Saṃyutta Nikāya Abstracts
Sagāthāvagga Saṅkhepa

6. Brahmasaṃyutta – Chapter on Brahmas

1. Paṭhamavagga – First Section

[172] 1. Brahma's Appeal ( Brahmāyācanasutta). Just after his Enlightenment the Buddha meditated thus: "This Dhamma which I have penetrated is deep, intelligible only to the wise. But people (pajā) are devoted to things, clings to them, delights in them, and does not understand that all is due to a cause. They do not understand the ending of actions, the destruction of craving, Cessation, and Nibbāna. So proclaiming Dhamma will only be vexatious to me". So he became inclined to not teaching the Dhamma.

Then Brahma Sahampati divining the thought of the Buddha appeared before him and said: "Let the Buddha teach the Dhamma. There are those with little dust in their eyes who are now perishing but who realising the Dhamma will be saved. You, seer of all, look down from the height of truth at the people sunk in grief, oppressed by age and death".

The Buddha then surveying the world with the Buddha Eye saw that this was so and decided to teach the Dhamma.

[173] 2. Holding in Reverence (Gāravasutta). At Uruvelā shortly after his Enlightenment the Buddha thought thus: "It is held that one should live under another recluse or Brahmin paying him reverence. But I do not see anyone in the world of men, gods, brahmas, or māras who is more accomplished in moral conduct than myself. I should only live under this Dhamma paying it honour and reverence". Divining this Brahma Sahampati appeared before the Buddha and said: "Just so, just so. In the past too Buddhas and Arahants lived only under the Dhamma".

[174] 3. Brahmdeva (Brahmadevasutta). Once when the Buddha was living at Sāvatthi in the Jetavana Brahmdeva the son of a Brahmin woman left the household life and joined the Buddha's Order. Through strenuous effort and meditation he became an Arahant fully enlightened. Then one day seeking alms in Sāvatthi he went house to house and in due course came to the house of his mother.

His mother was a devotee of Brahmā making oblations to him. Then Brahma Sahampati divining the situation appeared before the Brahmin woman and standing in the air said this to her: "Far away is Brahmā's world and Brahmā does not eat food like what you offer. But here is your son, gone beyond the gods who owns nothing and will not be born again. He is undefiled by evil, and worthy of offerings. Let him have the food you have prepared. In confidence give your gift and work merit for your future happiness". This the brahmin woman did when she beheld the sage who had crossed the flood.

[175] 4. Baka the Brahma (Bakabrahmasutta). Once there arose in the mind of Baka the Brahmā the evil idea that the Brahma-life is permanent and eternal. The Buddha discerning the thinking of Baka left the Jetvana and appeared before Baka who welcomed him. Then the following conversation ensued:

BAKA [Our life] is permanent and stable, eternal and absolute. There is no birth, decay, death, or further salvation.
BUDDHA    Good Baka is very ignorant saying that something impermanent is permanent, something unstable is stable, something from which one is bound to fall, admits not of decease. There is another salvation beyond this exists.
BAKA Due to our good kamma we rule the world with no birth and old age; many offer us prayer and praise.
BUDDHA Brief is this life deemed by thee so lengthy; awaiting for thee is a life lasting through countless ages.
BAKA What help brought me rites and good works. Do thou declare this so that I may learn it.
BUDDHA In the past you gave drink to the thirsty, you released the captives at Eṇikūla (Antelope Bay), saved people from the sinking vessel in the Ganges – these are some of your good works.
BAKA My life surely you understand, as of others since you are awakened. Your mighty glory sheds its radiance over the world of Brahmās

[176] 5. Another wrong view (Aññatarbrahmasutta). This wrong view occurred to a certain Brahmā: "No recluse or Brahmin can came here to the Brahmā-world". Then the Buddha discerning this instantly went from the Jetavana to the Brahmā-world and sat cross-legged in the air above that Brahmā. Then Mahā Mogallāna along with Mahā Kassapa, Mahā Kappina and Anuruddha too did the same.

Moggallāma questioned the Brāhmā on his view that recluses could not come to the Brahmā world and he recanted. The Buddha then left. Then the Brahmās questioned Mogallāna if others existed who were as gifted as those who had come to the Brahmā world. Moggallāna said that all Arahants had these powers.

[177] 6. The Brahmā World (Brahmalokasutta). Once when the Buddha was in meditation two "Silent" Brahmās (paccekabrahmā) Subrahmā and Suddhāvāsa came to see the Buddha but could not see him as he was in meditation. The two agreed that instead they should visit a Brahmaloka where dwells a Brahmā with great magical power. Then they went there. The two Pacceka Brahmas told the other Brahmā that they were coming from an unsuccessful attempt to see the Buddha and suggested that he too should visit the Buddha. Then this Brahmā reproduced himself a thousand times and asked why should he with such magic power go to see the Buddha. Then Subrahmā reproduced himself two thousand times and said: "The Buddha has greater magic power than the two of us put together. That is why you should go to see the Buddha.".

Then the Brahmā said in verse: "This my celestial domain (vimāna) shines with three Garuda birds, four swans and five tigers illuminating the Northern firmament". To this Subrahmā replied in verse: "Your vimāna may shine in the Northern sky, but the wise (the Buddha) considers such sights as intoxicants and do not take pleasure in them". Then Subrahmā and Suddhāvāsa vanished. At a later time the (magical) brahmā visited the Buddha.

[178] 7. The Kokhalikan (Kokālikasutta). On another occasion the same two pccekabrahmās visited the Buddha and Subrahma spoke in verse regarding the Kokhalikan monk (who had slandered Sāriputta and Mogallāna): "Who can determine and understand one for whom there is no standard to measure; the ordinary man is clogged and confused to limit that which cannot be limited".

[179] 8. Katamodakatissa (katamdakatissasutta). The same two pacceka brahmās came to the Buddha and recited the same verse this time regarding the Katamodakatisa monk.

[180] 9. The Turūbrahmā (Turūbrahmāsutta). Once when the Kokalika monk was gravely ill the Turū pacekabrahmā visited him. The Kokalika monk asked Turū why he had come to earth when the Buddha had declared him to be a non-returner. Ignoring this Turū launched into fierce attack on Kokalika. He said "Every man is born with a hatchet in his mouth but only a fool uses it to cut himself. The evil luck through which a man loses his wealth is but small when compared with that of one who becomes an enemy of the blessed saints on earth. He who utters abuse with wrong intent of Ariyans would spend a hundred thousand years and more in purgatory".

[181] 10. The Kokalikan (Kokalikasutta). Once the Kokalikan bhikkhu visited the Buddha and said: "Wicked in their desires are Sāriputta and Moggallāna. They are ruled by wicked desires". The Buddha said: "Do not say so. Put your trust in Sāriputta and Moggallāna. They are lovely". This exchange was repeated two more times. Then the Kokalikan bhikkhu left. Soon after his body became covered with pustules the size of mustard seeds. They gradually increased in size and discharged pus and blood. Then the Kokalikan bhikkhu died and was born in the Paduma Niraya (White Lotus hell). This news was conveyed to the Buddha by the Brahmā Sahampati. The Buddha relayed the news to the monks the next morning. When asked the Buddha said that the term of life in the Paduma hell lasts thousands of centuries. He then repeated the same verse that the Turū brahmā had recited in fhe previous sutta.

1. Dutiyavagga – Second Section

[182] 1. Sanaṅkumāra (Sanaṅkumārasutta). Once when the Buddha was near the Snake River the Brahmā Sanaṅkumāra came into his presence and recited in verse: "Just as Nobles (khattiyo) are the best for those who rank by breed and clan, so those accomplished in knowledge and conduct (vijjācaraṇasampanno) are first among gods and men. The Buddha approved and the Brahmā departed.

[183] 2. Devadatta (Devadattasutta). Once when the Buddha was staying at the Gijjakūta in Rajagaha shortly after Devadatta had left the order Brahmā Sampati came to his presence and recited: "As is the plantain, bamboo, and the rush, Each by the fruit it bears undone, So is the sinner by men's homage slain, As by her embryo is the mule".

[184] 3. Andakavinda (Andakavindasutta). Once when the Buddha was in Magadha at Andakavinda the Brahmā Sahampati came and recited in verse: "Seek lonely places to practice your bond-free life. If not dwell with the bhikkhus. Seek alms from clansmen. I have seen the brother sitting where snakes glide and where thunder and lightning break the night's blackness, rid of all fear. A thousand saints have abandoned death following the Dhamma and many more have entered the stream and will not be born as animals. I cannot count those who have accumulated merit".

[185] 4. Aruṇavatī (Aruṇavatīsutta). This is almost a Jātaka story set in the time of Buddha Sikhin when Gotama was a King named Aruṇavat. Sikhin with his chief disciple bhikkhu Abhibhu went to the Brahmāworld. There Buddha Sikhin asked venerable Abhibhu to give a religious talk to the Brahmās assembled. This he did but the Brahmās were not satisfied that a disciple should preach when the master was present. But Sikhin told Abibhu to continue to agitate the Brahmās. This he did making his body sometimes invisible sometimes not, sometimes partly visible. This astonished the Brahmās.  Then Abhibhu uttered a stanza heard in all the realms which proclaimed: "Bestir yourselves, rise up, renounce and come to the Buddha's rule. Free yourself from the king of death. If you live strenuously and earnestly within the Dhamma you will end rebirth, pain and suffering". Then Sikhin and Abhibhu left the Brahmā world. Sikhin then asked the bhikkhus if they heard Abhibhu's message which they said they had heard.

[186] 5. The Utter Passing Away (Parinibbānasutta). [N.B. This is a reproduction of the part of the Mahāparinibbāna Sutta given in the Dīgha Nikāya describing the last moments of the Buddha with some small changes. For this reason no Abstract will be given here.]

7. Brahmanasaṃyutta – Chapter on Bhrāmins

1. Section on Arahants

[187] 1. Dhanañjānī (Dhanañjānīsutta). The Buddha was in Rajagaha at the Veluvana. Then Dhanañjānī wife of the Brahmin Bhāradvāja was a believer in the Dhamma and when she was serving Bhāradvāja with his dinner exclaimed "Glory to the Buddha, the Dhamma and the Sangha". Then the Brahmin said: "At every opportunity this wretch speaks in praise of that shaveling monk. I will give that teacher a piece of my mind".

So Bhāradvāja visited the Buddha and asked: "What must we slay to be happy, to weep no more? What slaughter do you approve?". The Buddha replied "Wrath must we slay; and anger with its murderous climax. That is the slaughter that the Aryans approve". This convinced the Brahmin to go forth from the world and later he reached the supreme goal.

[188] 2. Reviling (Akkosasutta). Then Bhāradvāja the Reviler (akkosabhāradvāja) heard of Bhāradvāja joining the Buddha's order he went to the Buddha and abused him. Then the Buddha ascertained from the Reviler that he invited guests for whom he would prepared food, but if they did not accept the gift the food becomes his. The Buddha said that in like manner he does not accept abuse so it comes back to the Reviler. Then the Reviler said that people think that the Buddha is an Arahant, yet he shows wrath. To this the Buddha said: "Wrath does not arise for one who is of even tenor, is self-tamed and serene. The person who reviles when reviled is the worst of the two, but one who does not revile has a two-fold victory as he seeks good for both himself and the other whose angry mood is checked. He heals both himself and the other". This convinced the Reviler who became a follower of the Buddha and finally won Arhantship.

[189] 3. Asurinda (Asurindasutta). The Asurinda Bhāradvāja also heard of the conversion of the other Bhāravājas and went to the Buddha and abused him. But the Buddha remained silent. Then Asurinda said: "You have been conquered". But the Buddha replied: "It is only a fool who claims victory after rude speech. It is the one who forbears who is the real conqueror". Then the Buddha made the same remarks about reviling as in the previous sutta with the result that Asurinda became converted and later achieved arahantship.

[190] 4. The 'congey-man' (Bilaṅgikasutta). Another Bhāratvāja brahmin known for selling congey (bilaṅgika) came to abuse the Buddha but was also converted when the Buddha said: "Who wrongs an innocent man finds his wicked act returning on him like dust thrown against the wind". He too finally reaches the goal.

[191] 5.The harmless (Ahiṃsakasutta). A brahmin called Bhāravāja the Harmless came to the Buddha and said: "I am harmless and innocent". The Buddha said if as your name says you are not noxious in deed, word and thought then you will never harm another". This convinced him to join the Buddha's order and he too ultimately became an arahant.

[192] 6. Tangles (Jaṭāsutta). A brahmin known as Jaṭābhāradvāja visited the Buddha and asked him: "Who can overcome this tangle?". The Buddha replied: "He who is discreet and firmly planted in virtue" and continued with an exposition of Dhamma. This Bhāradvāja too was converted and ultimately reached his goal.

[193] 7. The Puritan (Suddhikasutta). A Brahmin knows as Bhāradvāja the Puritan came to the Buddha as a said: "Not by virtue or penance does a brahmin become pure; only by the Veda teaching is he pure". The Buddha said: "Not by muttering stanzas with no meaning does one become pure when one is defiled and deceitful. Whatever caste or outcaste one be only with effort and strength can he reach purity supreme".

[194] 8. The Fire-man (Aggikasutta). Once the brahmin known as the Bhāradvāja the Fire-man prepared a meal of ghee-rice wanting to make the fire sacrifice when the Buddha on his alms round came to his door. The Fire-man then told the Buddha: "My rice offering is only for one proficient in the Three Vedas; one pure and learned and knows the ritual". The Buddha made the reply he did to the Puritain [previous sutta] but Fire-man misunderstood this and asked the Buddha to accept his gift. But the Buddha said: "I do not accept gifts for chanting verses, the Buddhas reject such wages. But Brahmin you can offer the gift on other grounds to one who is purged of mental poisons, who is calm, at peace from all fret and worry. This is a field for the reward you seek". This converted this Bhāratvāja and he in due course became an Arahant.

[195] 9. The Sundarakayan (Sundarikasutta). Once the Buddha was seated on the banks of the Sundarikā river in Kosala with his head covered. Then the Brahmin known as the Sundarikayan had finished his fire-sacrifice and was looking for a person to give the remainder of the sacrifice when he saw the Buddha. When he came close the Buddha uncovered his head and the Sundarikayan noticed that he was shaven headed and wanted to turn back, but on second thought he stayed to converse as follows:
BRAHMIN What are your by birth?
BUDDHAAsk not of birth, but of conduct. The steadfast seer, though of low birth belongs to the highest intellect, all evil curbed, and tamed by the truth.
BRAHMINI have seen no master of wisdom like thee before. May it please the worshipful Gotama to eat my altar's leavings. You are a brahmin.
BUDDHANot mine to enjoy gifts for chanting verses.
BRAHMINThen to whom, Master Gotama, do I give this residual oblation ?
BUDDHANone but a Tathagata can digest it. So put it on bare ground or in the water.

The Brahmin then put the remaining oblation in the river but it seethed and hissed. The frightened Brahmin returned to the Buddha who said: "By mere wood-laying comes no purity. I lay no wood for fires on altars, only within burns the fire I kindle. I, Arahant, work out the life that 's holy. Thy altar's smoke is anger; thy false words are ashes". These words converted the Brahmin who in due course become one of the arahants.

[196] 10. Many Daughters (Bahudhḷtarasutta). Once a certain Brahmin of the Bhāradvāja clan lost 14 oxen in a forest. Searching for them he came across the Buddha in serene meditation. He uttered in verse: "This monk is a happy man because he has not lost 14 oxen, he has no grain crops to go bad, there is no empty barn infested with rats, no seven daughters all widows with one child, no debt collector comes in the morning, so he is a happy man". The Buddha replied: "I have lost no oxen, I do not have any barns, no creditor comes in the morning asking me to repay debts, so a happy man am I". When this was said this Bhāradvāja Brahmin developed faith in the Buddha and in due course became an Arahant.

1. Section on Lay Followers

[197] 1. Ploughing (Kasibhāradvājasutta). The Buddha was staying at Ekanāla a Brahmin village near Rajagaha. Once during sowing time the farmer Bhāradvāja was distributing food to the workers when the Buddha doing his alms round came and stood expecting alms. Then the farmer said: "I plough and sow and therefore I eat. Do you also do likewise". The Buddha said: "I too plough and sow and done so I eat". The farmer said: "I see neither plough nor oxen. How do you plough and sow?". Then the Buddha gave a celebrate verse: "Faith is the seed, rain the discipline, insight is the plough with yoke, conscience is the pole, sense-mind the tie, mindfulness the ploughshare. guarded action and speech the goad. My food is temperate, and I weed with truth, my release is acceptance. Whoever has done this ploughing is free from suffering and sorrow". This convinced the farmer and he sought acceptance as a lay follower of the Buddha.

[198] 2. Udaya (Udayasutta). Once in Sāvatthi the Buddha on his alms round came to the house of Udaya the Brahmin and his bowl was filled with rice. The second and third time too he did the same. Then Udaya exclaimed this monk is a greedy person he comes again and again. Then the Buddha said: "Again and again is the seed sown, the rain comes down, fields are ploughed, grain is brought to the country, beggars do their round, generous donors give, milk is drawn and men carry us to the grave. When an insightful person takes the path that brings no becoming he is one not born again and again". Udaya became a lay follower of Gotama.

[199] 3. Devahita (Devahitasutta). Once the Buddha fell ill with intestinal wind. Then he asked his attendant monk Upavāna to get him some hot water. Upavāna went to the house of Devahita who gave him the hot water and also some molasses. When these were administered to the Buddha his illness abated. Later Devahita visited the Buddha and asked if such donations were effective. The Buddha assured him that such gifts were effective of good results. Devahita became a lay follower of the Buddha.

[200] 4. The Rich (Mahāsālasutta). There was a wealthy Brahmin in Sāvatthi who had four sons to whom he distributed his wealth. But his sons with their wives turned him out leaving only shabby clothes for him to wear. Wearing these he went to see the Buddha who enquired why he looked worn out and was clad in a coarse cloak. He then told the Buddha his story. The Buddha then taught him a verse to recite at the regular Brahmin Assembly at which his sons would also be present. The verse went like this: "I was glad for those whom I longed for, but now with their wives they are like dogs who drive off swine. Where they called me "dear one" they now use crude terms. They have become demons in the guise of sons. The staff is better for me than sons, it guides me in the dark and gives footing in water, and keeps off savage hounds."

The Brahmin learned the verse and recited at the Brahmin Assembly and the sons who were there felt ashamed and took him home, cared for him and gave him good clothes, He took one of these and presented it to the Buddha who accepted it out of compassion. The Brahmin became a lay follower of the Buddha.

[201] 5. Mānatthaddha (Mānatthaddhasutta). There was a proud Brahmin in Sāvatthi nicknamed Mānatthaddha who respected neither parents nor teachers. He went once to hear the Buddha give a talk on Dhamma and stood on the sideline. The Buddha did not speak to him and he thought that this Samana did not know anything. The Buddha divined his thoughts and said: "It is not good to have pride, if any such be here for whose sake have you come give him your care". The Brahmin was surprised that the Buddha had read his thoughts and fell at his feet and told him his nickname. The Buddha then asked him to stand up and take a seat. The Brahmin then asked to whom he should show respect, reverence and humility. The Buddha then said: "You should show humility, respect reverence and honour to your parents, eldest brother, and teacher. You should venerate the Arahants and subdue your pride". The Brahmin then said that he would become a lay follower.

[202] 6. Paccanīka (Paccanīkasutta). There was a Brahmin called Paccanīka in Sāvatthi who thought: "I will visit the Samana Gotama and whatever he says I will maintain the opposite". Then he approached the Buddha and said: "Recite some doctrine, monk". But the Buddha said: "I will not find sound thinking or speaking with a person like you with a corrupt heart full of animosity. Only with one who can suppress strife and discord of the mind can apprehend the truth of what is said". Then Paccanīka said "Most excellent" and became a lay follower.

[203] 7. Navakammika (Navakammikasutta). Once Navakammika a wood worker Brahmin was doing some work in the forest and saw the Buddha sitting under a Sal tree. He approached the Buddha and asked: "What work are you doing under the Sal tree, monk?". The Buddha said: "There is no work for me to do, I have cut the root and all. I am free from briars in the wood, I find my joy alone with unpierced heart and have no regrets". Then the Brahmin said "Most excellent" and became a lay follower.

[204] 8. Wood-gathering (Khaṭṭhahārasutta). Once the Buddha was sitting alone in the forest serene and calm with full mindfulness. Then a Brahmin came into the forest with his pupils to gather wood. Seeing the Buddha the Brahmin approached him and said: "O monk, you sit alone in the forest in great ecstasy. It is strange to me to see a sage sit alone and rapture filled. You should be in communion with the Lord of the World (Mahā Brahmā). Abandon the forest and work with us austerities that you may reach the Brahmā world". In answer the Buddha said: "I have brought to an utter end the longing and obsessions of the heart, the promptings of desires sprung from ignorance together with that root. I sit unhankered with clarified vision. I see the supreme goal with enlightenment won. I contemplate in secret places with a serene heart". Then the Brahmin said "Most excellent" and became a lay follower.

[205] 9. Maintaining the Mother (Mātuposkasuttta). Once a Brahmin who supported his mother came to the Buddha and asked: "I seek alms from which I maintain my parents. Am I doing what ought to be done?". The Buddha said: "The wise commend those who maintain their parents in a permitted way. After death they win the joy of heaven". When this was said the Brahmin said that he would become a lay follower of the Buddha.

[206] 10. The Mendicant (Bhikkhasutta). Once a Brahmin came to the Buddha and said: "Both myself and your reverence are mendicants. What is the difference between us?". The Buddha said: "No man is a mendicant simply because he seeks alms. He is not an almsman if he is pledged into a tainted doctrine. But if he seeks the higher life, has cast out wickedness and piles up merit, then he is indeed an almsman". Then the Brahmin said "Most excellent" and became a lay follower.

[207] 11. Sangārava (Saṅgāravasutta). The Brahmin Sangārava believed in purification by water and went to the river every morning and evening. Ananda noticed this and asked the Buddha to visit Sangārava to which be consented. The Buddha then went to the house of Sangārava and asked him about this practice of his. Sangārava said that he bathed in the evening to wash away any sins done during the day, and in the morning to wash away sins done in the night. Then the Buddha said: "The Dhamma is a lake, virtue its shore for bathing, clear, undefiled, praised by the good to good men. Here come the sages for bathing, clean their limbs, and to the Beyond cross over." The Brahmin said "Most excellent" and became a lay follower.

[208] 12. Khomadussa (Khomadussasutta). Once the Buddha was staying in the Sakyan town of Khomadussa when he went on his alms round and approached the council hall where the Brahmins were assembled to transact some business. When they saw him coming they said what do these shaveling monks know of council matters. Then the Buddha addressed them thus: "There is no council when those assembled are not pious, do not observe gentle speech and not put away lust, enmity and dullness and become worthy Brahmins". Then those assembled said "Most excellent" and became lay followers of the Buddha.

8. Vaṅgīasasaṃyutta – Chapter on Vanghisa

[209] 1. Craving (Nikkhantasutta). While still a novice and living with his preceptor Nigroda-Kappa Vanghisa was distracted by the women coming to his temple at Āḷavī. He thought: "Alas! It is a loss to me. Disaffection affects me and lust (anabhirata) has arisen. I must by my own effort get rid of this and get lawful pleasure (abhirata)". He tried this and succeeded and uttered a verse of triumph in which he said: "Women shall not wreck my peace of mind. I have heard the Buddha's Path to Nibbana. Māra will not discover which way I take".
[210] 2. Separation (Āratisutta). On another occasion too disaffection and lust arose when his teacher would come after the alms round and stay in his cabin until the next day. Once again he confessed to himself this disaffection and lust and by a determined effort got rid of it. He proclaimed his triumph in a verse beginning: "I who had given up dislikes and doting in all that stirs the lay imagination, may not make anywhere a haunt for lusting".

[211] 3. Well behaved (Pesalasutta). Vanghisa had the ability to make a quick response (paṭubhāna) and his frequent interjections tended to upset well-behaved bhikhus. He realised this and repented again uttering a verse on his triumph beginning: "Renounce conceit, thou Gotama's disciple, wholly from the path of pride remove thy foot."

[212] 4. Ananda (Anandasutta). Once while accompanying Ananda on the alms round disaffection and passion arose in Venerable Vanghisa. He confessed this to Ananda: "My heart is aflame". Ananda advised him: "Your perception has become perverse. Do not look at lovely objects with passion; look at your acts tending to ill from another's perspective. Be heedful of sense and be filled with a sane distaste. Cast out conceit and do not entertain vain imaginations".

[213] 5. Well Spoken (Subhāsitasutta). Once the Buddha spoke to the bhikkhus on right speech. Well spoken speech he said has four qualities: it should (1) be nicely said; (2) conform to Dhamma; (3) be kindly; (4) be truthful. Then venerable Vanghisa rose up and said "It has been revealed (paṭubhāsati) to me". When the Buddha asked "What has been revealed?" Vanghisa launched into a verse the subject of the Buddha's talk  beginning: "Whoso can speak a word whereby he works no torment to himself, nor causes harm to fellow-men, that word is spoken well" .

[214] 6. Sāriputta (Sāriputtasutta). Once when venerable Sāriputta was giving a dhamma discourse venerable Vanghisa rose from his seat and said: "It has been revealed to me". When Sāriputta as asked "What has been revealed to you?" venerable Vanghisa launched into a stanza of praise of Sāriputta beginning: "With insight deep, and richly dowered with learned lore, expert in methods true and false, the son of Sari, greatly wise teaches the brethren in the Dhamma".

[215] 7. Invitation (Pavāraṇasutta). Once the Buddha was sitting with the bhikhus on the day of confession and he invited the bhikkhus to speak if they had any grievance against him. Sāriputta rose and said that there were none. He then asked if the Buddha had any grievance against the bhikkhus. The Buddha too said that he had none. Then venerable Vanghisa rising from his seat said: "It has been revealed to me". Asked what had been revealed to him Vanghisa broke into a stanza of praise of the Arahants beginning: "Today on feast-day, for full purity five hundred brethren are together come, such as have cut their fetters, cut their bonds, seers who are free from rebirth and from ill".

[216] 8. A Thousand and more (Purossahassasutta). Once the Buddha was giving a Dhamma discourse to a company of more than 1250 monks on Nibbāna. The congregation was listening with rapt attention when Vanghisa, after getting approval, extolled the Buddha with a long verse beginning: "A thousand brethren and more attend around the Blessed One who here teaches the Dhamma, passionless and pure". The Buddha then asked if the verse was thought out before or spontaneous and Vanghisa said that it was spontaneous. Then the Buddha asked him to compose another verse which he did beginning "Over Māra's devious ways faring triumphant. you break up the fallows of our hearts".

[217] 9. Koṇḍañña (Koṇḍaññasutta). After a long time Aññāsi-Koṇḍañña came to see the Buddha and prostrated himself at the Buddha's feet saying: "I am Koṇḍañña". Observing this venerable Vanghisa composed a verse beginning: "Who next to our great Waked One was awoke, brother Koṇḍañña strong in energy, the winner of a life of blissful ease".

. [218] 10. Moggallāna (Mogallānasutta). Once the Buddha was staying in Rajagaha at the Black Rock with 500 Arahants when Moggallāna through intuition discerned that they were indeed Arahants. Then Vanghisa said in verse beginning: "High on the hilly slopes disciples wait, holders of triple lore, slayers of death, upon the presence of the seated Saint, who hath transcended all the power of ill".

[217] 11. At Gaggarā (Gaggarāsutta}. Once the Buddha was staying in Campa at Gaggarā with a large company of monks, laymen and laywomen. Then Vanghisa extolled the Buddha in verse: "As when the clouds have drifted from the sky, the moon shines as a sun immaculate, so thou, Angharasa, great seer, yet more does gloriously the world illuminate".

[218] 12. Vanghisa (Vaṅgīsasutta). Shortly after venerable Vangisa attained Arahantship he gave a long verse in praise beginning: "Drunk with divining art of old we roamed from town and village on to town again. Then we beheld the All-Enlightened, him who bath transcended all that we can know".

9. Vanasaṃyutta – Chapter on the Forest

[221] 1. Detachment (Vivekasutta). The mind of a monk staying in a forest track (vanasaṇḍe) while taking the siesta strayed into wrong worldly thoughts. Then a deva haunting the forest wishing to agitate him drew near and recited verses beginning: "Into the wood for detachment you have come, but see how your vagrant mind wanders without."

[222] 2. Helping (Uppaṭṭānasutta). A monk staying in a forest track while taking the siesta fell asleep. Then a deva haunting the forest moved out of compassion for the monk addressed him in verses beginning; "Arise, good monk, why seek you repose ? What benefit do you find in slumber?

b>[223] 3. Kassapa (Kassapagottasutta). A monk of the Kassapa clan staying in a forest track while taking the siesta admonished a trapper. Then a deva haunting the forest moved out of compassion and welfare for the monk addressed him in verses beginning; "A dull and silly trapper comes into the forest. I think it is a waste of time to admonish him. A monk doing so is slow of wit. He hears but does not understand; he looks but does not see". Then Kassapa was impressed.

[224] 4. Many (Sambahulasutta). Many monks spent the rains in a forest track and recommenced their touring at the end of it. A deva haunting the forest missed them and uttered a verse beginning: "I see these many solitary seats used by learned men of varied discourse. Where have they gone?". Another deva replied: "To Kosala, Magadha and Vajji. They have no home and roam as they please".

[225] 5. Ananda (Anandasutta). Once venerable Ananda was staying in a forest tract but was active in instructing lay people. A deva haunting that forest then said to venerable Ananda that he was forgetting Nibbāna engaging in useless babble-babble (biḷibiḷikā). Venerable Ananda took note of this.

[226] 6. Anuruddha (Anuruddhasutta). Once venerable Anuruddha was staying in a forest tract when the (female) deva Jālini, a former consort of his, came and engaged him in conversation:
JALINI: Do you not remember when you were in the heaven of the Thirty-Three surrounded by heavenly maids treating you as lord?
ANURUDDHA: Those celestial maids are ill-fated as are those who consort with them.
JALINI: They know no bliss who have not seen Nandana, abode of men and gods.
ANURUDDHA: Do you not know. O fool, that Impermanent are all conditioned things. They rise and then cease; to be free of them is peace. There is no dwelling for me in celestial planes, Jalini, the endless line of birth is cut, I will never more become again.

[227] 7. Nāgadatta (Nāgadattasutta). Once venerable Nāgadatta was living in a forest tract. He went early to the village and returned in the afternoon. Then a deva haunting the forest said in verse: "You have consorted with laymen for a long time in pleasure and in sorrow. Thereby you have got defilement and disgrace. Of such a person people say the practice he may plan he will never complete".

[228] 8. The Housewife (Kulgharaṇīsutta). A certain monk staying in a forest-tract got too involved with a lay family. Then a deva haunting that forest took the shape of the housewife of that family and said to the monk: "Along rivers and roads, in halls and at the gates of houses people talk of you and me, why is this". The monk said: "This kind of talk a recluse must bear patiently. If he is annoyed defilement and disgrace would arise. Of those who are flustered and dismayed the people say the practice he plans he will never complete".

[229] 9. The Vajjiyan (Vajjiputtasutta). A Vajjian monk was staying in a forest tract in Vesāli when a loud festival was taking place in the city. The monk then lamented: "We live alone in the forest like an abandonedn logOn a night of revelry lik this who who has a worse plight?". Thenn the deva haunting that forest said: "You live like an abadoned log but many will envy you just as thoe bund to hellenvy those bound for heaven". Then the monk was greatly moved.

[230] 10. Learning (Sajjhāyasutta). A certain monk living in a forest tract was formerly given to study and learning. Then he gave up study and adopted a life of ease, resignation, and silence. Then the deva haunting the forest spoke to him thus: "O monk, why do you not study the Dhamma with other monks, winning satisfaction and earning the commendations of men?" The monk said: "I once did that until I met something pure which only the senses can teach".

[231] 11. Unskilful thoughts (Akusalavitakkasutta). A monmk living in a forest-tract in Kosala during his siesta had unskioful thoughts relating to sensua, malevolent and cruel matters. Then a deva haunting the forest motivated by compassion addressed the monk in verse: "You have no thorough method in your thought and you have become intoxicated. Follow the teacher's Dhamma and associate with virtuous monks.This moved the monk greatly.

[232] 12. Noontide (Majjanikasutta). A certain monk lived in a forest-track in Kosala. Then the deva who haunted the forest came to him and said: "It is high noon now and the birds have become silent. The mighty forest booms, fearsome is that sound to me". But the monk replied: "It is high noon now and the birds have become silent. The mighty forest booms, enchanting is that sound to me".

[233] 13. Uncontrolled (Pākatindriyasutta). A group of monks living in a certain forest track in Kosala became muddled in mind, vain, noisy, heedless and uncontrolled in faculties. Then the deva haunting the forest approached them and preached to them some aspects of the Dhamma. This greatly moved these monks.

[234] 14. Smell Thief (Gandattenasutta). A monk staying in a forest track after his alms round and eating his meal went to a lotus pond and picked up a lotus and smelled it. The deva haunting the forest then spoke thus to the monk: "That flower has not been given to you but you have taken it and smelled it. You are a smell-thief (gandatthena)". The monk responded: "I have not taken anything away, simply smelled a flower at the edge of the water. Why am I called a smell-thief?". The deva answered that though something may appear to be a trifle to a pure person it could be something great. The monk said" Deva, you know me well. What compassion moved you to say what you said. If you see me do wrong please speak to me again. The deva replied "You yourself should now know how you may go to that blissful destine". The monk was greatly moved by what the deva said.

10. Yakkhasaṃyutta – Chapter on Yakkhas

[235] 1. Indra's Peak (Indakasutta). While staying at Indra's Peak near Rajagaha its resident yakkha addressed the Buddha thus: "The Enlightened Ones say that Material form is not the living soul. Then how does soul possess this body? Whence come it and how does it bide in the mother's womb?" The Buddha answered: "First the kalala takes birth, then it becomes the abbuda, then the pesi, then the ghana at which stage the hair, down and nails appear. The mother's food nourishes the being in the womb."

[236] 2. Sakka (Sakkanāmasutta). While staying at Gijjahkūta near Rajagaha the deva Sakka asked: "Why should you a Samana who has renounced everything exhort other men?" The Buddha answered: "Compassion and sympathy moves the Wise One to instruct other men. With the mind thus satisfied, he is not bound as by a yoke.

[237] 3. Sūciloma (Sūcilomasutta). Once two yakkhas Sūciloma and Khara passed by where the Buddha was waiting. Curious to find out if the Buddha was a Samana Sūciloma came very close but the Buddha shrank from body contact. Sūciloma asked if he was afraid but the Buddha replied that there was no one he was afraid of but he did not engage in body contact. Then Sūciloma asked this question: "How are greed, hatred, repulsion, love, and terror caused? Whence spring thoughts into our minds of sinking them?". The Buddha answered: "They are born of our likes and longings of the self. They cleave in divers ways to things of sense. They who know self and wherefrom it rises can crush it down, they cross this flood never to come back again to rebirth."

[238] 4. Maṇibhadda (Maṇibhaddasutta). Once the Buddha was staying at the Manimala Temple in Rajagaha, the haunt of the Maṇibhadda yakkha. This yakkha said to the Buddha: "To one of mind alert luck comes; he prospers with increasing happiness. For him to-morrow is a better day and wholly from all hate is he released." The Buddha replied: "Not wholly!. But him whose mind always delights in harmlessness and kindness, and shares in love for all that lives for him  no hate is found.

[239] 5. Sānu (ṣānusutta). Sānu the child of a lay follower who had been made a novice in the Order had a relapse and yearned for the home life. He is then possessed by a yakkha. The mother thinks that the yakkha will make a sport of the child. Consulting holy men the mother undertakes a fast observing the eight precepts. Then the yakkha said that they do not sport with with those who lead the higher life like Sānu and his mother. Then the yakkha releases Sānu who says: "Weep for the dead not the living. Mother, I am here why weep for me?". Then the mother said: "They mourn for the dead and those they do not see. To return to the world is death (to one gone forth). My son, do you want to fall back on embers or into the abyss? Run your course and my blessings are with you".

[240] 6. Piyaṅkara (Piyaṅkarasutta). Piyaṅkara was the child of a yakkha mother and one day while she was wandering with the child through the Jetavana she heard the voice of venerable Anuruddha reciting verses from the Dhamma. Just then the child began crying then the mother said: "Hush make no noise Piyaṅkara. The Samana is reciting holy verses. We may learn from them and obtain release from the yakkha sphere".

[241] 7. Punabbasu (Punabbasusutta). Once a yakkha mother with her children Punabbasu and Uttara were wandering in the Jetavana when she heard the Buddha giving a discourse on Nibbāna to the monks. Then she made her children silent by saying: "This is a doctrine I would like to hear. So, children, be silent. The Exalted One, wisest of men, is explaining Nibbāna. This is the path from sorrow. Neither husband nor child, though they be dear, can save us from ill. It is the Dhamm in which he found enlightenment that will save us from age and death". Then Punabbasu said: "We will be silent. For sweet it is to listen to the Dhamma. Because we have not known it, Mother, have we gone suffering here and now". Then the mother said: "Blessed words from the wise the son I bore. May you be happy be, Punabbasu, and Uttara too".

[242] 8. Sudatta (Sudattasutta). Once Anātapiṇḍika whose real name was Sudatta wanted to see the Buddha on the morrow. During the night he fancied that day had dawned and that he had gone to the gate of the cemetery and non-human beings had opened the gate. Then the light vanished and Sivakha the yakkha caused a sound to be heard of a great procession of elephants, horses and maidens. Then the darkness vanished and it became light again. This dream occurred twice more. On the morrow when he saw the Buddha he asked the Buddha if he had rested well during the night. The Buddha said: "At all times the Arahant rests happily, all fires extinct. He who does not cling to sensuous desires, cuts out all mental encumbrances, subdues the pining of the heart, he rests happily calm and serene".

[243] 9. Sukkā 1 (Sukkāsutta 1). Once the bhikkuni Sukkā was teaching Dhamma to a great crowd at the Veluvana in Rajagaha. Then a yakkha who had much faith in this bhikkhuni came to Rajagaha and uttered the verse: "Men of Rajagaha why are you bemused with wine while Sukkā teaches the doctrine of Deathlessness. The wise would not spurn that cup just as the wayfarer will not reject a cup of cool water".

[244] 10. Sukkā 2 (Sukkāsutta 2). Once a lay follower was giving food to the Bhikhuni Sukkā. Then a yakkha who had much faith in this bhikkhuni came to Rajagaha and uttered the verse: "Plenteous merit hath he wrought, that layman wise who Sukkā's wants supplied, she who from of all bonds is wholly free!"

[245] 11. Cīrā (Cīrāsutta). Once in Rajagaha a lay follower was giving food to the Bhikhuni Cīrā. Then a yakkha who had much faith in this bhikkhuni came to Rajagaha and uttered the same verse as in the previous sutta.

[246] 12. Āḷavaka (Āḷavakasutta). Once thr Buddha was staying at Āḷavi, and entered the the haunt of the yakkha of Āḷavi. After a brief exchange he was asked to enter. Then the following conversation took place:
YAKKAH: What is the best wealth of man? What well done brings happiness? What tastes the most sweet? How can life be best lived?
BUDDHA: Faith is the best wealth of man. Right deeds well done bring happiness. Truth tastes the best. Life lived by wisdom is best.
YAKKAH: How may we pass over the flood ? How may we pass over the watery waste ? How may we get past ill and suffering ? How may we win to utter purity ?
BUDDHA: By faith, surely, you pass over the flood. By zeal you pass over the watery waste. By energy you get past ill and woe. By wisdom you win utter purity.
YAKKAH: How may wisdom be acquired ? How may wealth be found ? How may we win fame and renown ? How may friends be found in this world where life shall be? How may we lose all misery ?
BUDDHA: To get wisdom one must. display an earnest zeal, and discerning wit. With vigour, one may find riches. Speaking the truth one wins renown. By giving friendship will one find friends in this world and where life shall be To lose all misery one should have these four: veracity, self-control, steadfastness, and generosity.
YAKKAH: Now why should I question recluses, brahmins, one and all to find the causes of growth and good. The Buddha came to Alavi, I fully understand what gives rich fruit. Now will I travel to magnify the Enlightened One, the seemly Order of the Dhamma.

11. Sakkasaṃyutta – Chapter on Sakka

1. Paṭamavagga – First Section 

[247] 1. Suvīra (Suvīrasutta). The Buddha told the monks that in the days of of old in the war between the Asuras and the Devas Sakka called on devaputta Suvīra three times to march against the Asuras. He said 'Yes' but did not do it.

Then Sakka said: "No happiness is found without trying again and again". Suvīra said that for one who is sluggish nothing he undertakes can he do and wanted to know what the supreme goal is. Sakka says the Nibbāna is the final goal. The Buddha told the monks that Sakka has commended exertion and energy, and he exhorted the monks too to follow this advice and exert themselves to attain that which has not been attained.

[248] 2. Susīma (Susīmasutta). In this sutta Sakka repeats the same conversation he had with Suvīra with the devaputta Susīma.

[249] 3. Top of Banner (Dhajaggasutta). The Buddha told the Bhikkhus that in the war Sakka told the devas that if in battle fear and panic sets in they should look at the top of his banner, and if they did so fear will subside. If they do not see his banner they should look at the banner of Pajāpati, Varuna or Isāna. But the Buddha said that if the devas looked at the the suggested banners fear may or may not go away because Sakka had not conquered passion.
The Buddha then told the monks that if in the forest when they are alone and fear arises in them they should recall to mind the Buddha or recall to mind the Dhamma or recall to mind the Sangha. Then the fear will go away because the Tathāgata is purged of passion, hate, ignorance and is without timidity, panic or fright.

[250] 4. Vepacitti (Vepacittisutta). The Buddha told the Bhikkhus that in the war between Devas and Asuras Vepacitti ruler of the Asuras said that if the Asuras won then Sakka King of the Devas would be brought hands, feet and neck tied, Meanwhile Sakka had said that if the Devas won then Vepacitti would be brought similarly tied up. The Devas won and Vepacitti was brought before Sakka thus tied up but still reviling Sakka. who did nothing. The the following conversation took place between Sakka and his Charioteer Matali:

MATALI: Are you afraid and weak that you should forbear at this scurrilous talk of Vepacitti?
SAKKA: Not from weakness or fear. Can an understanding man bandy words with a fool?
MATALI: But fools wax more eloquent if a stop is not put to what they say.
SAKKA: This alone cannot stop a foolish man. When he who has an alert mind sees another filled with rage the latter grows calm and still.
MATALI: That is a grievous error. If the fool thinks that inaction is from fear he presses harder like a a cow charging a fleeing man.
SAKKA: Let him fancy what he will. Forbearing is the highest for the spirit's growth. A strong man does not revile when reviled. Thereby he has a twofold victory.

Relating this the Buddha praised the forbearance of Sakka. Advising the monks he said that forbearance and gentleness enhances virtue when you have gone forth under his Dhamma and Discipline.

[251] 5. Victory by speech (Subhāsitajayasutta). The Buddha told the Bhikkhus that in the war between Devas and Asuras Vepacitti said "Let victory be decided by the excellence of speech. Sakka agreed. The contest then began each reciting a verse, Vapacitti beginning as he was the elder of the two.

VEPACITTI: They that are foolish wax more wrath if they are not stopped .
SAKKA: I think this is the way to stop a foolish man; the one with an alert mind seeing the fool filled with rage should remain calm and still.
VEPACITTI: This is a grievous error to forbear for when the fool thinks it is from fear that the other forbears. The fool will press you hard like a cow chasing a fleeing man.
SAKKA: Let him fancy as he will that one bears with him because of fear.
[The dialogue continues as in the previous sutta.]

The combined audience of Devas and Asuras agreed that Sakka won the contest. The Buddha too agreed with this when he related the story to the bhikkhus.

[252] 6. Bird Nests (Kulāvakasutta). The Buddha told the Bhikkhus that in the war between Devas and Asuras in one engagement the Asuras won. The defeated Devas were retreating to the North followed by the Asuras. Then Sakka's chariot was heading to an area where the Garuda birds had built these nests. Then Sakka told his charioteer: "Turn the Chariots back, we would rather lose our lives to the Asuras than destroy the nests of these birds". But the Asuras thought that the Devas were preparing for a second battle and terrified retreated to their city.

The Buddha relating the story said that Sakka was a victor by righteousness,

[253] 7. Not treacherous (Nadubbhiyasutta). The Buddha told the Bhikkhus that in the war between Devas and Asuras Sakka was meditating in private when this thought came into his head: "Whosoever may be my enemy even him I shall not betray". Vepacitti divined Sakka's mind and came to see him but Sakka said: "Stop or I will make you my prisoner". Vepacitti reminded Sakka of what Sakka had just thought and Sakka said: "I will use no treachery". Then Vepacitti said: "O Sakka. The evil fruit that comes from false speech, from blasphemy of saints, from perfidy to friends, from ingratitude, he will reap who shows treachery to you".

[254] 8.Verocana (Verocanaasurindasutta). Once when the Buddha was meditating at noon when Sakka and Verocana (i.e. Vepacitti) came and recited verses in his presence as for\llows:

VEROCANA: A man should strive until his purpose is accomplished. A perfect ed purpose shines.
SAKKA: A man should strive unntil his purpose is accompliesh; A perfected purpose shines.
VEROCANA: All beings have some task in view, now here now there. Food that is excellently prepared will satisfy every creature. Our tasks when finished look their best..
SAKKA: All beings have some task in view, now here now there. Food that is excellently prepared, Will satisfy every creature. Nothing excels forbearance.

[255] 9. Forest Seers (Araññayatanaisisutta)
. The Buddha told the bhikkhus that a long time ago many seers (bhikkhus) virtuous and lovely lived in leaf-huts in the forest. Then Sakka and Vepacitti visited them. Vepacitti clad in his official shoes and sword by the side and a canopy held over his head entered the hermitage and insulted the seers. But Sakka put aside his shoes, his sword and his canopy and worshipped the seers. Then the seers said: "The scent of seers falling from their bodies wafted by the breeze may smell foul to you, O King of Devas". But Sakka replied: "The scent of seers falling from their bodies is like the fragrance of flowers and one that we like for there is nothing to bring disgust".

[256] 10. Rishis by the seaside (Samuddkasutta). Once the Buddha told the Bhikkhus that a group of rishis (seers) were living in leaf-huts by the sea-shore. It was the time of the war between the Devas and the Asuras. Then the seers thought the Asuras were unrighteous and could pose a danger to them, So they thought of getting a pledge of safety from the Asura King who was known to them as Sambara. Then the Rishis miraculously vanished from their leaf huts and appeared before Sambara and asked for a pledge of safety. But Sambara said: "Safety is not for you who serve Sakka and do ill. Terror is all that I can give". Then the Rishis said: "You give peril for us who ask for safety, May the fear of never dying be yours. According to the seed does on get the fruit. You have planted well an evil seed and its fruit you will get".

Concluding his narrative the Buddha said that Sambara on whom the Rishis laid the curse that very night woke up three times seized with terror.

12 Dutīhavagga – Second Section

[257] 1. Precepts (Vatapadasutta). The Buddha told the bhikkhus that once when Sakka was a man he laid down seven rules that he would followso long as he lived. These were (1) maintain his parents; (2) revere the head of th family; (3) use gentle language; (4) utter no slander; (5) rid the mind of stain and selfishness, be generous, delight in renunciation and share gifts; (6)speak the truth; and (7) not give way to anger.

It is by keeping these rules that he became the King of the Devas.

[258] 2. Sakka's names (Sakkanāmasutta). Sakka is known by several names: (1)Magavāti because he was a bhikkhu having gone forth from the Maga brahmin family; (2) Purindada because he gave pure gifts of food ; (3) he gave magnificiently hence his name of Sakka; (4) he gave dwelling places hence his name of Vāssava; (5) he can think of a thousand matters hence his name of Sahassakoti; (6) he became consort to an Asura maiden called Sujā hence his name of Sujampatī (7) he became King of the Devas hence his name of Devāminda.

[259] 3. Mahāli (ahālisutta). A Liccavi called Mahāli came to see the Buddha at Vesali and asked if he had seen Sakka as it is said that he is hard to see. The Buddha said that he had seen Sakka and also knew the rules he had set up as a human in a previous birth and also his various names.

[260] 4. Poor Man (Daliddasutta). Tjhe Buddha told the monks that once a very poor man of Rajagaha embraced the Dhamma and after death appeared in the heaven of the Thirty Three as a deva of great lustre. This enraged the other devas as he had been a poor man in his previous existence. But Sakka said that he had embraced the Dhamma and added in verse: "They rightly say that a person who has faith in the Tathāgata, with a pure moral code, loyal to the Brotherhood and has a straight vision is not a poor man.

[261] 5. Enjoyable (Rāmaṇeyyasutta). Once Sakka came to the Buddha at the Jetavana and asked: "What by its situation is enjoyable?". The Buddha replied: "For a man's enjoyment parks, groves, lakes are of little worth. But villages, forests, hills or vales where Arahants live they are the spots most enjoyable".

[262] 6. For they that sacrifice (Yajamānasutta). Once Sakka visited the Buddha at Rajagaha Gijjakuta and said: "Men offering sacrifice of animals hardly earn a reward. What fruit would those doing good deeds and giving gifts get?". The Buddha said: "The four who travel the paths get good fruit. The way of this Brotherhood is straight in virtue and insight."

[263] 7. Worshiping the Buddha (Buddhavandanāsutta). Once Sakka and the Brahmā Sahampati came to visit the Buddha at Jetavana. Sakka said: "Arise, hero Victor in the fight whose burden is laid low. Walk over the world emancipated after you." Brahmā Sahampati said: "Arise, hero Victor in the fight who has no debts. Walk over the world and teach the Dhamma. There are those who will understand."

[264] 8. Lay worship (Gahaṭṭhavandanāsutta). Once Sakka ordered his charioteer Mātali to have the chariot ready so as the view the gardens. Then descending from the palace Sakka worshipped the four quarters. Then Mātali said: "Everyone including the four Great Kings worship you. Who is this yakkha you are worshipping?" Sakka said: "I know those you mention worship me but I worship all those who have graduated in virtue, mastered their minds, and with the best of motives have sought the higher life. Also the householders of virtue and piety and maintain their wife". Then Mātali said: "I too worship them", did likewise and led the way.

[265] 9. Teacher worship (Satthāravandanāsutta). On another occasion Sakka ordered the chariot and descending from the Palace made worship. Then t the charioteer Mātali said: "Whom do you now worship?". Sakka said: "The perfectly Enlightened one do I revere and worship. Also those who have given up passion, enmity and ignorance. Also who have suppressed love and hate and are learners.

[266] 10. Saṅgha worship (Saṅghavandanāsutta). As in the two previous suttas Sakka orders the chariot but this time before getting in worships the order of Brethren. In answer to Mātali's inevitable question the Buddha responded: "I envy these homeless houseless folk. They have no granary or storehouse, they maintain their goodly ways in serene silence. While men, Gods and asuras fight they go in peace unarmed amongst those armed. These I do worship". Mātali said: "The best in all the world does Sakka worship.  I too render homage unto them".

3. Tatīyavagga – Third Section

[267] 1. Slaying (Chetvāsutta). Sakka came to the Jetavana and asked the Buddha: "What must we slay to live happy?". The Buddha answered: "Wrath must we slay to live happy".

[268] 2. Ugly (Dibaṇṇiyasutta). Once an ugly pot-bellied yakkha occupied the seat of Sakka in the Thirty-Three heaven. The devas got angry and the more angrier they got the yakkha got more and more presentable. Then they went and told this to Sakka. Sakka came and imploring the yakkha said: "I am Sakka, ruler of the gods". Then the Yakkha got uglier an uglier until he vanished. The Sakka occupied his seat and said: "I am not easily put out, nor am I drawn into the world of passion, In me wrath finds no abiding; I hold myself in check heedful of my spiritual growth".

[269] 3. Magic Art (Sambarimāyāsutta). The Buddha told the monks of another incident when Vepacitti (whose real nameis Sambara) fell ill and Sakka went to visit him. Seeing him approach Sambara said : "Heal me, ruler of the gods". Sakka said: "Then will you tell me your magic art?". Then Vepacitti said: "Wait until consult the Asuras", which he did and was told not to reveal his magic art. Then he said to Sakka: "Your magic leads to the dread abyss whereas mine has lasted a century".

[270] 4. Gentleness (Accayasutta). Once in Jetavana two monks had a dispute in which one gave grave offence. He aware of it confessed but the other did not accept the apology. This was reported to the Buddha who said: "A long time ago Sakka spoke thus: 'If anger comes friendship should not deccay; do not blame if censure is not due and spread no slander. By wrath bad folk are overthrown as by an avalanche' ".

[271] 5. Anger (Akkodasutta). Once the Buddha told the monks: A long time ago Sakka when calming the Thrity-Three gods spoke thus: "Let anger not overcome uou, rage not against those that rage, Aryans find a place for love and kindness. Bad people are overthrown by anger as by an avalanche".