Saṃyutta Nikāya Abstracts
Nidānavagga Saṅkhepa

12. Nidānasaṃyutta – Chapter on Cause

[Unless otherwise stated all the discourses are given at Sāvatthi and begins with the Buddha speaking.]

1. Buddhavagga - The 'Buddha' Section

[1] 1. The Teaching (Paṭiccasamuppādasutta). The Buddha said to the monks: What is the: causal law ? Conditioned by ignorance activities come to pass; conditioned by activities consciousness, conditioned by consciousness name-and-shape, conditioned by name-and-shape sense, conditioned by sense contact, conditioned by contact feeling, conditioned by feeling craving, conditioned by craving grasping, conditioned by grasping becoming, conditioned by becoming birth, conditioned by birth old age-and-death, grief, lamenting, suffering, sorrow, despair come to pass. Such is the uprising of this entire mass of ill. This, brethren, is called [causal] happening. From the ceasing of ignorance comes the ceasing of activities; [etc. the causal law in reverse order] ending with old age-and- death.

[2] 2. Analysis (Vibhaṅgasuatta). [Savatthi. The Buddha spoke.] What is old age-and-death ? Old age is decay, decrepitude, breaking up, hoariness, wrinkling of the skin, shrinkage of a life-span; over-ripeness of faculties. this is called old age. Death is falling or decease, separation,' disappearance, mortality or dying, separations of component factors, laying down of the carcase.
Birth is descent, reproduction; appearance of component factors, acquiring of sense- spheres.
Becoming happens in three places: the Sama-[worlds] or the Rupa-(worlds], or in the Arupa-[worlds.
' Grasping is of 4 types: grasping of desires, grasping of opinion, grasping of rule and ritual, grasping ofrsoul-theory.
. Craving is for 6 things: craving for things seen, for things heard, for odours, for tastes, for things tangible, for ideas.
- Feeling is of 6 types: feeling that is born of eye-contact, feeling that is born of ear-contact, feeling that is born of nose-contact, feeling that is born of tongue-contact, feeling that is born of body-contact, feeling that is born of mind-contact.
Contact has six groups: eye-contact, ear-, nose-, tongue-, body-, mind-contact.
The six fold old sense is sense of eye, ear, nose, tongue, body, mind.
_ Name-and-shape is feeling, perception, will, contact, work of mind.
The four great elements and the shape derived from them is called shape. This is the name, this it the- shape called name-and-shape.
These are the. six groups of consciousness:-eye-consciousness, ear-consciousness, smell-, taste-, touch-, and mind-consciousness.
There are the three activities: those of deed, speech and mind.
Ignorance is nescience concerning ill, its rise, its cessation and concerning the way going to the cessation of ill.
So conditioned by ignorance activities, conditioned by activities consciousness,' and so on to ' despair' -such is the uprising of this entire mass of ill. But from the utter fading out and ceasing of ignorance ceasing of activities, from the ceasing of activities ceasing of consciousness, and so on to 'despair--such is the ceasing of this entire mass of ill.

[3] 3. The Way (Paṭipadāsutta). [Savatthi. The Buddha spoke.] The wrong way is: Conditioned by ignorance activities come to pass; conditioned by activities consciousness. . . [etc. leading to the uprising of ill.] The right way is: from the ceasing of ignorance comes the ceasing of activities; from the ceasing of activities comes ceasing of consciousness ... [etc. to the ceasing of ill.]

[4-9] 4-9. Vipassi to Kassapa (Vipassīsutta – Kassapasuta). [Gotama's path to Buddhahood given in the next sutta (the Gotamasutta) is applied to all his predecessors Vipassī. Sikhi, Vessabhu, Kakusanda, Konagammana, Kassapa.]

[10] 10. Gotama Seer of the Sikyas (Gotamasutta). [Savatthi. The Buddha spoke.] I thought: Alas! this world has fallen upon trouble, getting born and growing old, and dying and being reborn. Then I thought: What now being present, does decay-and-death come to be? What conditions decay-and-death? It is conditioned by birth. [The causal formula is then stated going back to ignorance.] Such verily is this activities conditioned by ignorance, and the rest. Even so is the coming to be of this entire mass of ill. Then the thought came to me: What now being absent, does decay-and-death not come to be? From the ceasing of what is there ceasing of decay-and-death? From ceasing of birth ceasing of decay-and-death. And.thus also came to me comprehension of insight into the like concerning birth, becoming, grasping, craving, feeling, contact, sense, name-and-shape, consciousness, activities, ignorance. Suw fierily is this 'ceasing of activities because of ceasing of ignorance,' and the rest. Even so is the ceasing of this entire mass of ill.

2. Āhāravagga –: The Sustenance Section

[11] 11. Sustenance (Āhārasutta). [Savatthi. The Buddha spoke.] There are four kinds of sustenance: material food, contact, volition and consciousness. Their base is Craving (taṇhā). This is caused by Feeling (vedand). This is caused by Contact (phassa).-This is caused by the six senses (saldyatana). The six senses are caused by name-and-form (ndma-rupa). This in turn is caused-by consciousness (viññāṇa). This in turn is produced by activities (saṇkhāra).'This is turn is produced by ignorance (avijjā). This is uprising of the whole mass of ill.

[12] 2. Phagguna (Molyaphaggunasutta). [Savatthi. The Buddha spoke.] When the Buddha was explaining the doctrine of the-four kinds of sustenance Moliya Phagguna raised a series of questions: Who feeds on the consciousness-sustenance? Who exercises contact? Who is it who feels? Who is it who craves? Who is it who grasps? To all these questions the Buddha said that it was not a fit question. He had not said that someone feels or does these things. If so it would be a fit question. It is simply that the conditions follow each other. For example from the cessation of the sphere of six-fold contact there comes the cessation of contact and so on.

[13] 3. Recluses and brahmins 1(samaṇabrāhmanasutta I). [Savatthi. The Buddha spoke.] Those recluses and Brahmins who have not understood the causal chain [given above], not understood the cause of old-age-and-death they are not recognized as recluses or brāhmins. They have not realized what is good and bad in the present life. But any recluse or brahmm who knows the uprising are approved even among recluses and brāhmins and have understood what is good in being a recluse or brāhmin.

[14] 4. Recluses and Brahmins 2 (samaṇabrāhmanasutta 2). [Savatthi. The Buddha spoke. Same comments as in the previous sutta.]

[15]5. The Kaccānas (Kccānagottasutta). [Savatthi. The Kaccayana clan visit the Budddha. ] Kaccayana asked: "How far is there a right view?" The Buddha said there are two views: existence and non-existence. One with right insight sees the uprising of the world does not subscribe to non-existence; he who sees the passing of the world does not subscribe to existence. The world grasps after systems, is imprisoned by dogmas. One who does not grasp after systems and holds no dogmas does not say 'It is my soul'. Everything exists, and nothing exists are two extremes. The Tathāgata teaches a middle doctrine as given in the formula of causation.

[16] 6. Dhamma Teacher (Dhammakathikasutta). [Savatthi] A monk came to the Buddha and asked: "We hear the word Dhamma teacher. Who is a Dhamma teacher?" The Buddha said that if one preaches a doctrine of revulsion from decay-and-death he is a Dhamma teacher. Such a monk is free from any form of grasping with respect to craving, becoming, birth, decay-and-death, grief, and so on.

[17] 7. Naked Ascetic (Acelakassapasutta). In Rajagaha Kassapa a naked ascetic asked a number of questions from the Buddha. He asked: Is suffering brought about by oneself, or by another, or by both oneself and another, or does it happen by chance, or is suffering non-existent? To all these the Buddha said: "No, verily". Then Kassapa asked the Buddha to declare his view of suffering.

The Buddha said that self wrought suffering mounts to the Externalist theory, while that wrought by another amounts to the Annihilationist theory. He said that his view given in the law of causation amounts to a middle position. This convinced Kassapa who wanted to join the Buddha's order but the Buddha reminded him of the rule that those belonging to a different system had to undergo a period of probation. Kassapa agreed to this; and in course of time he became an Arahant.

[18] 8. Timbaruka (Timbarukasutta). [Savatthi.] Here Timbaruka visits the Buddha and asks the same questions that Kassapa asked in the previous sutta, only replacing 'suffering' with 'pleasure and pain': As previously the Buddha answers each question with a "No, surely", but when asked for his own views he gives a slightly different reply. He declare that pleasure and pain is wrought by oneself and by another are both wrong views. He says that they represent extreme positions and says that his chain of causation is a middle view. Then Timbaruka becomes a lay disciple of the Buddha.

[19] 9. The wise man (Bālapaṇḍitasutta). [Savatthi. Buddha spoke.] The Buddha said that to the fool bound by ignorance and craving there is just the pair body and names-and-shape. They give the experience of pleasure and pain. This is also the case with a wise man also subject to ignorance and craving. What then is the difference between the two? Explaining the difference the Buddha said that the fool has not given up craving and not lived the divine life and after death will get another such body. But the wise man has thrown off craving. The wise man has lived the divine life for the right withering away of ill, therefore the wise man at the breaking up of the body is not on his way to another body. This, brethren, is how the wise man is different, distinctive, diverse from the fool, namely in that he lives the divine life.

[20] 10. Causality (Paccayasutta). [Savatthi. Buddha spoke.] He again goes through the causal happening as follows: Conditioned by becoming is rebirth; conditioned by grasping is becoming; conditioned by craving is grasping; conditioned by feeling is craving, conditioned by contact is feeling, conditioned by sense is contact; conditioned by name-and-shape is sense ; conditioned by consciousness is name-and-shape; conditioned by activities is consciousness; conditioned by ignorant are activities.

3. Dasabalavagga – The 'Ten Powers' Section

[21] 1. The Ten Powers Sutta t (Dasabalasutta 1). [Savatthi. The Buddha spoke.] The Tathagata has the ten powers and the four confidences and roars the Lion's Roar. He explains the arising and the passing away of material shape. He explains causation such as ignorance causes activities which cause consciousness and so on.

[22] 2. The Ten Powers Sutta 2 (Dasabalasutta 2). [Savatthi. The Buddha spoke.] The Dhamma being clearly enunciated by me. It is for the clansman to leave the world through faith and stir up energy and vow that until my flesh and bones wilt I will not give up until I have. won the goal. The man of sloth lives sadly doing wicked things. Not by that which is low can the highest be won. Monks, train yourselves. To discem one's good, to discern another's good, to discem the good of both is enough to stir up earnestness.

[23] 3. Causal Association (Upanisasutta). [Savatthi. The Buddha spoke.] Here the Buddha gives another chain of dependent origination. One whose intoxicants are extinct knows material shape and its uprising and knows of its extinction. Being Passionless is the cause of liberation. The cause of bringing passionless is revulsion. This is caused by the insight of things as they really are: This is causally connected to Concentration. This is causally connected to Happiness. This is causally connected to Serenity. This is causally connected to Rapture. This is causally connected to Joy. This is causally connected to Faith. This is causally connected to Suffering. This is causally connected to Birth. Becoming is associated with birth, grasping with becoming, craving with grasping, feeling with craving, contact with feeling, the sixfold sense-sphere with contact, name-and-shape with the sixfold sense-sphere, consciousness with name-and-shape, activities with consciousness, ignorance with activities. Thus ignorance is at the root of the chain that leads to suffering and old age-and-death (jarāmaraṇa).

[24] 4. Sectarian Teachers (Aññatitthiyasutta). [At Rajagaha j Once Sāriputta visited the wanderers and they asked him: "Some say that ill is self-wrought by oneself, some that it is wrought by others, some say by neither but happens through chance. What does Gotama say?" Sāariputta said that according to the Buddha ill happens through contact. Even in the case of, those who believe in karma that past karma was caused through contact. Similarly if someone's actions or pure chance cause those actions there has to be contact. Ananda who was listening to this conversations later reported it to the Buddha. The Buddha endorsed what Sāriputta had said, and that evil is caused through contact. Ananda then said that if asked the same question he would give the full formula of causation where 'contact' is an important link in the chain.

[25] 5. Bhūmija (Bhūmija). [Sāvatthi. This sutta is a continuation of the preceding one up to the point that the Buddha endorsed what Sāriputta had said.] Explaining kamma further the Buddha said that 'in a deed or speech consequences rise because of the will behind the deed or thought. Either we have planned those deeds through ignorance so consequences result or others have planned the deeds but because of ignorance we have done them wittingly for unwittingly, so there will be consequences. If there were no ignorance those deeds would not have been done.

[26] 6. Upavāṇa (Upavāṇasutta). [Savatthi. ] Here the monk Upavāṇa raises the same question in Sutta [24] whether suffering as wrought by oneself, others or chance. The Buddha says suffering happens through contact. The view of recluses and brahmins on kamma may be true but suffering will not happen without contact.

[27] 7. Causal Relation (Paccayasutta). [Savatthi. ] The Buddha tells the monks that activities are conditioned by ignorance, and hence arises the whole mass of ill. He then describes old age and death and says that it rises because of the uprising of birth. The Ariyan eightfold path is the way to stop old age and death. The Ariyan disciple who knows the causal relation has won the view, the vision and reached the good doctrine and. stands knocking at the door of the deathless (amatadvāra).

[28] 8. The Bhikkhu (Bhikkhusutta). [Savatthi.] Here it is said that the (true) bhikkhu knows what is decay and death (jarāmaraṇa) its uprising and its ceasing. As such he knows birth. Such a bhikkhu has won the view, the vision, the good doctrine; the stream and stands knocking at the door of the deathless.

[29] 9. Recluses and Bahmins 1 (Samaṇabrāhmanasutta 1). [Savatthi. ] Those recluses and Brahmins who do not understand decay-and-death, its uprising and its ceasing and do not understand the causal law are not regarded as recluses and brahmins within their circles. But those who do understand these things have understood what it is to be a recluse or a Brahmin.

[30] 10. Recluses and Bahmins 2 (Samaṇabrāhmanasutta 2). [Savatthi. ] Those recluses and Brahmins who do not understand decay-and-death and the factors behind it will not pass decay-and-death. Those who do understand and and practice what is required will pass beyond decay-and-death.

4. Kalāravagga – Kalāra Section

[31] 1. Become (Bhūtasutta) . [Savatthi. ] The Buddha was speaking to Sāriputta. He quoted this verse from the Sutta Nipata:

They who have mastered well the truth of things,
And they the many learning in thy Rule,
Of these the wisdom in the way they fare
I ask; dear sir. Speak thou of this to me.

The Buddha asked Sāriputta if he knew the full meaning of this verse. Sāriputta hesitated initially and then gave an expanded meaning of the stanza Mastering the truth of things is seen as seeing things as they really are, i.e. with revulsion from continually becoming. This is the way a person has to be trained. For one who is trained he has ceased to grasp at things. This is the case with the person who has mastered well the truth of things. The Buddha endorsed Sāriputta's explanation.

[32] 2. Kalāra (Kalārasutta. [Savatthi. ] Here venerable Kalāara goes to Sāriputta and said that Moliya Pagguna had left the order and asked if Sāriputta found comfort in the Dhamma and the Discipline. Sāriputta said he did,and was not worried about the future. Then Kalāra went to the Buddha and said that Sāriputta had said that he had won knowledge, destroyed birth, lived the holy life, done what has to be done, and there was nothing else to do (aññā byākatā, khinā jāti, vusitaṃ brahmacariyaṃ, kataṃ karanīyaṃ, nāparaṃ itthattāyā). The Buddha summoned Sāriputta who admitted implying as such but not using those exact words. Asked to explain how birth is destroyed Sāriputta gave the causal formula. He said: "Becoming is the cause of birth; Grasping is the cause of becoming, Craving is the cause of grasping; Feeling is the cause of becoming. The three modes of feeling are impermanent. And when it is discerned that that which is impermanent is Painful, blissful feeling is not present. Thus asked, thus should I make answer." The Buddha said: "Well done, Sāriputta, well done! Moreover the way to answer just this in brief is 'Whatever is felt is concerned with pain'". That said the Buddha left. The sutta concludes with an address by Sāriputta to the monks.

[33] 3. Bases of Knowledge 1 (Ṇānavatthusutta 1) . [Savatthi. ] The Buddha said "I will teach you the 44 bases of Knowledge". He then enumerated them. The list consists of 11 items, each considered in four ways: the item itself, its arising, its ceasing and way of its ceasing. The 11 items are: Decay-and-death, birth, becoming, grasping, craving, feeling, contact, sense, name-and-form, consciousness and activities. [No further explanation is given on the 44 items.]

[34] 4. Bases of Knowledge 2 (Ṇyānavatthusutta 2). [Savatthi. ] The Buddha said that he will expound the bases of knowledge in seven groups. These are the knowledge that (1) decay-and-death is conditioned by birth; (2) where birth is not there is no decay-and-death; (3) in times gone by decay-and-death were conditioned by birth; (4) then also where birth was not there was no decay-and-death (5) in time to come decay-and-death will be conditioned by birth, (6) them also where birth is not there will be no decay-and-death (7). whatever is knowledge of the law of cause, that is also knowledge of that which is by nature perishable, transient, fading away, tending to cease. With respect to each of these kinds of knowledge the causal formula is given.

[35] 5. Conditioned by ignorance 1 (Avijjāpaccayasutta 1). [Sāavatthi] Here the Buddha again repeated the causal formula: ignorance conditions activities, activities condition consciousness, etc. Then an unidentified questioner asked: "Whose is the decay-and-dying?". The Buddha said it was not a fit question, and the the Dhamma avoids extremes and is a doctrine of the middle. Then he repeated the causal formula where categories are said to follow each other but whosoever experiences them is not mentioned.

[36] 6. Conditioned by Ignorance 2 (Avijjāpaccayasutta 2). [Savatthi. ] This is the same as the previous sutta except that there is no "unfit" question asked.

[37] 7. Not yours (Natumbasutta). [Savatthi j The Buddha tells the monks the body is not yours nor that of anybody else. It is brought about by actions, volitions, feelings of the past. He then states that the Anyan disciple has to have the causal law in his mind always.

[38] Will 1 (Cetanāsutta 1). [Savatthi.] The Buddha states that will and intention are necessary for something to be stationed in the consciousness. So stationed it becomes factor in rebirth.

[39] 9. Will 2 (Cetanāsutta 2). [Savatthi.] Here the Buddha says that even if do not will or intend anything if we are occupied with anything it then has has the same effect as willing and intending it.

[40] 10. Will 3 (Cetanāsutta 3 . [Savatthi.] This restates the view that will, intention, or merely being engaged in something places it in consciousness and thus becomes a factor in rebirth.

5. Gahapativagga – Section on the Householder

[41] 1. Fivefold Guilty Dread 1 (Pañcaverahhayasutta 1). [Savatthi] The householder Anāathapiṇḍika came to see the Buddha who told him: When the Ariyan disciple masters the fivefold Guilty Dread and wins the four possessions of the Streamwinner can he say that he is not bound for hell or rebirth as an animal or Preta, and is bound for Enlightenment and can call himself a Streamwinner. The five Guilty Dreads are then given. These are the familiar five basic precepts relating to (1) taking of life, (2) taking what is not given, (3) acting wrongly in sense desires, (4) telling lies, and (5) indulging in strong drinks. The four possessions of the stream winner are: (1) unwavering faith in the Buddha, (2) in the Doctrine, (3) in the Order, and (4) keeping the Arryan virtues (not further detailed). Finally the disciple should thoroughly and systematically give his mind to the causal law.

[42] 2. Fivefold Guilty Dread 2 (Pañcaverabhayasuttasutta 2). [Savatthi] This is the same as the previous sutta but this time given to very many bhikkhus.

[43] 3. Suffering (Dukkhasutta).. [Savatthi] The Buddha tells the monks how' suffering arises and passes away: Because of seeing visual consciousness arises, then contact, then feeling, then craving, This is the arsing of-suffering. The same is then said with reference to hearing, smelling, tasting, touching and thinking.. They all generate the same causal effects leading to suffering: Suffering ceases by the giving away of craving. Then grasping ceases, then becoming ceases, then birth ceases, then decay-and-death, grief, lamentation, suffering and despair cease.

, . [44] 4. World (Lokasutta). [Savatthi] The scheme in the above sutta is applied to explain the origin and the cessation of the world. The word 'world' replaces the word 'suffering' in the previous sutta.

. . [45] 15. ðatika (ðatikasutta). While staying at ðatika the Buddha gave utterance to the Dukkhasutta [the sutta on suffering given above.] This was overheard by a monk. The Buddha noticed this and told that monk to master it.

[46] 6. A certain Brahmin (Aññatarabrājmaṇasutta). [Savatthi] A certain Brahmin approached the Buddha and asked: "Is the one who does the deed who experiences (the result)?" The Buddha said that this is one extreme, the other extreme is that another experiences the result. The Buddha avoids both and preaches the middle way. He then gave the causal formula from ignorance to the arising of ill and the reverse for its ceasing. The Brahmin becomes a lay follower of the Buddha.

[47] 7. Janussoni (Jānussoṇisutta). [Savatthi] The Brahmin Jānussoṇi asked the Buddha: "What do you say: everything is, or nothing is?". The Buddha replied that these two are extremes. The Tathāgata does not adopt either of these extremes and preaches the middle way and he cited the causal law from ignorance to the arising of ill and the reverse for its ceasing. The Brahmin became a lay follower.

[48] 8. The Lokāyatika Brahmin (Lokāyatikasutta). [Savatthi] A Brahmin approaches the Buddha and gave him four world views. These were: (1) Everything is, (2) Nothing is, (3) Everything is a unity, (4) Everything is a plurality. The Buddha said that they are the four kinds of extreme world wisdom. The Tathāgata does not approve any of them but gives the Doctrine of the Middle. Then the Buddha gave the causal law: from ignorance to the arising of ill and the reverse for its ceasing. The Brahmin became a lay follower.

[49] 9. The Ariyan disciple 1 (Ariyasāvakasutta 1). [Savatthi] The Buddha addressed the monks as follows: The well taught Ariyan disciple does not wonder what is now, what comes to be, [or any of the other links in the causal formula]. The well taught Ariyan disciple knows that this being that comes to be, consciousness leads to name-and-form, that to sense, that to contact, that to feeling, followed by craving, grasping, becoming, birth and decay-and-death. He knows that such is the arising of the world. He knows the ceasing of the world is the reverse of this. Tae Ariyan disciple has thus won the view and has seen the Dhamma and is a trained man. He has the insight of revulsion and stands knocking at the door of the deathless.
[50 10. The Ariyan disciple 2 (Ariyasāvakasutta 2). [Savatthi] This is the same as the previous sutta.

6. Dukkhavagga – Section on Suffering (or The Trees)

[51] 1. Investigating (Parivrmaṃsakasutta). [Savatthi] The Buddha was addressing the bhikkhus on how many ways a monk should ponder for the right destruction of ill The pondering monk ponders on what is the cause of ills in the world. He concludes that it is due to birth. He then ponders the cause of birth, of becoming, grasping, craving, feeling, contact, sense, name-and-form, consciousness and activities. He knows that activities arise due to ignorance and this in turn is caused by it antecedent factor which is consciousness and so on along the chain of causation until we come to birth.

An ignorant man may plan an act of merit or of demerit or a neutral act the consciousness arising tends to merit, to demerit, or to neither. But a man who has replaced ignorance with wisdom he does not plan any act. He gives up grasping and is utterly well (parinibbāyati). He knows birth is finished, the holy life lived, done what has to be done, there is nothing more to do. He knows that all feelings are transient and treats there with detachment.

He knows when his powers have reached their limit and when life has reached its term. Then all that he has felt will grow cold and the body will be left aside. The sutta ends with the monks agreeing with what the Buddha had said. [52] 2. Grasping (Upādānasutta). [Savatthi] Here it is said that craving grows in one contemplating the enjoyment of things that make for grasping. Then the sequence is given that craving conditions grasping which conditions becoming, which conditions birth, which conditions decay-and-death. From this arises all ill. The metaphor of a bonfire fed by various kinds of fuel is given to explain the nature of craving. If the fuel were to stop the fire will go out. Then the doctrine at the start is repeated again.

$$$ [53] 3. Fettters 1 (Sayojanasutta 1). [Savatthi] Here grasping is compared to the putting on of fetters or enfettering (saṃyojaniyesu). Then it is said that craving grows in one contemplating the enjoyment of things that make for enfettering. After that the same sequence as in the previous repeated with grasping replaced by enfettering. The metaphor is changed to that of an oil lamp which burns dependent on oil and the wick. If these are exhausted the lamp goes out. Then the doctrine at the start is repeated again.

[54] 4. Fetter 2.(Sayojanasutta 2). [Savatthi]. This is the same as the previous sutta except that the sutta begins with the oil lamp analogy and the rule stated after that. [55] 5. The Great Tree 1 (Mahārukkhasutta 1). [Savatthi] Here after the statement that craving grows in one contemplating the enjoyment of things that make for grasping (or enfettehng) the analogy of a great tree is given. The tree had deep and widespread roots which suck up the juice (oyam) for the tree to exist and grow. But a man man come along and cut the tree up and put it into a river and it will be no more. Similarly the nutriments that feed craving can be cut out.

[56] 6. The Great Tree 2 (Mahārukkhasutta 2). [Savatthi] This is the same as the previous sutta except that it starts with the analogy of the tree and the rule is giver after that.

[57] 7. The Young Tree (Tarunarukkhasutta). [Savatthi] After the statement that craving grows in those who are enfettered and grasp after enjoyment The analogy of a young tree is given and a man tends it carefully giving it earth and water and the tree will grow. So will craving in the negligent person. But a person who contemplates the misery in all things that make for enfettering and grasping will cease craving and thus put an end to sorrow and suffering. This is compared to a person who comes and digs out the young tree cuts it up and puts it into a river. Similarly with the ceasing of craving there will be an end to suffering.

[58] 18. Name and Shape (Nāmarūpasutta). [Savatthi] This sutta is the same as the Great Tree sutta [55] except that 'Name-and-Shape' replaces 'Craving'.

[59] 19. Conscience (Viññāṇasutta). [Savatthi] This sutta is the same as the Great Tree sutta [55] except that 'Consciousness' replaces 'Craving'.

[60] 10. The Base (Nidānasutta). When the Buddha was at Kammisadamma in the Kuru country Ananda approached the Buddha and said that the causal law may appear deep but that it is very plain. The Buddha corrected him and said that it was indeed deep. By not understanding it this generation had got entangled unable to avoid the Waste. The sutta concludes with the parable of the great tree [551.

7. Mahāvagga – The Great Section

[61] 1. The Untaught 1 (Assutavāsutta 1). [Sāvatthi] The untaught tend to be repelled by the material body seeing its decay. But they are not repelled by thought and mind. This is because they have clung to what they regarded as "mine" thinking tht it is their (unchanging) spirit and they ae not repelled by it. It would be better for the untaught to regard the body as the self rather than the mind. The body can last for a long time, up to even a hundred years. But the mind which we call consiousness changes from moment to moment. It is like a mnkey swingng from branch to branch, So the well taught Ariyan disciple is not only repelled by the body but also by feeling, perception, activities and consiousness. He undersands the causal law: conditioned by ignorance activities arise, these lead to conciousness, then to name-and-shape, then to sense, then to contact, t hen to feeling, then to craving, then to grasping, then to becoming, hen to birth, teh to decay-and-death and the whole mass of ill.

[62] 2. The unaught 2 (Asuttavāsutta 2). [Sāvatthi] This is the same as the previous sutta with an adds as follows:

Pleasant contact leads to pleasant feeling; painful contact to painful feeling; neutral contact to neutral feeling. So the Ariyan deciple is repelled by contact, so also is repelled by feeling, by perception and by consciousness.Thereby he is set free. He knows that birth is ended, the holy life lived, done that which was to be done, and there is nothing hereafter.

[63] 3. Child's flesh (Puttamaṃsasutta). [Sāvatthi] The Buddha begins this sutta by saying that there are four kinds of food: material foeed, contat, willing of mind, and conciousness. in relation to the first he gives a story of parents and child going on a long journey through a jungle and not taking sufficient food to last the journey. They run out of food in the jungle and faced with all three perishing they consider killing he child and consuming his flesh so possibly saving two of them. This story is related to illustrate the principle that food should be used for nourishment not for pleasure. When the Ariyan disciple understands this the passions of the senses are understood.
Similar stories are given to explain the other three kinds of food. The conclusion is that when the Ariyan disciple understands these four kinds of food there is nothing further to do.

[64] 4.There is passion (Atthirāgasutta). [Sāvatthi] This is a further discourse on the four foods. When there is passion, delight and craving for solid food conciousness is set. This leads to name-and-shape, this to growth of ctivities, this to renewed becoming and rebirth, this to decay-and-death, grief affliction and despair. If here is no passion then thre is a negative sequence: no consciousness and so on down to no rebirth and no decay-and-death.

[65] 5. The ciy (Nagarasutta). [Sāvatthi] This is a personal reminiscence of the Buddha from the time he was a Bodhisattva. He recount how he came to find the causal law and the path to Enlightenment. He said that he had declared all that he had found out.

The Buddha then give a parable of a man travelling through a forest who discovers an ancient road until he comes to city inhabited by ancient people and ruled by a potentiate. The Buddha says he too found the ancient road and this is none other than the Noble Eightfold Path. He says that he as revealed all.

[66] 6. Investigation (Sammasasutta). At Kammadassana in the Kuru country the Buddha asked the monks how they do investigation ( sammasa) [The PTS translates this term as 'internal handling'.] He then proceeded to expound it. Regarding the manifold suffering in the world the monk should ask what causes it. It is due to a base (upadhi) and this should be sought. If investigated the source is craving. Craving arises from what seems lovely and pleasant. Then the chain of causation is given which starts with sense impressions (sight, hearing and so on) and ends with becoming, birth and decay-and-death. Whoever in the past thought that the pleasant and lovely were permanent and saw it as happy and as self made craving grow and were not liberated from birth, old age and death. They were not liberated fromm suffering. The Buddha compare this a beautiful drinking cup to which a fragrant poison has been put and anyone drinking from it will come to mortal harm. But aperson who rejects that cup and takes on with wholesome drink comes to no harm. This is the case with anyone in the future or in the present. The sheaf of reeds

[67] 7. (Naḷakalāpiī sutta). Sāriputt and Mahā Koṭṭhita were in Benares when the latter said to the former: "Is old age-and-death caused by onself, or by another, or by both, or by neither". Sāriputta said that it was not caused by any of these four but it was caused by birth. Then the question was put with respect to birth and the answer given was becoming. Then becoming was conditioned by grasping, grasping by craving, craving by feeling, feeling by contact, contact by sense, sense by name-and-shape, name-and-shape by consciousness and consciousness by name-and-shape, [Note that consciousness both conditions and is conditioned by name-and-form.] Sāriputta gave the analogy of two mutually supporting sheafs of reeds, pulling one will cause the other to fall. Sāriputts concludes by saying that a monk who teaches revulsion from decay-and-death and the ceasing of decay-and-death then he is a Dhamma teacher. If this monk has also freed from grasping then he is called a monk who has won Nibbāna in this life.

[68] 8. Kosambi (Kosambisutta). Once venerables Musīla, Saviṭṭha , Nāradha and Ananda were staying at Kosambi when Saviṭṭha asked Musīla: "Have you on your own the knowledge that decay-and-death is conditioned by birth?". Musīla said: "Yes". Then Musīla was questioned whether he knew by himself the other links in the causal chain and Musīla answered: "Yes". Finally he was asked if he was an Arahant and he was silent. The other three monks were also asked the same questions and they gave the same answers that Musīla gave but none of them claimed to be Arahants.

[69] 9. Swelling (Upayantisutta). [Sāvatthi] The Buddha said that when the ocean swells the great rivers swell and this effect is carried back even to the small lakes in the mountains. The reverse happens when the ocean ebbs. Similarly when ignorance swells activities swell and this effect is carried along the causal chain until decay -and-death swells. Similarly if ignorance ebbs this effect is transmitted along the chain until decay-and-death ebbs.

[70] 10. Susīma (Susīmasutta). Once when the Buddha was at Rajagaha the Buddha and the monks were well looked after by the people but not the Wanderers. The Wanderers went to their leader Susīma and asked him to go to the Buddha, join the Order; learn the Dhamma, and tell it to them so that they can preach it to the people and earn their care. So Susīma went to the Buddha and requested the going forth and he was made a bhikkhu.

At that time several monks declared "aññā" by saying: "We have destroyed birth, lived the holy life, done what has to be done and there is nothing left to do". Then Susīma went to the monks and asked them several questions such as if they had got super-normal powers and they said: "Not so, friend". Then Susīma went to the Buddha and told him what the monks said. The Buddha said that knowledge of cause-and-effect comes first then knowledge of Nibbāna. He made Susīma admit the following: that the body is impermanent, that it is painful, that it should not be regarded as mine or my soul (attā). He then explained the causal law with Susīma agreeing. But questioning further he made Susīma admit that he did not have the extra super-normal powers. This made Susīma to admit his transgression that he became a bhikkhu under false pretences. He begged for forgiveness and the Buddha granted him this

8. Samaṇabrāhmaṇavagga – Recluses and Brahmins Section

[71] 1. Decay-and-death (Jarāmaraṇasutta 1). [Sāvatthi] Any recluse and Brahmin who does not know decay-and-death, its origin, its cessation and the way leading to the cessation is not approved as a recluse or brahmin and is not a recluse or brahmin. Any recluse or brahmin who knows decay-and-death is approved as a recluse or brahmin and is a recluse or brahmin.

[72] The same as above but relating to birth, becoming, grasping, craving, feeling, contact, sense, name-and-shape, consciousness, and activities.

9. Anterapeyyālavagga – Abridged Contents

[73] 1. The Teacher (Satthusutta). [Sāvatthi] For those who do not know the causal law a teacher should be sought ... must be done, ... practice mist be done, ... will must be exercised, ... exertion must be made, ... there must be no turning back, ... there must be ardour, ... there must be energy, ... there must be perseverance, ... there must be mindfulness, ... there must be understanding, . . . there must be earnestness.

13. Abhisamayasaṃyuta – Understanding

[74] 1. (sutta). Taking a pinch of dust the Buddha asked: "Which is greater this pinch of dust or the mightly earth". The Bhikkhus answered the pinch of dust is little. The Buddha said: "Just so little is the ill remaining for the Ariyan disciple (compared to other recluses and brahmins) he has destroyed most of the ill".

[75] 2. The water tank (Pokkraṇīsutta). The Buddha asked: If a man draws water from a large water tank with the tip of a blade of grass which is greater the water in the tank or on the tip of the blade of grass? The bhikkhus said that the water on the tip of grass is little. The Buddha said: "Just so little is the ill remaining for the Ariyan disciple ... {as in previous sutta]".

[76] 3. Confluence of waters (Sambhejjaudakasutta). ... If great rivers like the Ganges and Yamuna were to join together and a man were to draw two or three drops of water which is greater the water he draws or that in the river. The monks answered that the water drawn was very little, then Buddha said: "Just so little is the ill remaining for the Ariyan disciple ... [as in previous sutta]".

[77] 4. Confluence of waters 2 (Sambhejjaudakasutta 2). Same as the above sutta except that now it is said that the confluent waters may die away leaving the two or three drops drawn by the man, but so little is the ill remaining in the Ariyan disciple.

[78] 5. The earth (Pathavisutta). Here seven little balls of clay is compared to the earth and just as it is little so is the ill remaining in the Ariyan disciple.

[79) 6. The earth 2 (Pathavisutta 2). Here the earth is said to perish leaving behind the seven balls of clay and just as this remainder is little so is the ill remaining in the Ariyan disciple.

[80] 7. The sea (Samuddasutta).
Just as the water in the ocean is greater than a few drops of water gathered by a man from the ocean so great is the benefit of the wheel of Dhamma (dhammacakkhupaṭilābha)  (compared to what other recluses and brahmins get).

[81] 8. The sea 2 (Samuddasutta 2).
If the sea were to become extinct except for two or three drops gathered by a man the extinct water is compared to the benefit of the wheel of Dhamma.

[82] 9. The mountain (Pabbatasutta).
Here the comparison is of seven grains of sand to the Himalaya mountain. Just as the latter is very much larger so is the the benefit of the wheel of Dhamma.

[83] 10. The mounain 2 (Pabbatasutta 2).
In the comparison of the above sutta the relative size of the seven grains is compared the ill remainign with the Ariyan disciple.

[84] 11. The mounain 3 (Pabbatasutta 3).
Here seven grains of gravel are compared to the Himalaya mountain and it is said that the ill remaining with the Ariyan disciple is like these of seven grains of gravel while that of other recluses and Brahmins is like the Himalaya mountain.