14. Dhātusaṃyutta – Sayings on Condition (elEement)

[Unless otherwise stated the sutta is placed in Sāvatthi; the initial speaker is the Buddha.]
[The five suttas below 1 - 5 deal with the internal condition.]

1. Nānattavaggo - Section on Diversity

[85] 1. Diversity of Elements (Dhātunanātasutta). The elements of eye, of visible object, of eye-awareness; the elements of ear, of sound, of ear-awareness; the elements of nose, of odour, of nose-awareness; the elements of tongue, of taste, of tongue-awareness; the elements of body, of tangibles, of body-awareness; the elements of mind, of ideas, of mind-awareness: this, brethren, is called diversity in elements.'

[86] 2. Diversity of touch (Phassanānattasutta). Corresponding to each diversity of element [given in the previous sutta] there is a diversity of contact (eye contact, etc.).

[87] 3. Direction of contact (Nopassanānattasutta). Because of diversity of element there is diversity of contact, not vice versa.

[88] 4. Feeling 1Vedanānānsutta). This kind of diversity follows from the diversity of contact. Each kind of diversity of contact has its own diversity of sense.

[89] 5. Feeling 2 (Dutīyavedanānānsutta). Diversity of feeling arises from the diversity of contact, not vice versa.

[The five suttas below 6 - 10 deal with the external element.]

[90] 6. External element (Bāhiradhātunānattasutta). This sutta restates the six external elements that is the form element (rūpadhātu), sound element, odour-element , taste element, tangible element and the idea element.

[91] 7. Perception element (Sanññānānattasutta). A chain of causation exists from diversity in elements to diversity in perceptions (sanññānānatta), and from there to diversity in intensions (saṅkappanānatta), and from there to diversity in desires (chandanānatta) and from there to diversity in yearnings (pariḷāhanānatta), and from there to diversity in quests (pariyesanānānatta). This explains the causal connections that arise form diversity of (external) elements.

[92] 8. Wrong direction of causation (nopariyesanānānattasuttasutta). Diversity of perception comes from diversity of element and not the other way (that is element diversity does not come from perception diversity). This applies to all the other causal relations mentioned in the previous sutta.

[93] 9. External contact 1 (Bāhirapassanānānattasutta 1). The sutta applies another link to the chain given in sutta 7 which ends in diversity in quests. It is now asserted that from the diversity of quests there comes the diversity of gains (lābhanānatta).

[94] 10. External contact 2 (Bāhirapassanānānattasutta 2). This is a repetition of the previous sutta with the emphasis on the reverse order to that given in this sutta.

2. Dutiyavaggo -- The second section

[95] 1. The Seven elements (Sattadhātusutta). Here the Buddha identifies seven elements, as follows: (1) The radiance element; (2) the beauty element; (3) the space-infinity-element, (4) the consciousness-infinity element; (5) the nothingness-sphere-element; (6) The neither-perception-nor-non-perception element; (7) the perception-and-feeling cessation element. The first three are revealed through darkness, ugliness and visible objects; the others by the preceding element. They are attained by the attainment of perception or from the previous attainment. No further explanation is given.

[96] 2. With causal basis (Sanidānasutta). Sense desires, ill-will and so on arise out of a causal basis. From sense desires arise sense perceptions, desires, motivations, and quests. This leads the untaught worldling to do wrong in thought, word and deed. Also thought of renunciation, benevolence too rise from a cause. This leads the Ariyan disciple to do good in thought, word and deed.

[97] 3. The Brick Hall (Giñjakāvasathasutta). While living in the brick house in Ratika the Buddha said: Monks, Because of an element there arises a thought or a notion. The element of ignorance leads to bad thoughts, volitions, etc. Average (knowledge) is that which leads to average thoughts etc., and excellent (knowledge) is that which leads to excellent thoughts.

[98] 4. Low tastes (Hīnādhimutthikasutta). Beings meet and congregate together because of an element. Thus beings with lowtastes congreate together, those with virtuous tastes meet together. This is always the case.

[99] 5. Walking (Caṅkamasutta). Once when the Buddha was at Gijjakūta in Rajagaha the chief disciples were walking each with his own followers. Then the Buddha told the monks about each of these groups. Those following Sāriputta were of great widom, those following Moggallāna were of great will potency, those following Kassapa were of strict observance, those following Anuruddga were of deva insight those following Puṇṇa Mantāniputta were of right converse, those following Upali were Vinaya knowersm those following Devadattawere evil persons.

[100] 6. With verses (Sagāthāsutta). Rubbish joins with rubbish, so too beings gather together because of an element. Thus the virtuous join with the virtuous just as milk with milk, honey with honey and so on. In verse the Buddha said lust is born of (wrong) association; he who associates with a man of sloth is like a person on a plank in the ocean who goes under, let him consort with the noble contemplative persons.

[101] 7. Associating with the unconscientious (Assaddhasaṃsandanasutta). It is through an element that the associations of the following seven groups of beings take place: (1) unbelievers (assaddhā) with unbelievers, (2) the unconscientious (ahirikā) with the unconscientious, (3) the indiscreet (anotappino) with the indiscreet, (4) the untaught (appassutā) with the untaught, (5) the lazy (kusiā) with the lazy, (6) the muddleminded (muṭṭhassatino) with the muddleminded, and (7) the unwise (dupaññā) with the unwise. So it has been in the past, so it is now, so it will be in the future.

[102] 8. (Assadhamūlikesutta). This is sutta 7 dealing with only 3 kinds of being (unbelievers, the unconscientious and the unwise).

[103] 9. (Ahirikamūlakasutta). This is sutta 7 dealing with only 3 kinds of being (unconscientious, indiscreet and the unwise).

[104] 10. (Anottappamūlakssutta). This is sutta 7 dealing with only 3 kinds of being (indiscreet, the uneducated and the unwise).

[105] 11. (Appasuttamūlakasutta). This is sutta 7 dealing with only 3 kinds of being (uneducated, the lazy and the unwise).

[106] 12. (Kusitmūlakasutta). This is sutta 7 dealing with only 3 kinds of being (the lazy, the muddleminded and the unwise).

3. Kammapathavaggo -- Courses of Action

[107] 1. The unconcentrated (Asamāhitasutta). Just as the unbelievers, the unconscientious, the indiscreet, the unconcentrated, and the unwise meet with beings who similarly oriented so too are the believers, the conscientious, the discreet, the concentrated, and the wise meet with those who are similar to them.

[108] 2. The vicious (Dussīlasutta). This is the same as the previous sutta with vicious (dussīla) substituted for unconcentrated (asamāhita).

[109] 3. Five precepts (pañcasikkhāpadasutta). Those observing ghe five precepts associate with other doing so; so also those not observing the precepts associae with those not observing thej.

[110] 4. Seven precepts (satakammapathssuttS/i>). Here the fifth of the five precepts (on consuming liquor) is taken out and three others relating to wrong speech (slander, abuse and gossip) substiuted making the seven.

[111] 5. Ten precepts (Dasakammpathasutta
). This adds three more precepts (covetousness, maleciousness and wrong views) to the seven in the previous sutta making the ten.

[113] 6. Eight limbs (Aṭṭaṅgikasutta). Here the elements of the Eightfold Path are kataken as the basis of common association.

[113] 7. Ten limbs (Dasaṅgikasutta). Two more elements (wrong knowledge and wrong emancipation are added to the eight in the previous sutta to give the ten limbs.

4. Catuttavagga -- the fourth section

[114] 1. Four elements (Catudhātusutta). The four elements are: earth, water, heat and air.

[115] 2. Before Enlightement (Pubbesambodhasutta). Before his enlightenment he reflected on the satisfaction, the misery and the escape from the four elements. He said that enlightenment came to him when he realized the satisfaction as such, the misery as such, and the escape as such from these four elements. This led to the emancipation of his mind and his realization that this was his last birth and there is no more rebecoming.

[116] 3. I walked (Acariṃsuta). The Buddha continued: I walked seeking satisfaction from the four elements... [The rest as in the previous sutta].

[117] 4. If not for this (Nocedaṃsutta). If not for the satisfaction that comes from the earth element beings would not lust. If not for the misery coming form it being would not be repelled, if no the escape from it beings would not escape from it. The same applies to the other three elements. When being come to fully know this beings live detached from the world.

[118] 5. Sufffering (Ekantadukkhasutta). If the four elements were entirely suffering beings would not lust after them. But as they are pleasant being lust after them. But because each of these elements are beset with suffering beings are repelled by them.

[119] 6. Delight (Abhinandasutta). He who takes dlight in any of the four elements takes delight in suffering. He is not wholly free of suffering. Taking no delight in the four elements will beings be set free.

[120] 7. Uprising (Uppādasutta). The uprising of the four elements is the uprising of suffering. The going out of the four element s is the going out of pain.

[121] 8. Recluses and Brahmins 1 (Samanabrāhmanasutta 1). Any recluse or Brahmin who does not really understand the satisfaction, the misery and the escape from the four elements is not a considered a real recluse or Brahmin and is in fact no recluse or Brahmin. The opposite is the case for those who really understand them.

8[122] 9. Recluses and Brahmins 2 (Samanabrāhmanasutta 2). What is said of recluses and Brahmins in the previous suta is also tgrue if these recluses and Brahmins if they do not understand any one of these four elements.

[123] 10. Recluses and Brahmins 3 (Samanabrāhmanasutta 3). What is said of recluses and Brahmins in the two previous suttas is also true if the recluses and Brahmins do not understand even the nature of the satisfaction, the misery and the escape from the four elements ...

15. Anamataggasaṃyutta – Sayings on Incalculable Beginning

1. Paṭhamavaggo -- Section 1

[124] 1. Grass and Brushwood (Tiṇakaṭṭhasutta). The Buddha said: Incalculable is the beginning of this faring on (samsāra). The earlist point is not revealed on this running on, this faring on, of beings cloaked in ignorance, tied to craving. [This sentence is repeated in most of the following suttas at the beginning or end, some times in both.] If all the leaves in the trees in India were piled up then the number of leaves would be less than the number of mothers one would have had. Incalculable is the beginning...

[125] 2. Earth (Patavīsutta). If the great earth were to be made into small balls the number of balls would be less than the number of fathers one would have had in the long faring of saṃsaṃsāra . All that time you have suffered, long enough to lose passion for the things of the world. Incalculable is the beginning...

[126] 3. Tears (Assusutta). The tears you have shed for for your departed relatives in the long faring of saṃsaṃsāra is greater than the waters in this earth. Incalculable is the beginning...

[127] 4. Milk (Khīrasutta). The mothers' milk you would have drunk in the long faring of saṃsaṃsāra is greater than the waters in the ocean. Incalculable is the beginning...

[128] 5. The hill (Pabbasutta). The Buddha explained the length of an eon with a parable thus; If a great mountain were to be stroked once cevery century by a piece of fine Kasi cloth the mountain would be worn out before an eon is finished. Incalculable is the beginning ...

[129] 6. The mustard seed (Sāsapasutta). If a city a yojana long, wide and high awere to be filled with mustard seeds. and a seed taken out each century the city would be emptieed long before an eon would have passed. Many such eons would have passed. Incalculable is the beginning ...

[130] 7. Disciples. (sutta). In a parable to show how many eons would have gone by, it is assumed that if a group of disciples could recall 400,000 eons in a day they would not have recalled all the eons that would have passed even if they lived a century. Incalculable is the beginning ...

[131] 8. The Ganges (Gaṅgāsutta). Here a brahmin asks the same question(i.e how many eons have passed?). The Buddha says that the number exceeds the number of grains of sand in the Ganges river. Incalculable is the beginning ...

[132] 9. The stick (Daṇḍasutta). Just as a stick thrown into the air will fall on one side or the other so beings go from this world to the other world and vice versa. Incalculable is the beginning ...

[133] 10. A person Puggalasutta). If the bones of a single person during an eon were collected and piled up it would exceed Mount Vepulla in size. Incalculable is the beginning ...

2. Dutiyavaggo -- Section 2

[134] 1. Hard times (Duggtasutta). When you encounter someone in hard times like poverty then you should judge it as this: We too have suffered like this (in the long faring on). Incalculable is the beginning ...

[135] 2. Happy times ((Sukhitasutta). [Same as previous sutta with "hard times" replaced by "Happy times"]. Incalculable is the beginning ...

[136] 3. Thirty (monks). (Tiṃsamattasutta). Thirty monks practicing austerities came from Pava to see the Buddha. The Buddha asked: which is greater the blood you had shed as you fared on or the waters of the four oceans. The monks said that they had been told that it is the former. The Buddha confirmed this and added: "Many are the days you have suffered, many were the disasters you have enountered, many the times robbers have seized you and shed your blood. This is enough for you to be repelled by the things of the world, to lose passion for them and to be delivered from them". Incalculable is the beginning ...

[137] 4. Mother (Mātusutta). It is dificult to find a person who during this long faring has not been a mother. This is because ncalculable is the beginning ...

[138] 5. Father (Pitusutta). 'Father' replaces 'mother' in the sutta given in section [137].

[139] 6. Brother (Bhātusutta). 'Brother' replaces 'mother' in the sutta given in section [137].

[140] 7. Sister Bhginisutta). 'Sister' replaces 'mother' in the sutta given in section [137].

[141] 8. Son (Puttasutta). 'Son' replaces 'mother' in the sutta given in section [137].

[142] 9. Daughter (Dhītusutta). 'Daughter' replaces 'mother' in the sutta given in section [137].

[143] 10 Mount Vepulla (Vepullapabbatasutta). Once while at Gijjakuta in Rajagaha the Buddha addressed the monks: This mountain now known as Vepulla was known as Pācīnavaṃsa at the time of Buddha Kakusanda. The people were known as Tivaras with a life span of 40,000 years. All that has passed away. Later at the time of Buddha Komagamana this hill was known as Vankaka to the people called Rohitassa. Still later the mountain was called Supassa and the people were called Suppiya. Now in my time as the Buddha the mountain is called Vipula and the people are known as Magadhans. Their lifespan is short. The time will come when this name (of the mountain) will also disappear and the people will die out. So impermanent are things in the world and you should be repelled by them. Then you will lose passion and will be liberated.

16. Kassapasaṃyutta – Sayings on Kassapa

[144] 1. Contentment (Santuṭṭhasutta). The Buddha addressing the monks said said that the monk Kassapa was always contented with whatever robe he was given. He was similarly contented with what alms he receives, with what lodgings he has and with what medications he gets. He will enjoy these with no clinging. The Buddha concluded: I exhort you too to be like Kassapa contented with robes, alms, lodgings and medications that you are given.

[145] 2. Without Moral Dread (Anottappīsutta). Once at Issipatana Ven Sāriputta asked Ven Mahā Kassapa: 'It is said without effort (anātāpi) and fear of wrong-doing (anottappī) one cannot reach enlightenment, Nibbāna and the uttermost goal; but with these it is possible to do so. Why is that so ?' Kassapa replied: 'A bhikkhu is without effort and incapable of reaching enlightenment and the rest when he thinks (i) if bad states not arisen were to arise leading to hurt no effort is to be made; (ii) bad states which have arisen are not to be eliminated; (iii) no effort is made for good things not arisen to arise; (iv) no effort is made to prevent good things that have happened from ceasing. He can reach enlightenment and the rest if in each of these four situations he acts with effort and Moral Dread'.

[146] 3. Comparable to the Moon (Candūpamasutta). The Buddha spoke thus: Bhikkhus, when you go among families (kulāni) be like the moon, be withdrawn (apakassa) in both body and mind, as if it were a dry well, a precipice or a swamp. Kassapa did so. And what kind of monk is worthy to go among families? He should be free as a hand waving in space, not bound down or seized up. He should think let those who desire gains do so, those who seek merit work merit. He should be pleased at the gains of others as if they were his own gains. This was what Kassapa did.
      For which kind of monk is the teaching of the Dhamma pure, for whom is it impure? To be pure he should regard the Dhamma as well declared by the Exalted One, as relating to the present, not a matter of time; a doctrine of "come and see", leading on, one understood by the wise each for oneself. He should teach it in a way that the hearer could acknowledge it and practice it. This is how Kassapa taught the Dhamma.

[147] 4. Visiting the Families (Kulūpakusutta). The Buddha spoke thus as Sāvatthi: A monk is unworthy to go among families if he asks the families to give, not refuse to give, to give abundantly of excellent things, and to give respectfully. If they do not do so such a monks will feel vexed and hurt. A monk who does the opposite is one who is worthy to go among families. Kassapa was such a monk

[148] 5. Growing old (Jiñṇṇasutta). While at Rajagaha in the bamboo grove Ven Kassapa vsited the Buddha. The following conversation ensued:
BUDDHA'You are old now and wear cast off clothing which is irksome to you. You should accept robes given by householders and accept their invitation for meals. and you should live near to me
KASSAPAI have long been a forest dweller. I do the alms round, I wear cast off clothes, and I have only three robes. I am contented, I relish aloofness, and I am strenuous. I commend these to others.
BUDDHA What advantage do you get living like this ?
KASSAPATwo advantages, my happiness and compassion for those coming after me.
BUDDHAVery good Kassapa, wear rag robes, do the alms round and dwell in the forest.
[149] 6. Exhortation (1) (Ovādasutta). Once in the bamboo grove in Rajagaha the Buddha told Ven Mahā Kassapa: 'Either you or I should now give a talk to the monks on Dhamma'. Kassapa answered that the monks were now not in a state to be exhorted on the Dhamma. He said that he had heard two monks Bhanda and Abhinjika say to each other "Which one of us can speak the more, the better and the longer?". The Buddha then summoned these two monks and asked them if the reported talk between them was correct. They admitted that they had spoken in that manner. Then the Buddha asked them if he had ever taught them to out-talk each other,.  They admitted that no such instruction had been given. Realising their error they fell at the feet of the Buddha and asked for forgiveness, which was extended to them.

[150] 7. Exhortation (2) (Dutiyaovādasutta). As in the previous sutta the Buddha asks Ven Kassapa if he would give an exhortation to the Bhikkhus on Dhamma. Kassapa says that the monks are not in a mood to receive the Dhamma. He the gives the causes that lead to decline in a person (meaning a Bhikkhu). This occurs when the person lacks faith (asaddho), lacks shame (ahiriko), has no fear of evil (anotappī), is lazy (kusīto), has little wisdom (dupañño), is angry (kokhano), is hateful (upanāhi) and is averse to taking good advice (na santi ovādakā). Such a person is compared to the moon in its phase of decline. On the other hand the person who has the opposite of these qualities is one who is in a state of growth and can be compared to the moon in its phase of growth. The Buddha approved these views of Kassapa,

[151] 8. Exhortation (3) (Tatiyaovādasutta) . As in the two previous suttas the Buddha asks Ven Kassapa to give a Dhamma talk to the monks. Again Kassapa declines on the ground that the monks are not in a state to receive Dhamma instruction as they are intractable and not in a state to receive instruction. The Buddha then tells Kassapa the difference between those to whom Dhamma exhorations can be given successfully and those for whom this cannot be done. Those in the former category are monks who are forest dwellers (āraññikā), alms-men (piṇḍapātikā) , rag-robe wearers (paṃsukūlikā), three-garment men (tecīvarikā), with few wants (appicchā), contented (santuṭṭā), secluded (vivekassa), aloof from society (asaṃsaggassa, and energetic. Such bhikkhus can make good use of the Dhamma for their welfare. Those with the opposite characteristics are those to whom Dhamma cannot be given.

[152] 9. Jhāna and Super-knowledge (Jhānābhiññasutta). While staying at Sāvatthi the Buddha told the monks of the things that he and Kassapa both could achieve. These were abiding in the four jhānas, the infinity of space, the infinity of conciousness, the state of nothingness, the sense of percipience nor non-percipience, the ceassation of percipience and feeling, become manifold, pass through walls, dive into the ground, travel through air seated, stroke the sun and moon, control the body, acquire the divine hearing, read the mind of others, remember former lives in great detail, knowing the future birth of beings now deceasing, and through the withering of the intoxicants (āsavā) reaching emancipation of mind in this very life.

[153] 10. The Bhikkhunis' Quarters (Upassayasutta). Once in Sāvatthi Ven Ananda persuaded Ven Kassapa to join him in a visit to the Bhikkhuni quarters. There Kassapa gave a Dhamma discourse to the bhikkhunis and got up from his seat and departed. Then Bhikkhuni Thullatissa told Ananda: 'Why should Ven Kassapa who was once a heretic (aññatitthiya) give a discourse when the learned Ven Ananda is there? It is like the needle seller selling a needle to the needle maker' ! Kassapa overheard this remark and refuted the aspersions of the bhikkhuni. He related to Ananda the story of his going forth as a forest monk obtaining his food through the alms round and wearing robes made from discarded rags. He related his first encounter with the Buddha on the road between Rajagaha and Nālandā when the Buddha acknowledged him as a worthy disciple. He also related his many accomplishments, his ability to reach the Jhānas and acquire the super knowledges. The sister Thullatissa fell away from the holy life.

[154] 11. The Robe (Cīvarasutta). Once Ven Ananda was touring the hills around Rajagaha with many monks. About thirty of them had renounced the holy life and returned to the family life. On his return to Rajagaha he went to see Ven Kassapa who chided him, calling him a boy (kumārako), for going on tour with young men whose senses were unguarded, ate immoderately and did not keep the rules. He said that Ananda's followers were melting away. Then the bhikkhuni Tullatissa was displeased at Kassapa calling Ananda a 'boy' and said that Kassapa had once been a heretic. This remark was overheard by Kassapa who gave the same account (as reported in the previous sutta) of his becoming a forest monk, wearing a robe made of rags, of the praise he received from the Buddha and his spiritual accomplishments. Once again sister Thullatissa fell away from the holy life.

[155] 12. After Death (Paraṃmaraṇasutta). Once at Isipatana in Benares the following conversation took place between Ven Sāri putta and /ven Kassapa:
SARIPUTTADoes a Tathāgata come to be after death?
KASSAPAThe Buddha has not declared that it is so.
SARIPUTTADoes a Tathāgata not come to be after death?
KASSAPAThe Buddha has not declared that it is so.
SARIPUTTADoes a Tathāgata both come to be and not come to be after death?
KASSAPAThe Buddha has not declared that it is so.
SARIPUTTAWhy has the Buddha not declared these ?
KASSAPABecause they do not pertain to our good, does not belong to the principles of the divine life, does not conduce to Nibbāna.
SARIPUTTAWhat then had the Buddha declared?
KASSAPAThe Buddha has declared this is ill, this is its uprising, this is its ceasing, this is the path to the ceasing of ill.
SARIPUTTAWhy has the Buddha declared this?
KASSAPABecause it pertains to our good, it belongs to the first principles of the divine life, it conduces to Nibbāna.

[156] 13. A false Dhamma (Saddhammappatirūpakasutta). While living in the Jeta grove at Sāvatthi Ven Kassapa visited the Buddha and asked: "Why is it that formerly there were few precepts and more Arhats while now there are more precepts and less Arhats?" The Buddha replied: "When the true doctrine disappears there are many precepts and few Arhats. The true doctrine disappears when a false doctrine appears in the world, The four physical elements do not make the true doctrine disappear. When foolish men (moghapurisā) arise in the Order will the true doctrine disappear. It declines when bhikkhus, bhikkhunis, laymen and laywomen live in irreverence and unruliness towards the Teacher, the Dhamma, the Sangha, the training and concentation. Only when there is reverence towawrds these five things will the true doctrine flourish.

17.  Lābhasaṃyutta – Sayings on Gain and Favours

Paṭmavaggo – First Section

[157] 1. Serious! (Dāruṇasutta). The Buddha addresses the monks at Sāvatthi: Very serious are gains, favours and flattery. They are a serious obstacle to reaching perfect freedom (anuttara yogakkhma). [Abbriviated hereafter as 'Very serious ...']
Train yourselves to put them aside if they arise. [Abbreviated hereafter as 'Train yourselves ...'].

[158] 2. The Hook (Baisasutta). 'Very serious ...']
A fish swallowing a baited hook cast by a fisherman is in great danger. Here fisherman means Māra, the hook is gains and favours.
Train yourselves ...'

[159] 3. The Tortoise (Kummasutta). 'Very serious ...'
A family of tortoises lived in a pool. One tortoise said to another: 'Do not go to that place". But the tortoise went there and got harpooned. He returned with the rope attached to the harpoon trailing behind. The first tortoise said: 'You have gone there and met the same danger as your father and grandfather. You are no longer with us'. Here the harpoonist is Māra the harpoon is gains and favours.
Train yourselves ...'

[160] 4. Long Fleece (Dīghalomikasutta). 'Very serious ...'
Just as a long-fleeced goat gets caught in a thicket of scrub so will a monk overome by gains and favours.
Train yourselves ...'

[161] 5. Dungbeetle (Mīhakasutta). 'Very serious ...'
Just as a dung beetle suffused with dung despises other dung beetles so a monk filled with gain and favours despises other monks,
Train yourselves ...'

[162] 6. Thunderbolt (Asanisutta). 'Very serious ...'
A thunderbolt can be compared to the mind of a lerner possessed by gains and favours.
Train yourselves ...'

[163] 7. Poisoned (Diddhasutta). 'Very serious ...'
A man who is poisoned can be compared to a student whose mind is overcome with gains and favours.
Train yourselves ...'

[164] 8. The Jackal (Siṅgālasutta). 'Very serious ...'
Like a sick jackal howling in the night is the mind of a monk afflicted by gains and favours.
Train yourselves ...'

[165] 69 Hurricane (Verambasutta). 'Very serious ...'
Just as a hurricane can toss about and dismember a bird so is the mind of a monk afflicted by gains and favours,.
Train yourselves ...'

[166] 10. Sutta with verse (Sāagāthakasutta). 'Very serious ...'
I see a person going to a bad state even to hell whose mind is possessed of favours, or whose mind is possessed of lack of favours or a person afflicted with both.
Train yourselves ...'

Dutiyavaggo – Second Section

[167] 1. The Bowl (1). (suvaṇṇapātisutta). 'Very serious ...'
There was a man who would not tell lies even for a golden dish filled with silver dust but later on account of gains and favours he began to tell lies.
Train yourselves ...'

[168] 2. The Bowl (2) (Rūpiyapātisutta). 'Very serious ...'
The same as above but the reward is a silver bowl filled with gold dust.
Train yourselves ...'

[169] 3-20. (Suttas 3-10) [These eight suttas repeat the previous sutta with the silver bowl filled with gold dust replaced by other rewards.]

Tatiyavaggo – Third Section

[170] 1. Woman (Mātugāmasutta). 'Very serious ...'
No woman (mātugāma) can alone possess the heart of one with gains and favours, but a woman can alone possess the heart of a man without gains and favours.
Train yourselves ...'

[171] 2. Country beauty (Kalyāṇīsutta). 'Very serious ...'
[Same as previous with 'country beauty' replacing 'woman'.
Train yourselves ...'

[172] 3. Only Son (Ekaputtakasutta). 'Very serious ...'
A lay woman would admonish her only son: 'Be like Citta and Hassaka [two exemplary laymen]; if you become a monk be like Sariputta and Moggallana. Let not gains and favours assail you".
Train yourselves ...'

[173] 4 . Only daughter (Ekadhītusutta). 'Very serious ...'
Here the daughter is exhorted to become like two good female lay desciples and if she becomes ordined to become like Khema and Uppalavanna. She is exhorted to avoid gains and favours.
Train yourselves ...'

[174] 5. Recluses and Brahmins - 1 (Samṇabrahmaṇasutta). 'Very serious ...'
A recluse or brahman who does not understand the danger of gains and favours is not regarded as a samana or brahman.
Train yourselves ...'

[175] 6. Recluses and Brahmins - 2 (Dutiyasamṇabrahmaṇasutta). 'Very serious ...'
[Substantially the same as previous sutta]
Train yourselves ...'

[176] ] 7. Recluses and Brahmins - 3 (Tatiyasamṇabrahmasutta). 'Very serious ...'
[Substantially the same as the two previous suttas]
Train yourselves ...'

[177] 8. The skin (Chavimsutta). 'Very serious ...'
They cut the skin, then the underskin, ..., right down to the marrow.
Train yourselves ...'

[178] 9. The cord. (Rajjusutta). 'Very serious ...'
They cut the skin, then the underskin, ..., right down to the marrow. Like a man binding a cord about his leg until it cuts the skin ...
Train yourselves ...'

[179] . (sutta). 'Very serious ...'
Even for an Arhat are gains and favours a danger. They are not a danger to one with an unshakable will but to one who lives ardently and strenuously if he comes among those who have attained happiness in this very life.
Train yourselves ...'

Catutthavaggo – Fourth Section

[180] 1. He broke ... (Bhindiyasutta). 'Very serious ...'
Devadattta brought schism into the order because he was overcome by gains and favours.
Train yourselves ...'

[181] 2. The root of good action (Kusalamūlasutta). 'Very serious ...'
Devadatta cut off the root of good karma...
Train yourselves ...'

[182] 3. The root of good conditions (sutta). 'Very serious ...'
Devadatta cut off the root of good conditions...
Train yourselves ...'

[183] 4. The root of bright conditions (Sikkadhammasutta). 'Very serious ...'
Devadatta cut off the root of bright conditions...
Train yourselves ...'

[184] 5. Not long after (acirapakkantasutta). 'Very serious ...'
Not long after Devadatta had broken off the Buddha said: To his destruction Devadatta came under gains and favours, just like a banana tree which after fruiting goes into destruction, or a bamboo or a rush doing the same.
Train yourselves ...'

[185] 6. Five hundred cars sutta). 'Very serious ...'
Once Prince Ajatasttu was ministering to Devadatta sending him food in 500 cars,. The Buddha said that this was like feeding a dog with things that make him more fierce. This will lead to the decline of Devadatta, just as after fruiting a banana tree dies, or a bamboo or a rush.
Train yourselves ...'

[186] 7. For the mother's sake (Mātusutta). 'Very serious ...'
The Buddha said: I have seen a man who for his mother's sake would not utter a lie. But due to gains and favours he began telling lies.
Train yourselves ...'

[187] 8.-13. For the father's, brother's, sister's, son's, daughter's or wife's sake (Pitu-, bhātu-, bhaginiyā-, puttassa-, dhītuyā, pajāpatiyā-sutta). 'Very serious ...'
The Buddha said: I have seen a a man who for his father's sake, brother's, sister's, son's, daughter's or wife's sake would not utter a lie. But due to gains and favours he began telling lies.
Train yourselves ...'

18. Rāhulasaṃyutta – Sayings on Rahula

First Section -- Paṭmavaggo

[188] 1. The eye (Chakkusutta). Once the Buddha was staying at the Jeta Grove in Sāvatthi when the venerable Rāhula came to him and asked him to teach a doctrine so that one can live alone, secluded, zealous, ardent, and aspiring (vūpakaṭṭho appamatto ātāpī pahitatto). The Buddha made Rahula admit that sight was fleeting and unhappy and could not be considered that it is "mine" or that it is "I" or that it is the soul (atta). The same can be said of sounds, smells, taste, touch and mind. Therefore the noble disciple is repelled by them, he feels that he is free. Knowledge comes to him: birth is ended, the divine life lived, and there is nothing more.

[189-197] 2. -10. Form, Consciousness, Contact, Feeling, Perception, Volition, Craving, Element, Aggregates Rupa-, Viññāṇa-, Sampassa-, Vedanā-, Saññā-, Sancetanā-, Taṇhā-, Dhātu-, Khanda-sutta. [Each of these nine elements are treated in the same way as the eve in sutta [188]. The same conclusion is reached that each of them is unsatisfactory and does not constitute oneself, nor is it the soul.]

Second Section -- Dutiyavaggo

[198-199] 11. -20. These 10 suttas are identical to the previous 10 suttas given in sections [188-197]

[200] 21. Insidious tendency (Anusayasutta).  Venerable Rahula asked the Buddha how one should know with repect to the mind-body or external objects that he has no notion of "I" or "mine" or an insidious tendency to either? The Buddha replied that this would be clear if whatever visible shape there be is regarded as it really is.

[201] 22. Gone away from (Apagatasutta).  Venerable Rahula wanted to know from the Buddha how with respect to the body or external objects that one has gone away from notions of "I" or "mine" or insidious notions thereof. The Buddha gave the same answer that it will be clear if the thing concerned is regarded as it really is.

19. Lakkhanapanhāsaṃyutta – Sayings on Lakkhana's Questions

1. Paṭhamavaggo – First Section

[202] 1. Bag of Bones (Aṭṭhisutta). Once the Buddha was residing at Veluvana while Venerables Mahā Mogallāna and Lakkhana were at Gujjhakuta. These two were going on their alms round when at a certain place Mahā Mogllāna smiled. When Lakkhana asked the reason for this smile Moggallāna said that he would reveal it in the Buddha's presence. Later when they were visiting the Buddha Lakkhana raised his question again and Mahā Mogllāna said: "I saw a skeleton flying through the air with crows and other birds following it and pecking at it". The Buddha then said that he too had seen it and that it was a deceased cattle butcher of Rajagaha who due to his kamma had gone to hell for a long time. The Buddha advised the mnks to live a life os insight.

[The following suttas 2 to 10 give Mahā Moggallāna's visions similar to that given in the previous sutta and the Buddha's explanation.]

[203] 2. Lump of flesh (Pesisutta). Was formerly a cattle butcher.

[204] 3. Morsel of flesh (Piṇḍasutta). Was formerly a fowler.

[205] 4. Flayed man (Niccavisutta). Was formerly a sheep butcher

[206] 5. Man with bristles of swords (Asilomasutta). Was formerly a pig butcher.

[207] 6. Man with bristles of javelins (Sattisutta). Was formerly a deer hunter.

[208] 7. Man with bristles of arrows (Usulomasutta). Was formerly a judge in Rajagaha who gave cruel judgements.

[209] 8. Man with bristles of stilettos (Sūcilomasutta). Was formerly an animal trainer.

[210] 9. Man with bristles of stilettos 2 (Dutiyasūcilomasutta). Was formerly a slanderer in Rajagaha.

[211] 10. the man carrying heavy weights (Kumbhaṇḍasutta). Was formerly a cheat in Rajagaha

2. Dutiyavaggo – Second Section

[These 11 suttas give various karmic punishments suffered by wrong doers. The person punished was seen by Mahā Mogallāna and the reason was given by the Buddha]

[212] 1. Man sunk in dung pit (Sasīsakasutta). He was an adulerer.

[213] 2. Man eating dung with both hands (Gūthakādasutta). He had invited mnks in Kassapa Buddha's time and offereed them dung.

[214] 3. Woman with vultures tearing at her flesh (Niccavitthisutta). She had been an adultress.

[215] 4. A malodrous woman. (Maṅgulitthisutta). She had been a fortune teller.

[216] 5. A witherd woman. (Okilinīsutta).

[217] 6. A headless man. (Asīsakasutta). He was the bandit Hārika of Rajagaha.

[218] 7. A monk whose robes were on fire. (Pāpabhikkhusutta). He was an evil monk in Buddha Kassapa's tome.

[219] 8. A bhikkhuni being punished. (Pāpabhikkhinīsutta). She ws an evil person.

[220] 9. A sister in training being punished.(Pāpasikkhamānasutta).   She was an evil person.

[221] 10. A novice bhikkhu being punished. (Pāpasāmaṇerasutta).  He was an evil person.

[222] 11. A novice bhikkhu being punished.  (Pāpasāmanerīsutta). He was an evil doer in the time of Buddha Kassapa

20. Oppumasaṃyutta – Sayings on Parables

[223] 1. The house summit (Kūṭasutta). Just as all the rafters of a house join at the house summit so all wrong states emanate from ignorance.

[224] 2. Tip of the nail. (Nakhasikkhasutta). Beings that are born human are few just as this little bit of sand on my fingernail is when compared to the great earth.

[225] 3. The clan. (Kulssutta). Just as a clan with many women and few men is easily molested by robbers so a bhikkhu who is not developed in loving kindness is molested by non-human beings. The opposite for those who are well developed in this respect. Therefore monks see that you are well developed in this respect.

[226] 4. Giving (Okkhāsutta). To practice loving kindness in the morning, noon and evening however slight it may be is better than giving a gift of hundred coins in the morning, noon and evening. Therefore monks practice loving kindness.

[227] 5. The knife (Sattisutta). Just as a man cannot bend or twist a sharp knife with his bare hands so no non-human being can harm a monk who practices liberation of mind through loving kindness

[228] 6. The Archer (Dhanuggasutta). If a man were to say that he can run and catch the arrows shot by four expert archers before they reach the ground he would be a man of great speed. The speed of the sun and the moon, and that of spirits who run before them, is even greater. But even faster is the passing away of things in this life. Therefore monks train yourselves to live earnestly even faster than that.

[229] 7. The drum (āṇisutta. The Dasārahas had a summoning drum which when it was damaged was repaired with pegs until only the frame and pegs were left. So too will monks become in the future; they will not listen to the profound teachings of the Tathagata. They will only listen to utterances of disciples or poets. Therefore monks train your selves to listen to the profound teachings of the Dhamma, to master them and learn them by heart.

[230] 8. Straw (Kaliṅgrasutta). While at Vesali the Buddha addressed the monks thus: "Now the Licchavis sleep on mattresses of straw, they are strenuous and vigorous and Ajātasattu of Magadha cannot get at them. But in future they will become soft and tender and sleep on soft couches, Then Ajātasattu will get at them. So too now monks are strenuous and sleep on straw and Māra cannot get at them. But in future they will become delicate, sleep on couches untill the sun comes up. Then Māra will get at them. Therefore train yourselves to sleep on cuches of straw and be strenuuous and eneretic."

[231] 9. The Elephant (Nāgasutta). Once a novice spent too much time at the houses of clansmen and when admonished by the Bhikkhus said: 'The senior bhikkhus spend time in the houses of clansmen why should I too not do so?'. This was brought to the attention of the Buddha who gave this example: "Once there was a lake in the forest and adult elephants came into the lake and fed on stalks and roots of lotuses after cleaning them of the mud and they grew strong and beautiful. Later baby elephants too entered the lake and ate the lotus roots but without cleaning the mud from them. As a result they grew ill and even died. So too senior bhikkhus when they go on the alms round to the houses of clansmen they get their alms, preach the Dhamma to them, and eat what they get  without greed  or longing.  They accordingly get beauty and strength. But novices eat what they get greedily and with longing. As a result they do not get strength nor beauty. Therefore train yourselves thus: 'We will enjoy what we get without greed, or longing, or offence, watchful of danger, for our salvation' ".

[232] 10. The cat. (Biḷārasutta). Once a novice spent too much time in the houses of clansmen and when admonished did not stop doing so. When the Buddha was told of this he said: "Once a cat waited for a mouse to come out of a house and when it came out it swallowed the mouse whole. But the mouse gnawed at the cat's guts causing it pain and death. If a monk enters a village for alms without restraint in deed, word and thought, without self possession, lust may arise in him seeing scantily dressed womenfolk. This is death in the Ariyan discipline. Therefore we should go for alms with guarded deed, word and thought, calling up self-possession, and self-restraint."

[233] 11. The Jackal (1) (Siṅgālasutta). The Buddha told the monks: "The jackal you hear howling at night or in the morning is a sick old jackal wandering wherever he wants to go with the cold wind blowing over him. A certain monk [referring to Devadatta] could be born like that, Therefore monks train yourselves to live earnestly".

[234] 12. The Jackal (2) (Dutiyasiṅgāla sutta). The Buddha said: "There could be a monk reborn like the sick old Jackal [of the previous sutta]. To avoid that you must train yourselves to live earnestly".

21. Bhikkhusaṃyutta – Sayings on bhikkhus

[235] 1. Kolita [Mahā Moggallāna]. (Kolitasutta). Addressing the monks Mahā Moggallana said: "As I was meditating it occurred to me 'What is the Ariyan Silence?' Then I thought that when a monk reaches the Second Jhana that it is the Ariyan silence. So I entered the Second Jhana but perceptions and applied thought still went on. Then the Buddha entered my mind through his psychic power and said: 'Be not careless as to the Ariyan silence. Establish your mind in the Ariyan Silence and plant your thoughts therein'. I did so. One could rightly say that inspired by the Master the disciple attained the super Knowledge".

[236] 2. Upatissa [Sāriputta]. (Upatissasutta). Sāriputta addressed the mons thus: "As I was meditating it occurred to me: 'Is there any becoming that would give rise to grief, lamentation, suffering, and sorrow in me?' I concluded that there was none". Then Venerable Ananda asked: "Would not a becoming in the Master give rise to grief in you?" Sāriputta said: "Not even that", and added: "Let not the Master be taken from us !" Then Ananda said: "A becoming would not give grief to Sāriputta because he has rooted out all notions of 'I' and 'Mine' ".

[237] 3. The jar. (Ghaṭasutta). Once when Sariputta and Mahā Moggalāna were staying at Rajagaha in the Veluvand the following conversation took place between them:
SARIPUTTAYou are looking very serene. Have you spent the day in peace?.
MOGGALLANAI spent the day in sense meditation and in pious conversation.
SARIPUTTAWith whom did you converse?
MOGGALLANAWith the Buddha.
SARIPUTTABut the Buddha is in Sāvtthi. Did you converse by will power?
MOGGALLANAWe have developed the power of supernormal hearing.
SARIPUTTAOn what did you converse?.
MOGGALLANAOn consummate energy (ārddhaviriya). The Buddha said that this is when a person tries with determinatin to achieve what is possible for a human to achieve.
SARIPUTTAJust as a mound of gravel is to the great Himalaya so are we to the great Moggallāna.
MOGGALLANAJust as a pinch of salt set against a big jar of salt so are we when compared to Sāriputta. In a similare way has the Buddha praised the Venerable Sariputta.
In such manner did these great persons converse.

[238] 4. The novice. (Navasutta). A certain novice was in the habit of retiring to his cell after the alms round and not conversing with the others or joining with them in tasks like robe making. These monks complained to the Buddha who summoned this novice and asked him if what was said about him were true. He admitted that they were true. Then the Buddha penetrated the mind of this monk and said: "Do not be angry with this monk. He can easily attain the Four Jhanas and the highest consciousness and abide therein. He bears the last burden of Māra".

[239] 5. Sujāta. (Sujātasutta). Once in Sāvatthi the Buddha saw the venerable Sujāta coming in the distance and addressed the Bhikkhus thus: "This monk is not only beautiful and handsome but has also realized the goal of the divine life. He bears the last body and is a victor over Mara."

[240] 6. Bhaddiya, the dwarf monk. (Lakuṇḍakabhaddiyasutta). Seeing Bhaddiya coming in the distance the Buddha told the monks: "This monk you see coming is a dwarf, hunchbacked and ugly. But he is highly gifted and has a lofty nature. He has won something he has not been able to do before. He has won the highest goal of the divine life". Then in verse he added: "Just as all animals fear the lion so among men even though puny he is truly great if he is wise, but not the fool even if he be large". br>
[241] 7. Visākha. (Visākhasutta). Once in Vesali the monk the Visākha of the Pañcākans was addressing the monks in the Meeting Hall on the Dhamma in urbane speech, well articulated, without hoarseness, expounding the meaning, relevant, unworldly (poriyā vācāya, vissaṭṭhāya, anelagalāya, atthassa viññāpaniyā, pariyāpannāya. anissitāya). The Buddha after his meditation came to the Hall and sat down in the seat prepared. He asked who it was who was addressing the monks so beautifully, When told that it was Visākha of the Pañcākans he addresssed Visākha thus: "Well done, you have done well to address the monks in this way".

[242] 8. Nanda. (Nandasutta). The venerable Nanda, a cousin of the Buddha, came to the presence of the Buddha wearing well pressed robes, painted eyes and a bright bowl. The Buddha told him: "It is not right for you to wear pressed robes, paint the eyes and carry a bright bowl. You should be a forest dweller, subsist on alms, wear rag robes, and not heed the desires of the senses". Then Nanda did as the Buddha advised him.

[243] 9. Tissa. (Tissasutta). Once the monk Tissa, a nephew of the Buddha's father, came to the Buddha, saluted him and sat down. unhappy and crying. When the Buddha inquired as to the reason for this Tissa said that the other monks had been abusing and teasing him. The Buddha said that this was because Tissa was always talking and not allowing the others to have their say. He said that this was not appropriate for someone who had left the world out of faith to be homeless. He added in verse: "Why are you angry? Bearing anger is not good. You should suppress it as also conceit and guile. This is how the devine life should be lived".

[244] 10. Thera (Senior) by Name. (Theranāmakasutta). Once when the Buddha was in Rajagaha at the Veluvana there was a monk named Thera ('Senior') who lived alone, did his alms round alone, returned alone, did his meditation alone as also his walking meditation. The other monks reported this to the Buddha who summoned the venerable Thera who confirmed what the monks had told the Buddha was correct. The Buddha did not say that what Thera had done was wrong but he advised him as follows: "What you do is living alone but there is a way of perfecting the solitary life. It is to put away what is past, to give up what is the future, and to thoroughly master present states of will and passion. He then said in verse: "He lives alone who overcomes and understands all, who is wise as to undefiled things, abandons all and is free of craving".

[245] 11. Mahā Kappina. (Mahākappinasutta). Once the Buddha saw the bhikkhu Mahā Kappina coming from afar and told the monks: "The bhikkhu you see coming is pale, thin and has a prominent nose. But he is highly gifted with wondrous power. He has won what he formerly could not win. He had attained the utmost goal of the divine life". The Buddha concluded with two verses [one of which is Dhammapada verse 387].

[246] 12. The comrades. (Sahāyakasutta). The Buddha saw two monks, comrades living together with venerable Mahā Kappina coming from afar. He then drew the attention of the monks to these two monks praising them using the identical words used in the previous sutta with regards to Mahā Kappina.