From all ill it will make us free". The Buddha made no comment.

[32] 2. Avarice (maccarisutta). Here each of the seven devas recite a stanza on avarice and on giving. The Buddha responded thus: "Some give with inconsistent conduct. Some give after smiting or murdering. These do not have the value of the righteous gift. Thus a thousand coins given in this way is not of value as one given righteously".

[33] 3. How Blessed (sādhusutta). Six devas asked the Buddha the question "How blessed a thing is it to give (sādhu kho dānaṃ)?". The Buddha answered: "The giving of gifts by those who believe in it is a good thing. But there is something better than a pious gift this is the Dhamma itself".

[34] 4. They are not (nasantisutta). In this cryptic verse the the devas say that even gods and men may not find the person who is freed from bonds. But it was the venerable Moghardjan who answered: "If him they find him not, they that revere him, shall we praise them also ? Yes, they become praiseworthy also, they that revere him the Norm knowing, all doubt they conquer, they too become bond-liberated".

[35] 5. The captious-minded (ujjhānasaññisutta). Some captious-minded devas visiting the Buddha rising up into the sky said: "If a man professes enjoying what he got by theft and trickery let him talk of what should be done not what should not be done. Wise men rate him at this worth". The Buddha said: "Simply talking does not lead to advance. It is with strenuous work that people have crossed over to Nibbāna". The earth bound devas then confessed their faults but the Buddha only smiled. This was taken as the Buddha not accepting their confession but the Buddha said that he was not angry and had accepted their confession.

[36] 6. Faith (saddhāsutta). The Satullapa devas came again to see the Buddha. This time they recited some stanza praising faith saying that it is the "second companion" of man. If one does not have disbelief he is destined for heaven. The Buddha did not make any comment.

[37] 7. The Concourse (samayasutta). This Sutta starts in the same setting as the Mahāsamaya Sutta in the Digha Nikāya in which the gods assemble to see the Buddha and the Arahants. The only addition is that the verses recited by the Satullapa devas at that Concourse are repeated (they are not given in the Digha Nikāya version). It is simply praise of the Buddha. The Buddha makes no comment.

[38] 8. The Splinter (sakalikasutta). Once a splinter pierced the Buddha's foot at a deer park in Rajagaha. It caused him great paid and he lay down on a robe prepared for him. Then a large number of Satullapa devas came to see him. Seven of these devas recited verses in praise of the Buddha. One of the compliments paid is that Brahmins of the Five-fold Vedas unlike the Buddha does not win the beyond. Usually there is only referenced to the Three-fold Vedas in Buddhist texts.

[39] 9. Pajunna's daughter first sutta (Pathamapajunnadhitusutta). Pajjunna and her daughter Kokanada are devas and Kokanada came to the presence of Gotama. This sutta only reports what Kokanada said, which was that she had only heard of the Norm but now she was in the very presence of the Sage himself. Then she said that those who cast aspersions on the Norm are destined for the Roruva hell. But those who agree with the Ariyan truths will after death fill up the heavenly hosts. The Buddha made no comments.

[40] 10. Pajunna's daughter second sutta (Dutiyapajunnadhitusutta). Here Kokanada again visits the Buddha and recites a verse of adoration of the Buddha. She concludes with a summary of the Dhamma as she understands it, as follows:
Let him commit no evil whatsoever
Throughout the world, in speech, or mind, or body.
Dropping desires, mindful and understanding,
Let him not work torment on self that's useless.

### 5. Ādittavaggavagga – Section on Burning

[41-45] A deva approached the Buddha and said:
1. Fire (āditttasutta) When a house burns take the goods out of he burning house. So the wise know to give because at death the body has to be left and (the merit of) what has been given can only be taken.
2. Giver of What? (kiṃdādasutta). Giving food gives strength, clothing gives beauty, vehicles gives happiness, lamp gives sight (in darkness), a dwelling gives all, Giving the Dhamma gives undying bliss.
3. Food (annasutta). All creatures desire good. He who gives benefits in this world and the next. Hence should one suppress avarice and give to charity.
4. With a single root (ekamūlasutta). The one root is craving which looks both ways (now and future) and has five arenas which the seer has crossed.
5. The Perfect One (anomasutta). Behold the seer with subtlest sense, giver of insight, cut off from sense desire, rich in wisdom and the one who wrought the mighty quest and showed all the Ariyan way.
[46] 6. The Nymphs (Accarāsutta). The deva continued: "That paradise is not made of troops of nymphs, but a better name is deluded ones. What escape is there ?" The Buddha said "Take the straight road taking the chariot named 'Silent Runner' with wheels of righteous efforts, the leaning board is conscience, drapery is heedfulness and the driver is the Dhamma. Be it woman or be it man such a chariot awaits to take to Nibbāna's presence".

[47] 7. Groves (vanaropasutta). Merit, righteousness and virtue grow for those who plant groves and fruit trees, construct causeways, dams, wells and watering sheds and give shelter to the homeless. They go to heaven.

[48] 8. Jeta's grove (jetavanasutta). Jeta's grove is where seers and the King of the Dhamma lives. Trained in this way do mortals become good, train their mind and find purity even as Sāriputta was supreme in insight.

[49] 9. The Miser (maccharisutta). The devas said: "Misers who grudge giving and bar the way for those who give, we ask our lord what will be their reward?"
The Buddha answered: "Misers such as these go to hell or are born as animals. If they find rebirth among mankind it is in a poor family."
The devas said: "We ask Gotama what is the reward of those who believe in the Buddha and the Norm".
The Buddha said: "They brightly shine in heaven where they are reborn, or if among humans they find themselves in a family where without toil they get food and clothing and enjoy the pleasures of the sense.

[50] 10. Ghaṭikāra (ghaṭikārasutta). The Deva Ghaṭikāra said: "Seven monks led by Upaka were reborn in the Aviha Brahma world. They left behind their mortal frame and passed into celestial bliss".
The Buddha said: "Following whose doctrine did these seven smite Mara's snares and break the fetters of rebirth?"
Ghaṭikāra said: "It was thy doctrine, Gotama".
The Budddha asked: " Whose doctrine it it that you have learned to speak so well?"
Ghaṭikāra said: "In a former birth in Kassapa's time I was a potter and became his lay follower leading a chaste life".
The Buddha then said that in that in a past time he too was a comrade of Ghaṭikāra.

### 6. Jarāvagga – Section on Old Age and Decay

[51] 1. Old Age (jarāsutta). What gives us luck till old age? What is mankind's precious jewel that thieves cannot take?
It is good morals. Wisdom is the precious jewel.

[52] 2. No decay (ajarāsutta). What prevents decay? What is mankind's precious jewel that thieves cannot take?
It is good morals. Wisdom is the precious jewel.

[53] 3. Friends (mittasutta). Who is a traveller's good friend, the good friend in the home, the good friend when need arises and the good friend in the life to come?
An escort is the traveller's good friend, the mother in the home, a comrade when help is needed and meritorious deeds in the life to come.

[54] 4. Basis and support (vatthusutta). What is a man's basis and support, who is his best comrade, what spirits sustain life for the earth bound,
Children are a man's basis and support, the wife is the best comrade, and the rain gods sustain life for the earth bound.

[55] 5. On birth, the first (patamajanasutta). What gives birth to a man, what is that which runs to and fro, what is life's endless round, what is the great fear?
It is craving that causes birth, it is the mind that runs to and fro, the endless round is samsāra, suffering is the greatest dread.

[56] 6. On birth, the second (dutiyajanasutta). [This is the same as the previous sutta].

[57] 7. On birth, the third (tatiyajanasutta). [This is the same as the previous sutta].

[58] 8. The Wrong Road (uppathasutta). Which road leads astray, perishes night and day, what stains celibacy and what is bathing without water?
Lust is the road that leads astray, life is that which perishes day and night, it is woman that stains celibacy, and all mankind is steeped in that stain.

[59] 9. The Second (dutiyasutta). What has man as his second, what is that issues him commands, what if greatly loved will rid mortals of all misery?
Faith is man's second, wisdom is that which issues commands, and Nibbāna if they love it utterly will rid mortals of misery.

[60] 10. The Poet (kavisutta). What is the source of poetry, what issues from that source, from what pegs are verses hung, and where do verses dwell.
Metre is the source of poetry, letters come from that source, verses are hung on the names of things, and the Poet is where they dwell.

### 7. Addha(Anva)vagga – Section on The Meaning

[61] 1. The Name (nāmasutta). What overrides everything, what overcome all other, what single thing brings others under its sway>
Name is that which overrides everything, and bring all under its sway.

[62] 2. The Mind (cittasutta). What leads the world, what destroys itself, what is the one thing, what sways everything?
The mind leads the world, the mind destroyes itself, the mind is the one thing that sways all other

[63] 3. Craving (taṇhāsutt). [Same as previous sutta with 'craving' replacing 'mind'.]

[64] 4. The Chain (saṃyojanasutta). What chains the world, what goes over and through it, and abandoning what is the goal reached?
Pleasure enchains the world, thinking makes it go over, by abandoning craving is Nibbāna won.

[65] 5. The Bond (bhandanasutta). [Same as previous sutta with 'bond (bandana)' replacing 'chain (saṃyogjana)').]

[66] 6. Persecuted (attahatasutta). What persecutes the world, shrouded and beset, assailed by pestering desires? By Death is the world enslaved, by the dart of craving is it pierced.

[67] 7. Strung up (uḍḍitasutta). By what is the world strung up, by what its it escorted, by what it is enclosed. It is strung up by the cords of craving, age and decay escorts it, and Death encloses the world.

[68] 8. Shut in (pihitasutta). [Same as previous sutta in a different order.]

[69] 9. Wishes (ichāsutta). What holds the world prisoner, how can liberty be won, how can the bond be severed utterly? Wishes hold the world prisoner, suppressing them gains liberty, abandoning them gains liberty.

[70] 10. The world (lokasutta). What comes all to pass in the world, what holds it intercourse, on what does it depend and because of what is it oppressed? The answer to all these are the six organs of sense.

### 8. Chetvāagga – Section on the Cutting Off

[71] 1. The Cutting Off Sutta (chetvāsutta). The Deva said: "To live happy, to weep no more what must we slay? Which kind of slaying do you approve the most, O Gotama". The Buddha replied: "Wrath must we slay to live happy and weep no more; Anger is the slaying the Ariyans most praise".

[72] 2. The Chariot (rathasutta). "What is a chariots' sign, what warns of fire, what signifies a realm and what is the emblem of a woman?. The Buddha: "The banner is a chariot's sign, smoke is sign of fire, the King signifies a realm and the husband is the emblem of a woman".

[73] 3. Riches (vittasutta). Deva: "What is a man's best wealth, what deeds brings the most happiness, what tastes the most sweet, what is the best to live by?".  Buddha: "Faith is a man's best wealth, right deeds bring happiness, truth tastes the sweetest and living by wisdom is the best".

[74] 4. Rain (vuṭṭhisutta). A deva asked: "Which of things springing up is the best, which of things that fall is best, and which creature is the best?" Another deva replied: "Seeds springing up, rain of things falling, and kine of all creatures is the best". The Buddha said: "Knowledge of things springing up, ignorance of things falling down, the Sangha of all creatures is the best".

[75] 5. Fear (bhītāsutta). Deva: "While the Path has been laid out many fear; I ask Gotama how can a man so stand as not to fear of his next life after death?" Buddha: "Rightly set in speech and mind, avoiding bodily evil, if well provided having faith, and being gentle and sharing one's goods. These four take away fear of the life beyond.".

[76] 6. (najīrtisutta). A deva asked: "What doth decay and what not decay, which road leads astray, what bars the way to good doctrines, what perishes day and night, what stains the celibate life, what is bathing where no waters be?". The Buddha replied: "The body decays, name and family stay not long, lust leads astray, greed bars the way to good doctrines, life perishes night and day, woman stains celibacy. Turn away from sloth, slackness, inertia, lack of self-control, drowsiness and laziness".

[77] 7. Lordship (issariyhasutta). Deva: "What makes a Lord, what is the chief commodity, what can tarnish the blade, who makes hell on earth?". Buddha: "Power of command makes lordship, woman is the chief commodity, anger is the rust on the blade, robbers make hell on earth".

[78] 8. Seeking (kāmasutta). What should a man seeking his good not give, what should none surrender, what that is gentle should be given and what that is rough should not be given?". Seeking good oneself should not be given, none of oneself should he given, gentle speech should be given and the bad and the rough not given".

[79] 9. Provisions (pāteyyasutta). What packs provisions for the way, what attracts riches, what drags a man about. Faith packs the provisions, luck draws riches, desires drag a a man about.

[80] 10. Radiance (pajjotasutta). What gives radiance, who is the watcher, who is the work mate, what feeds the slack and the vigorous, what sustains life? Wisdom gives radiance, mindfulness is the watcher, oxen are he work mates, the rain feeds all and sustains life.

[81] 11. Undefiled (araṇasutta), Who is undefiled, whose life not wrecked, who understands earthly desires, who is freed for ever, who receives homage from father, mother, and those of the highest caste? The answer to all these is the recluse (samana).

## 1. Kassapavagga (Section on Kassapa)

[82] 1. Kassapa 1 (patamakassapa) . The devaputta Kassapa approached the Buddha and said: "The Exalted One has given us the Bhikkhu and told how to train oneself as a recluse, in solitude to control the mind's unrest". The Buddha approved and Kassapa left.

[83] 2. Kassapa 2 (dutiyakassapa) . Kassapa came again and said: "The Bhikkhu should meditate to free his mind, win his heart's desire, knowing that everything is a flux earn his reward".

[84] 3. Māgha (māghasutta) . This devaputta asked: "What must we kill to lie happy and weep no more?". The Buddha: "Wrath is what you should kill it is the slaughter that the Ariyans praise".

[85] 4. Māgadha (māgadhasutta) . This devaputta asked: "How many things light up the world?". Buddha: "Sun shines by day, moon by night, fire at all times, and the Buddha enlightens beyond compare".

[86] 5. Dāmali (dāmalisutta) . This devaputta said: "What diligent effort has the Arahant to make who has controlled sense desires?" Buddha: "There is nothing left when the Arahant had done his work, found his footing and destroyed the intoxicants. He has conquered death and rebirth".

[87] 6. Kāmada (kāmadasutta) . This devaputta said: "It is hard, very hard, the serene content, the composing the mind, following the rough path". The Buddha: "It is indeed hard but it is done (by the Arahant). Serene content and joy comes to him on the homeless life with the moral code, the heart gets contented and composed, and for the Ariyan the path is not rough but even".

[88] 7. Pancālacanda (Pancālacandasuta) . This devaputta said: "Even wit obstacles the wise sage who understands Jhāna knows how to make room". The Buddha said that those with mindfulness and self-control have understood the Norm which leads to Nibbāna.

[89] 8. Tāyana (Tāyanasutta) . This devaputta said: "Monk, give up sense desire; proceed with energy otherwise you will only sprinkle dust; not done is better than ill done; do not misuse the calling of the recluse, else you will enter hell". The devaputta then then left and later the Buddha commended the devaputta's advice to the monks.

[90] 9. Chandima (chandimasutta) . When the devaputta Chandima was seized by Rahu the Assura he called on the Buddha for help. The Buddha obliged by asking Rahu to release Chandima which he did,

[91] 10. Suriya (suriyaytta) . Next Rahu seized devaputtta Suriya, and again the Buddha was invoked for help and he got Rahu to release Suriya.

## 2. Anāthapiṇḍikavagga (section on Anāthapiṇḍikavagga

[92] 1. Candimasa (candimasasutta) . This devaputta spoke thus: "He who contemplates Jhāna with single mind go their way like deer in a mosquito\to-free marsh. Corruption free they will reach the far shore like a captured fish breaking the net.

[93] 2. Vishnu (vishnusutta) . This devaputta Vishnu spoke thus: "Happy are those who enter Gotama's rule; they train in earnest in deep thought". The Buddha said: "In all that I have preached to them they will in time escape the power of death".

[94] 3. Dīghalaṛṛhi (Dīghalaṛṛhisutta) . This devaputta said: "The monk who meditates in Jhāna yearning for his desire, knowing the flux and ebbwill be rewarded and repaid".

[95] 4. Nandana (nandanasutta) . This devaputta said: "I ask Gotama what kind of man possesses virtue, wisdom, lives beyond all sorrow and is worshipped by devas?" The Buddha replied: "That is the kind of man who is is wise, virtuous, cultivated, in mind, intent, given to Jhāna, mindful, who has driven away misery, destroyed the intoxicants, and is in his last body".

[96] 5. Candana (chandanasutta) . This devaputta said: "One may cross the flood, with ceaseless effort, standing and hanging on naught, when the alternative is to drown". The Buddha said: "He who is of virtuous habit, who wins the mystic rapture, sirs up effort with all his strength, he can cross the flood so hard to pass. In whom craving, rebirth are smitten down, he will not drown in the deep".

[97] 6. Vāsudatta (vāsudattasutta) . This devaputta said: "Like one under an overhanging sword, whose hair and turban are on fire let the monk go forth all worldly passions left behind". The Buddha added: "Let him go leaving behind the soul fallacy".

[98] 7. Subrahma (subrahmasutta) . This devaputta said: "My heart is filled with dismay and my mind with anguish for things I wished but did not happen and thing that I did not want that happened. Tell me how I can be rid of this dismay". The Buddha answered: "Except by wisdom, by austerity, by restraint of powers and faculties, renouncing, by forsaking all, I see no safety for living. things".

[99] 8. Kakudah (kakudasutta ) . Answering questions put by this devaputta the Buddha said that he was neither pleased nor sad, that he was not depressed yet no pleasure arises, that though sitting lonely is overwhelmed by spirit. The Buddha then said: "Pleasure may come to one who is sad, but this may again be followed by sadness. He who leaves the world feels neither pleasure nor sadness".

[100] 9. Uttara (uttarasutta) . This devaputta said: "Life is led to its doom, there is no shelter from decay, there is fear of death. Let one act to bring merit". The Buddha corrected the last line to: "Let on aspire after final Peace".

[101] 10. Anāthapiṇḍika (anāthapiṇḍika sutta) . The verse recited by this devaputta is the same as that in the Jetavanasutta in the Deva Samyutta (section [48]) praising the Jeta Grove. After this devaputta leaves he is identified by Ananda and confirmed by the Buddha that he is the donor of the Jeta Grove Anathapiṇḍika now reborn in the deva world.

## 3. Nānātitthiyavagga (Section on Various Sects)

[102] 1. Siva (sivasutta) . The stanza spoken by this devaputta is that spoken by the Satullapakāyika deva in the Deva Samyutta (see Sabbhisutta Section [31] in this Samyutta) beginning "With good men should you consort...". The Buddha replied that associating with good men "from all and every ill may set us free".

[103] 2. Khema (khemasutta) . This devaputta said to the Buddha: "The foolish and those indiscreet treat their self as their enemy practicing evil deeds. They (will) bear fruit in the darkest hell. A deed not well done bring sorrow, but one well done brings cheer. A carter leaving the highway into a rough road may come to trouble with the axle broken, so too if one forsakes the right an follows the wrong will come to death's door his axle broken. ". Then he vanished.

[104] 3. Serī (serīsutta) . This devaputta started his talk by recalling the words of the Buddha: "It is food that both gods and men desire; he who gives food in faith benefits in this world and the next." He then said that formerly he had been a generous king. Of his revenues he took only a half the rest were given to brahmins, recluses, paupers, cripples, travellers and beggars. He concluded by repeating the aforementioned words of the Buddha,

[105] 4. Ghāṭikāra (Ghaṭikārasutta) . This is the same as Ghāṭikāra sutta in the Deva Samyutta (section [10]) and could be seen there.

[106] 5. Jantu (jantusutta) . A group of monks living in the Himalayas had become muddled in mind, vain, noisy, and uncontrolled in faculties. Then the devaputta Jantu came to their presence and said: "Bhikkhus of yore, true disciples of Gotama, were unhankering, frugal and understanding impermanence made an end of misery. Now some have become evil-doers themselves, longing for what their neighbour has and eating uncontrolled. The Order as a whole I greet but some leaderless are like cast-out dead bodies.

[107] 6. Rohitassa (rohitassasutta) . This sutta is discussed in the Internet article The world within and the world without, which see.

[108] 7. Nanda (nandasutta) . This is the same as the Nandasutta in the Deva Samyutta (S1, 1, 4), and could be seen there

[109] 8. Nandivisala (nandivisalasutta) . This is the same as the Sutta (S 1, 3, 9), and could be seen there.

[110] 9. Susima (susimasutta) . The devaputta Susima with a large company of devas came to the Buddha presence when Ananda was praising Sāriputta. Then Susima also joined in this praise. The Buddha approved of the praise given to Sāriputta by all present.
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[111] 10. Nānātitthiyasāvaka (nānātitthiyasāvakasutta) . In this sutta disciples of various "heretical" teachers had become devaputtas and came to see the Buddha. Their talk went as follows:
• Asma on Purana-Kassapa. Kassapa says that there is no demerit on killing or ruining another, nor is there merit in doing good.
• Sahali on Makkhali-Gosāla. Makkhali through severe austerities has perfected himself and will commit no evil.
• Ninka on Nigaṇṭa Nāṭaputta. Austere and wise he restrains injury on beings, reveals what he has seen and heard, what fault can be found in him.?
• Aṭoka on different teachers. Pakudha Kātiyāna, Nigaṇṭha, Makkhali, and Purana are distinguished teachers, they are not distant from saintly men.
• Veṭambari said: "An ascetic who goes naked, is a liar who suspects all bears no resemblance to the good.
• Māra then said: "These are mortals who set careful rules and austerities, whose hearts are set on attaining the deva world, these teachers surely give good advice to men.
• The Buddha said: You Māra sings the praise (of these teachers) as bait to fish cast for a deadly purpose.
• Māṇava-Gāmiya said: Like the highest mountain in the Himalaya, like the Sun traversing space, like the ocean amongst all waters and the moon amongst all stars so the Buddha is supreme in the world with all its gods.

## 3. Kosalasaṃyutta – Chapter on Kosala \$

### 1. Pathamavagga (First Section

[112] 1. Young Ones (Daharasutta) . Once at Sāvatthi King Pasanedi of Kosala asked the Buddha: "Does master Gotama also make no claim to be perfectly and supremely enlightened ?' The Buddha said that if anyone can make such a claim it is him. The King said that he has asked other teachers of the day the same question (and they presumably made no such claim). The King said that they were elder while the Buddha was younger. The Buddha said that four things should not be disregarded because of youth, these being a noble prince, a snake, a fire and a Bhikkhu. The Buddha would come under the last category.

[113] 2. Man (Purisasutta) . To Pasanedi's question how many inward things arise for a man's bane and discomfort the Buhha said that there were three: greed, hate an delusion (lobha, dosa, moha).

[114] 3. Decay and Death (Jarāmaraṇasutta) . The King asked if there was anything that a person could live without. The Buddha said that no one could avoid decay and death.

[115] 4. The dear ones (Piyasutta) . The King said that while meditating he reflected to whom was the self a dear friend and to whom was it a hateful enemy. He thought that it was dear to one who did good and for an evil person it was hateful. The Buddha confirmed this thinking of the King.

[116] 5. Guarding oneself (Attarakkhitasutta) . The King said he meditated on who are they by whom the self is guarded and who does not guard the self. He concluded that those who are good in deed word and thought has the self well is guarded while the opposite is the case person for those who are evil in deed, word and thought. The Buddha agreed.

[117] 6. Few (Appakasutta) . Here the King relates another idea that occurred to him during meditation. He thought that there were only a few who after accumulating great wealth did not become intoxicated thereby, but a great many did the opposite. This was confirmed by the Budddha.

[118] 7. In the court of Judgement (Aḍḍakaraṇasutta) . The King said that while sitting in judgement he noted that eminent nobles and brahmins told lies in connection with their worldly desires. The Buddha said that those who told such lies will after a long time get bitter fruit as their due.

[119] 8. Mallikā (Mallikāsutta) . The King said he once asked his queen Mallikā if there was anything more dear to her than the soul. She said "No" and the king said it was also the same with him. The King reported this to the Buddha and the Buddha said that if the soul was so dear let the soul-lover harm no one.

[120] 9. Sacrifice (Yaññasutta) . A huge sacrifice of animals was being prepared for the King and bhikkhus on their alms round saw this. They reported it to the Buddha was said: "This kind of sacrifice of animals does not bring good results. But rites with no fuss, no killing such as the rites of noble seers these bring great results and the celebrant is blest not cursed".

[121] 10. Shackles (Bhandanasutta) . Once King Pasanedi had many prisoners bound with ropes and chains. The monks reported this to the Buddha who said: "It is not shackles of iron or rope that bind those who are infatuated with self, wealth, family and children. It is those who renounce the world who cut off these shackles".

### 2. Dutiyavagga (Second Section

[122] 1. Matted Hair Ascetics (Sattajaṭilasutta) . Once when the Buddha was with King Pasanedi they observed passing by seven each of matted hair ascetics, Nigaṇṭas, unclothed ascetics, single garment ascetics and wanderers. The Kiing wanted to know if they were Arahants or on the path to Arhantship. The Buddha said that it was difficult for a worldy person like the King to understand this. It takes long association with a person to judge his moral character and wisdom and that too if one is not heedless, intelligent and have insight. This answer pleased the King.

[123] 2. The Five Kings (Pañcarājasutta) . Once King Pasanedi was in discussion with four other Kings. The question arose as to what was the highest sense pleasure. One said it was sight, the other hearing and so on. They decided to consult the Buddha, who said: "The highest pleasure is the limit point (paripuṇṇasaṅkappa) of anyone's enjoyment. For one it could be sight, for another it could be hearing and so on". Then a lay supporter Candanagalika praised the Buddha for his wisdom whereupon the five kings wrapped their robes around this supporter who in turn wrapped them around the Buddha.

[124] 3. Overeating (Doṇaākasutta) . Once the King Pasenadi ate a heavy mean and puffed up, replete and breathing heavily he went to see the Buddha. The Buddha noting his condition preached that those who are mindful of how much they eat live long. The king then called his attendant to learn this verse and recite it when he served food. Later he imposed a limit on the food served and when he improved physically said that the Buddha showed compassion to him in this world and the next.

[125] 4. First war comment (Paṭhamasaṅgāmasutta) . Once King Ajātasattu of Maghada attacked Kāsi in the Kosalan territory and a war ensured between him and Pasenadi King of Kosala. Pasenadi was defeated and he went back to his capital in misery. This news was conveyed to the Buddha who said: "Conquest leads to hate and the defeated live in misery. But who has abandoned conquest and defeat lives at peace and is passionless:.

[126] 5. Second war comment (Dutiyasaṅgāmasuttasutta) . Later war again erupted between Magadha and Kosala and this time Pasanedi not only won but captured the Magadhan King Ajātasattu, Pasanedit confiscated the defeated army but let the King go free. The Buddha commented: "A man who spoils is spoiled in turn" (meaning that the Magadhan King was the aggressor but was defeated).

[127] 6. Mallikā's baby daughter (sutta) . Once when Pasanedi was visiting the Buddha the news came to him that his Queen Mallikā had given birth to a daughter. The king was disappointed (as he expected a son). Then the Buddha said: "A woman child may prove even a better than a male offspring for she may grow up wise and virtuous and bear a son who may rule great realms and becomes his country's guide".

[128] 7. Diligence Appamādasutta) . Once King Pasenadi asked the Buddha: "What is the one quality that leads to welfare in this world and the next?". The Buddha answered it is diligence.

[129] 8. Noble Friendship (Kalyānamittasutta) . Once King Pasenadi told the Buddha: "When I was meditating it occurred to me that it is well if the Dhamma is proclaimed it should be to one who is a friend, an intimate or to an associate of what is righteous, not of what is wicked". The Buddha agreed with this and remarked that Ananda had once said that half of the religious life consists of righteous friendship but he had corrected Ananda saying that "the whole of the religious life consists of righteous friendship".

[130] 9. Without child 1 (Aputtakasutta pathama) . once the King Pasenadi related the story of a miser who was a rich man but ate poorly, dressed poorly and had a a poor vehicle. He died and as he had no son or heir so his property passed on to the King. Then the Buddha said: "if a man accumulates much wealth but he does not spend it on himself, his family, his fiends, his servants and workmen, his colleagues and does not support ascetics and recluses then his wealth is taken by robbers, confiscated by the king, burnt by fire and otherwise not rightly used. It is like a clear lake in a waste land. But if his wealth wisely used for the enjoyment of himself, his family, friends, given to beggars, recluses and brahmins then it is wisely used. It is like a lake in a populous areas which is useful to people".

[131] 10. Without child 2 (Aputtakasutta dutiya) . Here a different response is given by the Buddha to be story of the miser given in the previous sutta. Here the wealthy person had in a former birth listened to the advice of a Silent Buddha and given alms to recluses but later regretted what he had done and even killed his nephew because of his wealth. As a result of his charity which he had good births in heaven and even in here in Sāvatthi, but because of his regret at what he had done he went to purgatory and is still there.

### 3. Tatiyavagga (Third Section

[132] 1. Persons (sutta) . Once the Buddha preached thus to the King Pasanedi: There are four classes of persons, to wit:-
1. A person who goes from darkness to darkness. Here the person is born to a low caste, is deformed and ugly, receives no good food, clothing or conveyances and is a ill-doer in word, deed and thought. After death he is born to similar evil condition proceeding from darkness to darkness.
2. A person who goes from darkness to light. Here the person is born to the same evil conditions as the former but does good in word, deed and thought,. After death he is born in a happy destination.
3. A person who goes from light to darkness. here a person is born to happy circumstances but does bad things in word, deed and thought. As a result he is born to an evil destination.
4. A person who goes from light to light. Here the person is born to good circumstances as in the former case but he does good in word, deed and thought. As a result he continues to be reborn in good circumstances.

[133] 2. Grandmother (Ayyikāsutta) . Once King Pasenadi came early to the Buddha and said: "My beloved Grandmother who was dear to ne has died at the age of 120. I would have given my elephant or my priceless horse or a village or province to save her life. All beings are mortal and finish with death". The Buddha replied: "That is well said. All creatures have to die. Life is but death. All shall fare according to their deeds finding the fruit of merit and misdeeds".

[134] 3. The World (Lokasutta) . Once King Pasenadi asked the Buddha: "How many kinds of things that happen in the world, make for trouble, for suffering, for distress ?". The Buddha said: "Three such things happen of that nature: Greed, hate, and delusion".

[135] 4. Archery (Issattasutta) . Once King Pasenadi asked the Buddha: "To whom should gifts be given?". The Buddha said: "A gift bears much fruitful result if given to a virtuous person, not to a vicious person" and then asked the King a counter question: "If you were choosing soldiers for your army would you select an untrained person?" The King said "No" and said that the caste of the person would not matter if he were properly trained. The Buddha then said that a person of whatever caste is worthy of a gift if he had gone forth from the home life to the homeless life and has the five qualities of morality, concentration, insight, emancipation, and knowledge-and-vision .

[136] 5. Parable of the Mountain (Pabbatūpamasutta) . King Pasanedi came and told the Buddha that he had been busy with matters of state. Then the Buddha asked him: "Suppose messengers came from the four direction of your kingdom and said that in each direction a large mountain was rolling on crushing people in its path what would you do?". The King said "In such a peril rebirth as man being hard to achieve I will live righteously and do meritorious deeds". The Buddha said "I tell you old age and death are rolling on you, what would you do?". The King said: "What else is there to do other than live righteously and do meritorious deeds". The Buddha said: "Even so, even so".

## 4. Mārasaṃyutta – Chapter Māra

### 1. Pathamavagga (First Section

[N.B. In these suttas a statement (or thought) of the Buddha is preceded by {B:} and a statement (or thought) of Māra is preceded by {M:}. These statements are made in verse but abstracted here in prose.]

### 1. Pathamavagga (First Section)

[137] 1. Penance and Work (Tapokammasutta) . At Uruvelā soon after the Buddha's Enlightenment.
{B:} I am indeed free from that toil so hard to achieve! I have arrived at enlightenment !
{M:} Sons of men abandon your penitential rites and fancy they are pure having strayed from your path.
{B:} Austere rites are useless for our good. Morals, concentration and insights are the Path to Enlightenment.

[138] 2. The King Elephant (Hatthirājasutta) . Māra turned himself into a fierce king elephant to frighten the Buddha.
{B:} Long have to you taken shapes foul or comely for others to see. Confess you are unmasked. (Māra vanishes)

[139] 3. On the Comely (Subhasutta) . Māra takes various wondrous (uccannacā vaṇṇanibhā) shapes to frighten the Buddha.
{B:} Enough of this you are exposed, you Evil One. They who are controlled in deed, word and thought will not be your pupils or subjects. (Māra vanishes)

[140] 4. The trap 1 (Mārapāsasutta 1) . At Benares in the deer park.
{B:} Bhikkhus, it is by systamatic thought and right effort that I won emancipation.
{M:} You are still bound by traps celestial and terrestrial laid by me. You have not won freedom yet.
{B:} I am free of your bonds, Māra. Confess your defeat. (Māra vanishes)

[141] 5. The trap 2 (Mārapāsasutta 2) . At Benares in the deer park.
{B:} Bhikkhus, like me you too should be free of Māra's traps. Roam proclaiming the Dhamma.
{M:} You are still bound by my traps, traps of delight bother here and celestial.
{B:} I am free of your bonds, Māra. Confess your defeat. (Māra vanishes)

[142] 6. The Snake (Sappasutta) . At Rajagaha Veluvana. Māra takes the shape of a King Cobra.
{B:} The self-restrained sage living in loneliness fears not wild creatures, snakes and gadflies, even fierce winds. I am free of your bonds, Māra. Confess your defeat. (Māra vanishes)

[143] Sleep 7. (Supatisutta) . At Rajagaha Veluvana. Buddha has retired to sleep.
{M:} What! dost thou sleep like a worthless hireling? Do you think the house is empty? What! when the sun rises would you still sleep?
{B:} When craving is gone, when every base of rebirth is abolished, the man of intellect, thus wakened, sleeps. (Māra vanishes)

[144] 8. Gladness (Nandatisutta) . At Sāvatthi in Jetavana.
{M:} Parents rejoice in sons, the herdsman in his cows, gladness rises through life's renewal, not its decline.
{B:} Parents of sons also mourn as does the herdsman. Mourning arises through life renewed, and saddened at life's decline.

[145] 9. Human Life 1 (Āyusutta 1) . At Rajagaha Veluvana.
{B:} Bhikkhus, brief is life at most a hundred years. But it has a sequel elsewhere. Do good and live the holy life.
{M:} Long is the life of men on earth. Good men should not undertake trouble. Death does not come presently.
{B:} Brief is the time on earth. Good men should act as if one's turban is on fire. There is no man to whom death does not come.

[146] 10. Human Life 2(Āyusutta 2) .At Rajagaha Veluvana.
{M:} Day follows night unceasingly. Life does not break up and come to naught; it turns like the wheel on the axle.
{B:} Day follows night unceasingly. Life does break up and come to naught like water in small streams that dry up. (Māra vanishes).

### 2. Dutiyavagga (Second Section)

[147] 1. The Rock (Pāsāṇasutta) . In Rajagaha at Gijjakuta. Māra sends down rocks to frighten the Buddha.
{B:} Māra, even if you shake this Gijjakuta mountain Buddhas who are at perfect liberty will stand still. (Māra vanishes)

[148] 2. The Lion (Kinnusīhasutta). At Sāvatthi in Jetavana.
{M:} You roar like a lion before your congregation, but here stands a wrestler you have not overthrown.
{B:} Great heroes are confident before their hearers, The Tathagata has the tenfold power and crossed the flood where others are stuck fast. (Māra vanishes).

[149] 3. The splinter (Sakalikasutta) .In Rajagaha at the Maddakucci deer-park. The Buddha was injured by a splinter and was in great pain.
{M:} Are you mentally dull and vacuous? Is there no tasks awaiting thee that you slumber with a sleepy face?
{B:} I am not mentally dull and vacuous. My aim is won. Men wounded do sleep, why not I with dart pierced? I sleep with love for all things. (Māra vanishes).

[150] 4. Suitable (Patirūpasutta) . In Kosala at Ekasāla Brahmin village the Buddha was teaching Dhamma to a large number of lay persons.
{M:} It is not suitable for you to teach lest you are left hanging between the zeal of the supporters and the anger of the opponents.
{B:} Love and compassion does one enlightened feel when he teaches another. The Tathagata is freed from both the supporters zeal and the opponent's anger. (Māra vanishes).

[151] 5. Sense pleasure (Mānasasutta) . The Buddha is ar Sāvatthi in the Jetavana.
{M:} Talk of sense pleasure is a trap; I can chain you so that you may not escape.
{B:} I have given up pleasure from sight, sound, taste, smell and touch. You are defeated yet again. (Māra vanishes)

[152] 6. The Bowl (Pattasutta) . Once in Savatthi the Buddha was instructing the bhikkhus on the Five Aggregates while a set of bowls had been set out to dry. Māra seeking to disrupt the Buddha assumed the shape of a bull came towards the bowls. The monks thought that it was a real bull who will break the bowls but the Buddha said that it was only Māra.
{B:} This body is not an 'I' or 'mine' but a set of aggregates. When anyone is at peace the hosts of Māra will not find him. (Then Māra knew he was seen and vanished.)

[153] 7. Sphere of Sense (Chaphassāyatanasutta) . Once the Buddha was staying at Vesāli in the Gabled House in the Great Wood instructing the bhikkhus on the six spheres of contact. Then Māra approached and made a great noise which the monks took to be the earth splitting. The Buddha said it was Māra and uttered in verse:
{B:} Sounds and the five others are the baits that deceive the world. Bhikkhus with heedful minds pass beyond Māra's mighty range, (The Māra vanished sorrowfully).

[154] 8. Alms (piṇḍasutta) . Once the Buddha was staying at the Magadese village of Pañcasālā during the Youth Festival. Then he set out for alms. But Māra frightened the householders not to give alms and the Buddha returned with bowl empty.
{M:} Has't thou got alms today?
{B:} Thou has seen to it that I get none.
{M:} Enter the village again and I will see that you get alms.
{B:} In the bliss we live, owning nothing, we live on rapture (pītibhakkhā bhavissāma) like gods self-luminous in Radiant sphere. (Then Māra vanished defeated.).

[155] 9. The Ploughman (Kassakasutta) . Once when the Buddha was discoursing to the monks on Nibbāna when Māra came in the guise of a farmer carrying a plough.
{M:} Recluse, have you seen my oxen?
{B:} What, Evil One, have you to do with oxen?
{M:} Mine only are the objects of sense and their field of consciousness, where will you go to escape from me?
{B:} But where there are no objects of sense there is no way for you.
{M:} But people say 'This is mine' and 'That is mine'. If you care for them you have no way to escape.
{B:} Those things the people speak of are not for me. None of them are an 'I'. Learn this, Evil One, you will not see even the way I go. (Then Mara vanished there and then.)

[156] 10. Governance (Rajjasutta) The Buddha was once in the Himalayan region meditating in a leaf-hut. Then the thought occurred to him: 'Can one govern without killing, conquering, making sorrow or letting others do so'. Māra divined this,
{M:} Let Gotama exercise governance, let him rule without killing, conquering; and sorrowing others. Let the Blessed One rule righteously.
{B:} Why do you speak like this?
{M:} The four stages to potency has Gotama developed, repeatedly practised, made a vehicle, established, persevered in, persisted in, well applied. If he wishes that the Himalaya to be gold, he might determine it to be so.
{B:} Even twice that gold will not suffice one who wants. We should live accordingly. Should he who has seen suffering and its source incline to sense-desires? If he understands what holds the world bound fast he will work to eliminate them. (Māra vanished knowing that the Buddha knows him).

### 3. Tatiyavagga (Third Section)

[157] 1. Very Many Sambahulasutta) . Once the Buddha was staying with Sākyans at Silāvati with many monks. Then Māra assuming the guise of an aged Brahmin approached the monks:
{M: (to monks)} You are young. Why do you want to give up current pleasure for distant things.
{Monks:} The Buddha has shown that natural desires are full of sorrow; he has shown the way to end sorrow. (Mara departs and monks tell the Buddha what happened.)
{B:} Bhikkhus, that was no Brahmin; it was Māra trying to darken your understanding. Should he who has seen suffering and its source incline to sense-desires? If he understands what holds the world bound fast he will work to eliminate them.

[158] 2. Samiddhi (Samiddhisutta) . When the Buddha was staying with Sākyans at Silāvati venerable Samiddhi was staying close by and he thought: "What a gain is to have a supreme Buddha as my Master, to join his order, and have noble fellow disciples". Māra divining this came near Samiddhi and made a great noise which Samiddhi thought was the earth splitting. He reported this to the Buddha who told him that it was Māra and advised him go back to the same place. Then Mara came again making the same noise but Samiddhi said: "I left my home and have learnt mindfulness and insight. Make whatever show you want but you cannot terrify me". Mara departed vanquished.

[159] 3. Godhika (Godhikasutta) . Once the Buddha was staying at Rajagaha in the Veluvana and venerable Godhika was staying at the Black Rock. Godhika reached emancipation of mind but soon fell back. This happened six times. His thoughts turned to suicide.
Māra discerned this and addressed the Buddha as if Godhika was speaking as follows: "Mighty hero your follower is thinking of death. You are the conqueror of death, how can your follower set a term to life who hath not attained the final goal?". Just then Godhika committed suicide.
Then the Buddha addressed Māra: "The strong in mind have no longing to live. Tearing out the root of craving Godhika has passed utterly away". Then the Buddha and the bhikkhus went to see Gothika lying dead. They then saw a murkiness roaming around and the Buddha that it was Māra looking for Godhika's consciousness. He could not find it and asked the Buddha where Gothika had gone.
The Buddha said that Gothika had torn out the root of craving defeated death and will not come again to birth,

[160] 4. Seven Years (Sattavassānubandanasutta) . This goes back to the Buddha's enlightenment at Uruvelā after seven years of struggle. In the conversation Māra recounts his failure to stop the Buddha from reaching enlightenment. He gives the analogy of children catching a crab living in a lotus pond and breaking all its claws so that it could not go into the water again. In his final statement Māra says: "we disgusted take our leave of Gotama".

[161] 5. Māra's daughters (Māradhītusutta) . This again is a throw back to the days of enlightenment at Uruvelā, Māra sends his three daughters to entice Gotama after all his other attempts to prevent Gotama's enlightenment had failed. The Three daughters are named Taṇhā (Craving), Arati (Discontent) and Ragā (Passion). This story is told in many other places in the Canon and the stanzas attributed to the daughters and to Gotama do not add anything new to the story. They are are accordingly not summarized in this Abstract. As the names of the daughters suggest they are not the names of real persons but personifications of tendencies that the Buddha had to defeat to win enlightenment.

## 5. Bhikkhunisaṃyutta – Chapter on Bhikkhunis

[162] 1. The Alavite (Āḷvikāsutta.) After her alms round in Sāvatthi and after her meal the Alavite Bhikkhni entered the Dark Wood. Then Māra to frighten her went to her and said: " Loneliness does not profit thee. Enjoy sense desires and love and not regret later". Knowing that it was Māra she said: "I have found insight to escape from the world. Sense pleasure wounds us; I have come to detest sense-desire and love. It is not for you, evil one, to know the way". Māra departed.

[163] 2. Somā (Somā sutta). As above Bhikkhuni Somā went to the Dark Wood and Māra approached her and said: "The ground the sages may attain is hard for a woman with her two-finger wit", Knowing that it was Māra Somā said: "Woman's nature does not matter when consciousness is set, knowledge comes, and the Norm is rightly comprehended. Māra is fit to talk only to one who thinks 'I am a woman' or 'I am a man' ". Māra vanishes.

[164] 3. Kisāgotaī (Kisāgotaīsutta). As above Bhikkhuni Gotami entered the Dark Wood and Māra approached her and said: "Are you sitting alone because you have lost your child. Have you come here in search of a man?". Gotami knew it was Māra and said: "Past is the lost child, past are men. I do not fear you, I have lost love for worldly joys, ignorance is rent asunder, and death defeated. I bide sane and immune". Māra vanished.

[165] 4. Vijayi (Vijayāsutta). Bhikkhuni Vijayi sat down under a tree for the noonday rest when Māra approached her and said: "You are a beautiful maid and I a young lad, shall we not listen to music and take our fill of joy". Knowing that this was Māra Vijayi said: "I leave sounds like things to you, Māra. This vile body causes distress and shame, craving for sense joys is rooted out. I do not care of being born in other worlds. From all this the darkness is dispelled". Then Māra vanished there and then.

[166] 5. Uppalavaṇṇa (Uppalavaṇṇasutta). Once Bhikkhuni Uppalavaṇṇa stood at the foot of a Sal treee when Māra approached her and said: "None can rival your beauty. Do not fear, foolish girl, the wiles of seducers". Knowing that it was Māra Uppalavaṇṇa replied: "A hundred thousand seducers will not frighten me. I can vanish and enter your body and you will not see me for consciousness is wholly self-controlled. I am free from all bonds, I do not fear you". Māra vanishes.

[167] 6. Cālā (Cālāsutta). Bhikkhuni Cālā was doing her noon rest under a tree when Māra approached her and said: "Why do you not take pleasure in (Re)birth because once born we enjoy pleasures of the senses. Who has put this into your mind?". Cālā said: "Once born we see life's ills, the bonds, torments and death. The Buddha has revealed the Norm how to go beyond the power of birth and put an end to ill. Those born in worlds or heavens know not how it will end and be born again." Māra left.

[168] 7. Upacālā (Upacālāsutta). Bhikkhuni Upacālā once sat under a tree for the noon-day rest. Then Māra asked here "Where do you wish to rise again?". She replied "Nowhere". Then Māra said: "Is there not the Three and Thirty gods and other gods?" She said: "They all come under Mara bound by bonds of sense desire. The world is on fire and the heavens quake. My heart abides in that which does not shake, where Mara cometh not, and which the ordinary man does not tread". Māra vanished.

[169] 8. Sīsupacāla (Sīsupacālasutta)
. One day Bhikkhuni Sīsupacāla sat under a tree for the noon-day rest. Then Māra approached her and said: "The sayings of which bald person do you approve; I do not approve of any such". Sīsupacāla said: "I do not believe those with vain doctrines, those who do not know the Norm. My Master is the Buddha, peerless among men, who has overcome all, who is totally freed and fearless and destroyed all kamma. I approve of his system". Then Māra departed.

[170] 9. Selā (Selāsutta). Bhikkhuni Selā was taking her noon-day rest when Māra approached her and said: "Where is the maker of the human puppet; where will this puppet cease and pass away? " The Bhikkhuni said: "The puppet is neither self-made nor made by anyone else; It arises out of causes and so will it die away. Like a seed germinating with moisture and soil so the five aggregates, and the six sense sphere arise by reason of a cause and will die away by the rupture of the cause". Then Māra went away.

[171] 10. Vajirā (Vajirāsutta). When Bhikkhuni Vajirā was taking her noon-day rest Māra approached her and said: "Who made this being, where is he. Whence rises a being and whence does he pass away?". Vajirā said: "Māra when you speak of a being you have strayed. This is a bundle of conditioned factors. When parts are rightly put together we think there is a chariot. When the aggregates are there we think there is a being. It is simply Ill that arises, Ill that ceases to be". Mara vanished.