22. Dhātusaṃyutta – Sayings on Elements

1. Mūlapaññāsa – The first Fifty suttas

1. Nakulapitāvagga – The Nakulapitā Section

[1] 1. Nakulapitā (Nakulapitusutta). ṅThe ageing householder Nakulapitā visited the Buddha when he was at Bhesala in the land of the Bhaggis seeking cheer and comfort. The Buddha advised him that though the body may be sick the mind need not be sick, and advised him to train himself accordingly. After taking leave of the Buddha Nakulapitā met venerable Sāriputta to whom he related his conversation with the Buddha. Sāriputta asked Nakulapitā if he had asked the Buddha about the training of the mind. Nakulapitā said that he had not done so and requested Sāriputta to instruct him.
       Sariputta started by considering how the body and the mind both could be sick. He said that the uninstructed non-Ariyan consider the body as the self (attā) [a term which has a meaning closer to soul, the Vedic ātman, which is how it will mostly be rendered in future]. They regard the body as "I" and as "mine" and when it changes it leads them to sorrow. This same view of the body they extend to feeling (vedanā), perception (saññā), activity (saṅkhāra), and consciousness (viññāṇa. [It is implied by Sāriputta, though not explicitly stated, that to avoid sorrow the five constituents mentioned should not be regarded as self or soul.]

[2] 2. Devadaha (Devadahasutta). Once the Buddha was staying at Devadaha in the Sākyan territory when a group of monks approached him and said: "We would like to go the Western region to reside". The Buddha advised them to consult venerable Sāriputta first. They then went to venerable Sāriputta and made the same statement. Sāriputts said: "Roaming around in a new region the people may question you as to the doctrines of your teacher and you should be ready to give the correct answer". The monks then asked what kind of questions would be asked and how they should answer. Then Sāriputta gave a number of questions that they may be asked and how they should answer them. These are as follows:
QUESTION  What does your teacher say and what does he proclaim ?
ANSWEROur teacher teaches the restraint of desire and lust .
QUESTIONHow does your teacher tell how desire and lust can be restrained ?
ANSWEROur teacher tells of the restraining of desire and lust in the body, in feeling, in perception, in activities, and in consciousness.
QUESTIONSeeing what danger therein, friends, how does your teacher tell of the restraining of desire and lust in the body, likewise in feeling, perception, activity and consciousness ....
ANSWERAs to the body, if one is not rid of desire, lust, affection, and craving due to its unstable and changeful nature sorrow, grief, woe, lamentation and despair will arise in him. So also with respect to feeling, perception, activity and consciousness.
QUESTIONBut seeing what profit therein does your teacher tell of the restraining of desire and lust in the body, in feeling, in perception, in activity, likewise in consciousness ?."...
ANSWERIn body, friends, he who is rid of desire, who is rid of lust, who is rid of affection, of thirst and fever and craving, owing to the unstable and changeful nature of body, sorrow and grief, woe, lamentation and despair do not arise in him. So also with feeling, perception, activity and consciousness. This, friends, is the profit, seeing which our teacher tells to restrain desire and lust in body, in feeling, in perception, in activity and in consciousness.
       Our teacher has said fostering evil states and dwelling in them, in this very life one would live painfully, harassed, subject to life's fret and fever, and, when body dissolves, after death one may expect the woeful state. Therefore our teacher approves of the putting away of evil states. And, friends, in fostering righteous states and dwelling therein, in this very life one would live pleasantly, without harassment, free from life's fret and fever, and, when body dissolves, after death one may look for the abode of bliss. Therefore does the Exalted One approve of the accomplishing of righteous states.

The monks were pleased at what Sāriputta had said.

[3] 3. Hāliddikhāni (Hāliddikhānisutta). Once when the venerable Mahā Kaccana was living in Avanti the householder Hāliddikhāni came to him and asked him to explain in detail the meaning of the following verse uttered by the Buddha in the eighth chapter of the Questions of Māgaṇḍiya:
       Okaṃ pahāya aniketasārī
       Gāme akubbaṃ muni santhavāni
       Kāmehi ritto apurakkharāno
       Kathaṃ na viggayha janena kayirā


       Abandoning home and wandering about
       The sage living peacefully and alone in the village
       Without lusts, showing no preference,
       With no one making wordy arguments.

Mahā Kaccana said this by way of explanation:–
"A person attached to the home is tied by lust to the materiality, feeling, perception, activity and consciousness centred on the home. One who abandons the home, like the Tathāgata, cuts off the lust, desire and craving that arises from attachment to the home. Likewise the feeling, perception and activity elements attached to the home are cut off and cannot arise again. Wandering means that he is not an adherent (aniketasārī) to home.
       The sage (muni) living alone means that he not attached to householders, happy among the unhappy. Showing no preference (apurakkharāno) means that the sage is without preference as to future states such as yearning for a particular body in a future birth. Finally the sage does not engage in arguments with others, for instance saying that they do not know the true Dhamma while he alone does so.

[4] 4. Hāliddikhāni (2) (Dutiyahāliddikhānisutta). This time the householder Hāliddikhāni again approaches Mahā Kaccana and asks him for an explanation of a saying by the Buddha in the Questions of Sakka as follows: "Those recluses and brahmins who are freed by the utter destruction of craving, they only are fully proficient, they only have fully reached the infinite safety, they only fully live the righteous life, have fully reached the goal, best of devas and men are they" (ye te samaṇabrāhmaṇā taṇhāsaṅkhayavimuttā, te accantaniṭṭhā accantayogakkhemino accanta-brahmacārino accanta-pariyosānā seṭṭhā devamanussāna).
       Mahā Kaccana explained this as follows:
To be fully liberated the material element of desire, lust, craving have to be destroyed. So also the mental system of grasping must be given up and surrendered. The same should be done to the feeling-element, the perception-element, the activities-element, and the consciousness-element. All these elements must be given up and be fully destroyed to be fully free. This is what the Buddha says in the Questions of Sakka.

[5] 5. Concentration. (Samādhisutta). Once in Sāvatthi the Buddha addressed the monks thus:–
       Practise concentration. A monk who is concentrated knows things as they really are. He knows the arising and the passing away of the body, as also of feelings, perception, activity and consciousness.
       When one is enamoured of the body and clings to it there comes the lure of grasping. Conditioned by grasping is becoming, then birth, then comes old age and decay, sorrow and grief, woe, lamentation and despair. Thus is the arising of this whole mass of suffering. The same sequence takes place when one is enamoured of feeling, of perception, of the activities, and of consciousness.
       The passing away of the body, of feeling, of perception, of activities, of consciousness occurs when a person is not enamoured of any of them, he does not welcome them, not having clung does not persist. The passing away of that lure is the passing away of grasping. The passing away of grasping is the passing away of becoming and so forth. Thus is the passing away of this whole mass of suffering.

[6] 6. Solitude (Paṭisallāṇasutta). Addressing the monks in Sāvatthi the Buddha said: "Apply yourselves to solitude. A monk given to solitude knows things as they really are ..." [The rest of this sutta is as in the previous sutta with 'solitude' replacing 'concentration'.]

[7] 7. Grasping and worry (Upādāparitassanāsutta). At Sāvatthi the Buddha addressed the monks:
       I will teach you grasping and worry as well as not grasping and not worry. An ordinary person untrained in the Ariyan way regard body as the self, the self as having body, body as being in the self, the self as being in the body. For such an one when the body alters his consciousness is busied with the alteration. Then worried thoughts arise and persist, becomes troubled, and owing to vexation and clinging he is worried. The same happens with regard to feelings, perception, activities and consciousness.
       But the Ariyan disciple regards not body as the self, regards not the self as having body, nor body as being in the self, nor the self as being in body. Thus when the body alters his consciousness is not disturbed and no worry results. The same with feeling, perception, activities and conscience. Thus there is no grasping and no worry.

[8] 8. Grasping and worry (2) (Dutiyaupādāparitassanāsutta). [Same as the previous sutta except that 'self' is replaced by 'mine', e.g. 'body is self' becomes 'body is mine'.]

[9] 9. Past, future and present (1) (Kālayattayāniccasutta (1)). At Sāvatthi the Buddha addressed the monks:
       Body is impermanent. The Ariyan disciple cares not for the past body, does not love the body to be and is repelled by the present body. The ame applies to feeling, perception, activities and consciousness. He seeks dispassion for them, and seeks their ceasing.

[10] 10. Past, future and present (2) (Kālayattayāniccasutta (2)). At Sāvatthi the Buddha addressed the monks:
       Body is an ill (dukkha). The Ariyan disciple cares not for the past body, does not love the body to be and is repelled by the present body. The same applies to feeling, perception, activities and consciousness. He seeks dispassion for them, and seeks their ceasing.

[11] 11. Past, future and present (3) (Kālayattayāniccasutta (3)). At Sāvatthi the Buddha addressed the monks: [This is the same as the previous sutta except that 'Ill' is replaced as 'without self', thus 'Body is an Ill' is replaced by 'Body is without self'].


2. Aniccavagga – Section on Impermanence

[12] 12. Impermanence (Aniccasutta). At Sāvatthi the Buddha addressed the monks: The body is impermanent. So are feeling, perception activity and consciousness. Seeing this the Ariyan disciple is repelled by them. He gets the knowledge of liberation. He knows birth is ended, the holy life lived, done what has to be done, there is no more of this hereafter.

[13] 13. Suffering (Dukkhasutta). [Same as previous sutta replacing 'Impermanence' with 'suffering'.]

[14] 14. Without self (Anattasutta). [Same as previous sutta replacing 'suffering' with 'without self'.]

[15] 15. What is impermanent (Yadaniccasutta). At Sāvatthi the Buddha addressed the monks: What is impermanent is suffering, is void of the self, is not mine, is not my self. This is true of feeling, perception, activity and consciousness. That is how it is to be regarded. The well-taught Ariyan disciple is repelled by them.

[16] 16. What is suffering (Yamdukkhasutta). [Same as previous sutta with 'impermanent replaced by 'suffering (dukkha)'].

[17] 17. What is not self (Yadhanattāsutta). Same as previous sutta with 'suffering' replaced by 'not self'].

[18] 18. Cause of Impermanence. (Sahetu-aniccasutta). At Sāvatthi the Buddha addressed the monks: Body is impermanent, as also the cause and condition for its arising. The same applies to the cause and condition of feeling, perception, activity and conciousness.

[19] 19. Cause of Suffering. (Sahetudukkhasutta). [Same as previous sutta with 'impermanence' replaced by 'suffering'].

[20] 20. Cause of no self (Sahetuanattasutta). [Same as previous sutta with 'suffering' replaced by 'no self'].

[21] 21. Ananda (Anandasutta). At Sāvatthi venerable Ananda came to the Buddha and asked: "We hear of ceasing, ceasing. Of what natural states is there ceasing?" The Buddha replied: "Body is impermanent, caused, cause-driven, gross and subject to decline. This is what is ceasing. So also are feeling, perception, activity and consciousness,. They all cease.

3. Bhāravagga – Section on the Burden

[22] 22. The Burden. (Bhārasutta). At Sāvatthi the Buddha addressed the monks: "I will teach you the burden (bhāra), taking hold of it, lifting it and laying it down. The burden is the five factors of grasping, viz. the body, feeling, perception, activity and conciousness. Laying hold of it is becoming a specific person, lifting it is the arising of craving leding to rebirth, laying it down is the ceasing of craving which is bliss.

[23] 23. Understanding. (Pariññāasutta). The Buddha said: The things to be understood are body, feeling, perception, activity and conscienceness. 'Understnding' means the destruction of lust, hatred and illusion.

[24] 24. Full understanding. (Abhijānasutta). The Buddha said: One cannot destroy suffering by not fully understanding and not renouncing the body, The same applies for not fully understanding feeling, perception, activity and consciousness.

[25] 25. Desire and lust. (Chandarāgasutta). The Buddha said: Monks, renounce desire and lust which is in the body. Cut it out making it like the stump of a palm tree. Do the same for feeling, perception, activity and consciousness.

[26] 26. Satisfaction (1). (Assādasutta). The Buddha said: Before my enlightenment I reflected on the satisfaction, the misery and the escape from the body. The satisfaction came from the pleasure, the misery from the impermanence, and the escape from renouncing desire and lust. This also applied to feeling, perception, activity and consciousness. So long as I did not thoroughly understand the five factors of grasping I was doubtful if I was fully enlightened. But when I understood them thoroughly I knew for certain that I was enlightened

[27] 27. Satisfaction (2) (Dutiya-assādasutta). The Buddha said: When I searched for the satisfaction of the body, for its misery and for the way of escape from it I came to the conclusion that insofar as these could be rightly seen it was by right insight. The same applied to feeling, perception, activity and consciousness. So long as I did not thoroughly understand the five factors of grasping I was doubtful if I was fully enlightened. But when I understood them thoroughly knowledge and insight arose in me, and I was sure of my release: 'This is my last birth, there is no more rebirth for me'.

[28] 28. Satisfaction (3) (Tatiya-assādasutta). The Buddha said: Without satisfaction in the body beings will not lust after it; if there were no misery in it beings would not be repelled by it, and if there were no escape from it beings would not escape. As with the body the same applies to feeling, perception, activity and consciousness. If people do not understand the satisfaction, the misery and the escape in the five factors of grasping they will not remain aloof, detached and separated with mind obstacles done away with. But when they understand fully the opposite will happen.

[29] 29. Taking pleasure. (Abhinanadanasutta). The Buddha said: He who takes pleasure in the body takes pleasure in suffering and so is not released from suffering. The same applies to feeling, perception, activity and consciousness. I declare he is not released from suffering.

[30] 30. Uprising. (Uppādasutta). The Buddha said: The uprising of the body is also the uprising of suffering, of disease, of decay and death. This also applies to feeling, perception, activity and consciousness. Their ceasing is the ceasing of suffering.

[31] 31. The root of pain. (Aghamūlasutta). The Buddha said: Monks, I will teach you pain and its root. Body is pain, so are feeling, perception, activities, and consciousness. The root of pain is craving leading to rebirth and lust, that lingers longingly here and there. In short it is craving for sense pleasure, craving for rebirth, the craving for doing away with rebirth.

[32] 32. Corruptible. (Pabhaṅgasutta). The Buddha said: Monks, I will teach you the corruptible and the incorruptible. Body is corruptible. Its ceasing is the incorruptible. Likewise are the corruptible and the incorruptible with regard to feeling. perception, activity and consciousness.

4. Natumhākamvagga – Section on not yours

[33] 33. Not yours (1) (Natumhākaṃsutta). At Jetvana in Sāvatthi the Buddha said: Monks, put away what is not yours, put away body, feeling, perception, activity and consciousness. If someone were to burn all that is in this Jeta grove he would not be burning what is yours because it is not your self, nor your feeling, perception, activity or consciousness.

[4] 34. Not yours (2) (Dutiyanatumhākaṃsutta). [Same as previous sutta]

[35] 35. Another bhikkhu (1) (Aññatarabhikkhusutta). A certain monk once asked the Buddha: "Preach to me a doctrine hearing which I will be inspired to live alone, secluded, zealous and ardent". The Buddha said: "If a monk has a bias (anuseti) by that he is known, otherwise not". Asked what he understood by that concise saying the monk replied: "If one clings not to body and to feeling, perception, the activities, and consciousness, by that he gets a name; otherwise he gets no name. That is how I understand the full the meaning of what was said concisely". The Buddha said that this was correct. The monk departed and living alone he soon reached the supreme goal and became one of the Arhats.

[36] 36. Another bhikkhu (2) (Dutiya-aññatarabhikkhusutta). [The same as the previous sutta except that the Buddha's concise saying now reads: "If a monk has a bias (anuseti) and takes a measure (anumīyati) by that he is known, otherwise not".

[37] 37. Ananda (1) (Anandasutta). Once the Buddha asked venerable Ananda: "Of what things can it be said that uprisng is discerned, passing away is discerned, and otherwiseness while it lasts is discerned?". Ananda replied: "It is of the body, feelings, perceptions, activties, and consciousness that it is so discerned". The Buddha commented: "Well said, Ananda".

[38] 38. Ananda (2) (Dutiya-Anandasutta). Here the Buddha asks venerable Ananda what are the things of which (i) it can be said, (ii) will be said, and (iii) even now is said, that they uprise, pass away, or otherwise exist ? Ananda said that with reference to all three situations the things are the five groups of grasping viz. body, feeling, perception, activities and conciousness. The Buddha then commented: "Well said, Ananda".

[39] 39. Conforming the Dhamma (1) (Anudhammasutta). The Buddha said: "To conform to the Dhamma a monk should abide in the utter disgust for body, for feeling, for perception, for the activities, for consciousness. Then he fully understands them and is released from them. and from rebirth, from old age and decay, sorrow and grief, from woe, lamentation and despair. He is released from suffering."

[40] 40. Conforming the Dhamma (2) (Dutiya-auudhammasutta). [Same as sutta 39 except that 'disgust' is replaced by 'impermanance'].

[41] 41. Conforming the Dhamma (3) (Tatiya-anudhammasutta). [Same as sutta 39 except that 'disgust' is replaced by 'suffering'].

[42] 42. Conforming the Dhamma (4) (Catuttha-anudhammasutta). [Same as sutta 39 except that 'disgust' is replaced by 'lack of self'].

5. Attadīpavagga – Section on Being an Island to self

[43] 43. Self as an Island(Attadīpasutta). At Sāvatthi the Buddha said: "Monks, abide yourselves as islands, yourselves as refuges, take no other refuge but the Dhamma. Search for the source of sorrow, grief, woe, lamentation and despair. The uninstructed non-Ariyan considers the body as self but the Ariyan disciple sees the body is unstable, impermanent and sorrowful. Thus seeing it as it really is with perfect insight he puts away from him all sorrow, grief, woe, lamentation and despair. He lives at ease."

[44] 44. The Path to (Paṭipadāsutta). At Sāvatthi the Buddha said: "I will teach you the path to the arising of the body and the path to its ceasing. The untaught non-Ariyan sees the body as self, as also feeling, perception, activities and consciences. This is the path to the body and the path to sorrow. But the Ariyan disciple does not regard the body as self, as also feeling, perception, activities and conscience. This is the path to the ceasing of the body".

[45] 45. Impermanance (Aniccasutta). At Sāvatthi the Buddha said: "'Body, is impermanent, so it is suffering and without the self. It is not mine, I am not that. Thus should one view it by perfect insight as it really is, so that the mind (citta turns away from it. So also are feeling, perception, activities and conscience. A bhikkhu thus this turning away is freed from grasping at the influxes (āsavā) and he knows tht he is freed from rebirth and has reched his goal,"

[46] 46. Impermanance (2) (Dutiya-aniccasutta). [Same as last sutta except tht it is said of a person who gains perfect insight that he 'does not guess about the past nor worry about the future'.]

[47] 47. View (Samanupassanāsutta). At Sāvatthi the Buddha said: "Those recluses and Brahmins who view the body as the self, self as possessed of body, body as being in the self, self as being in body come to the view 'I am' and they are not freed from the five sense faculties. But the Ariyan disciple puts away ignorance and acquires knowledge. To him views like 'I am', 'things will be', 'things will not be', 'things will have body', 'will not have body', 'will be conscious', 'will be unconscious', and so on will not arise".

[48] 48. The factors (Khandasutta). At Sāvatthi the Buddha said: "There are these five factors (khandā). They are the body-factor which includes all kinds of body, the feeling factor, the perception factor, the activities factor and the consciousness factor. When these five factors are associated with the influxes (asāsavā) they form the five grasping factors ( pañcupādānakkhandhā)".

[49] 49. Sona (1) (Sonasutta). When the Buddha was living at the Veluvana in Rajagaha the lay person Sona approached the Buddha. The Buddha told him: "Sona, recluses and brahmins who hold wrong view of the impermanent body, feeling, perception , activities and consciousness proclaim that they are better, equal or worse than others have not seen reality as it is. But those who do not hold wrong views about then can make such proclamations as they have seen reality as it is". Then the Buddha questioned Sona and made him admit that the body (and also feeling, perception, activities and consciousness) are impermanent, that they are sorrowful, and that it is not fitting to hold views such as 'this is mine', 'this am I', or 'this is my self' about them. The Buddha concluded: "Sona, the Ariyan disciple feels disgust at body [and the other four factors], is repelled by them. He is then released, gains knowledge of them and knows rebirth is destroyed, the righteous life lived, done is his task, and there is no hereafter".

[50] 50. Sona (2) (Dutiyasonasutta). When the Buddha was living at the Veluvana in Rajagaha the lay person Sona approached the Buddha. The Buddha told him: "Sona, recluses and brahmins who do not know the uprising, the ceasing, and the way to the ceasing of body, feeling, perception, the activities and consciousness are not approved neither among their fellows nor have they understood or realized the good of being recluses and brahmins or attain to these. But those who know these things are approved among their fellows and have understood and realized the good of being recluses and brahmins, and they have attained these. "

[51] 51. Destruction of the bait. (1) (Nandikkhayasutta). When the Buddha was living at Sāvatthi he said: "Monks, when a bhikkhu sees that body (and the other four factors) are impermanent he is of right view and feels disgust. By destroying the bait he destroys lust and the mind is set free. He is called the well freed."

[52] 52. Destruction of the bait. (2) (Dutiyanandikkhayasutta). [Same as the previous sutta except that 'sees' is replaced by 'applies his mind'].

2 Majjhimapaññāsa – The Middle Fifty suttas

1. Upayavagga – Section on Attachment

[53] 53. Attachment (Upayasutta). At Sāvatthi the Buddha said: "Attachment is bondage, non-attachment is freedom. Consciousness which arises from attachment to body can persist and with activities seeking a means of enjoyment, it may come by growth, increase and abundance. If a man were to say that consciousness can arise without body, feeling, perception and activities he would be wrong. If lust for body, feeling, perception, the activities are abandoned there is no platform for consciousness Without that platform consciousness has no growth, it generates no action and is freed. It becomes steady, is happy, is untroubled and becomes utterly well. It knows : 'Destroyed is rebirth, lived is the righteous life, done is the task, for life in these conditions there is no hereafter'."

[54] 54. Seeds. (Bījasutta). At Sāvatthi the Buddha said: "There are five sorts of seeds. If there is no soil and no water they they would not come to growth, increase and abundance. But if there is soil and water they could come to growth. As with the five sorts of seed, so should consciousness and its cause be considered. By attachment to body, brethren, consciousness, if it got a standing, would stand". [The rest of the sutta is the same as the previous sutta.]

[55] 55. Inspired utterance. (Udānasutta). Once in Sāvatthi the Buddha once uttered: "If I did not do it then it would not be mine now, if I not do it now it shall not be mine (in the future)". He then said that if a bhikkhu were so resolved he would be free of the five lower bonds. When asked for further explanation he said: "An untaught non-Ariyan does not understand that the body (and the other factors) are impermanent, pain-fraught, selfless, conditioned and will cease. They are troubled about what they did in a past birth if any. But a well-taught Ariyan disciple understands all these and he is not troubled as to the past. So he makes the resolve. By attachment to the body consciousness gets a stand". [The rest of the sutta is the same as the sutta 53.]

[56] 56. Grasping (in the series of the Four Truths). (Upādānapripavattasutta). At Sāvatthi the Buddha said: "There are five grasping groups (upādanakkhandā): those related to body, feeling, perception, activities and consciousness. So long as I did not understand them I did not realize the Four Truths. When I understood them I became enlightened. I fully understood body, feeling, perception, activities, consciousness: their arising, their ceasing, the way of their ceasing. The body is based on the four great elements. It arises and ceases from the arising and ceasing of food. And the way going to the ceasing of body is this Ariyan Eightfold Path. Recluses or brahmins who fully understand body in this way, are truly apt, and they who are truly apt are firmly grounded in this Norm.

[57] 57. The seven points. (Sattaṭṭhānasutta). At Sāvatthi the Buddha said: "To be called accomplished in the Norm and Discipline a bhikkhu should be skilled in seven points and three ways. He knows the body (likewise feeling, perception, activities and conscience) their rising, ceasing, and way to ceasing. He knows their satisfaction, misery and way of escape from them.
       "The body is based on the four great elements. It arises and ceases from the arising and ceasing of food. And the way going to the ceasing of body is this Ariyan Eightfold Path. Recluses or brahmins who fully understand body in this way, are truly apt, and they who are truly apt are firmly grounded in this Norm.
       "Feeling is that born of contact with eye, ear, nose, touch and mind. It arises and ceases from the arising and ceasing of contact. And the way going to the ceasing of feeling is this Ariyan Eightfold Path. The satisfaction from feeling is its ease and pleasure. Its misery is its impermanence and being and unstable. Escape from it is restraint of desire and lust. Recluses or brahmins who fully understand feeling in this way, are truly apt, and they who are truly apt are firm grounded in this Norm and Discipline. For them it may be said there is no more the whirling round." [Perception, activities and consciousness are also described mutis mutandis in the same way as body and feeling.
       The Buddha concluded: "There are three ways a bhikkhu can be an investigator, by investigating the elements, the sense-spheres, and causal happening. A bhikkhu who is skilled in the seven points, and who is an investigator of the three ways, is called accomplished in this Norm and Discipline, and one who is a master and a superman."

[58] 58. Fully enlightened. (Sammāsambuddhasutta). At Sāvatthi the Buddha explained to the monks the difference between a Buddha and a monk freed by insight. Both are freed without grasping because they have developed disgust at body and achieved fading out of body and ceasing of body. Both are arhats. But the Tathagata is one who has caused a way to arise which hd not arisen before. He is then the first to proclaim the way. The disciple is a wayfarer following after the Buddha.

[59] 59. No Self doctrine. (Anattalakkhanasutta). Here the Buddha is at the Deer Park in Benares addressing the five (original ) monks. He said that the five factors (body to consciousness) were not the Self because if they were the Self then they would not be involved in sickness and it could be said that the body (and the other factors) be let free or not let free. The Buddha made the monks admit that the body (and the other factors) are impermanent, woeful, unstable and can be regarded "this is not mine; I am not this; this is not my Self". The well trained Ariyan feels disgust for the five factors, is repelled by them, is freed, and knows "destroyed is rebirth; lived is the righteous life; done is my task; and there is no hereafter." By this teaching the five monks were freed from the intoxicants (āsavas), without grasping.

[60] 60. Mahāli. (Mahālisutta). Once in Vesali the Liccavi Mahāli came to the Buddha and told him: "Purana Kassapa says this: 'Beings become impure without condition or cause. They also become pure without condition or cause'. What does the Buddha say ?" . The Buddha replied: There are conditions and cause for these. When the body is pleasant beings take delight in it. Linked by passion to the body they become impure. When the body is painful beings are disgusted and are repelled by body (and the other factors). This makes them pure. The same is true of the other factors feeling, perception, the activities and consciousness."

[61] 61. (Ādittasutta). At Sāvatthi the Buddha said: "Body (and likewise feeling, perception, activities and consciousness) are on fire. Seeing this the well-taught Ariyan disciple feels disgust for body (and the other factors) and is repelled by them. He is freed; knowledge arises and he knows: "destroyed is rebirth, lived is the righteous life, done is the task, for life in these conditions there is no hereafter."

[62] 62. Reckoning modes (Niruttipathasutta). At Sāvatthi the Buddha said: "Wise recluses and brahmins will not be confused by reckoning (nirutthi), terming (adhivacana), and naming (paññatti), which are held distinct now and formerly. Whatever body (matter, rūpa) is past and is reckoned, termed, and named as " has been" is not reckoned as "is" nor as "will be". So likewise with feeling, perception, activities and consciousness. Whatever body (matter, rūpa) is unborn, un-manifested, that is reckoned, termed and named as "will be" is not reckoned as "is" or as "has been". So likewise with feeling, perception, activities and consciousness. Whatever body (matter, rūpa) is born and manifested, that is reckoned, termed and named as "has been" is not reckoned as "will be. So likewise feeling, perception, the activities and consciousness. Further those observing the rainy retreat at Ukkali who deny cause, deny deed, and deny reality did not reject these three modes of reckoning, This was because they feared blame, attack and reproach".

2. Arahantavagga – Section on the Arhant

[63] 63. Clinging. (Upādiyamānasutta). In Sāvatthi at the Jetavana the Buddha was approached by a bhikkhu who wanted him to preach something following which he could live alone and ardent. The Buddha said that if one clings one is Mara's bondsman, otherwise he is released. After the bhikkhu correctly understood the full meaning of this the Buddha confirmed the full meaning saying: "By clinging to body, to feeling, to perception, to the activities, and to consciousness one becomes Māra's bondsman, by not clinging to these one is released from Māra". The bhikkh left and living solitary, secluded, zealous, ardent and aspiring, he soon reached his goal of becoming an Arhant.

[64] 64. Imagining. (Maññamānasutta). [Same as previous sutta with ]'imagining' substituted for 'clinging'.]

[65] 65. Enamoured. (Abhinanadamānasutta). [Same as sutta 63 with 'enamoured' substituted for 'clinging'.]

[66] 66. Impermanent (Aniccasutta). [Same as sutta 63 with 'impermanent substituted for 'clinging'.]

[67] 67. Suffering (Dikkhasutta). [Same as sutta 63 with 'dukkha' substituted for 'clinging'.]

[68] 68. No self. (Anattasutta). [Same as sutta 63 with 'no self' substituted for 'clinging'.]

[69] 69. Not belonging to self. (Anattanoyasutta). [Same as sutta 63 with 'inot belonging to self' substituted for 'clinging'.]

[70] 70. Lustful (Rajanīiyasaṇṭhitasutta). [Same as sutta 63 with 'inherent in what is lustful' substituted for 'clinging'.]

[71] 71. Rādha (sutta). When the Buddha was at Sāvatthi in the Jetavana the venerable Rādha came to him and asked: "How is it that for one who sees and knows, that in this body-with-conciousness there is no notion of 'I', 'mine' and no inclination to conceit regarding external objects" ? The Buddha replied: "If for a material object of any kind at any time one regards it thus: 'This is not mine; this I am not; this is not my Self ' that is seeing things as they really are, by right insight. The same applies to feelingf perception, activtrires and consciousness". Then venerable Rādha became an Arahant.

[72] 72. Surādha. (Surādhasutta). [Same as the previous sutta except that 'Rādha' is replaced by 'Surādha'.]

3. Khajjanīyavagga – Section on what must be eaten

[73] 73. Satisfaction (Assādasutta). At Sāvatthi the Buddha said that untaught do not understand as they truly are the satisfaction, the misery and the escape from the body, but the well-taught Ariyan disciple understands them. The same applies to feeling, perception activities and consciousness.

[74] 74. Arising (1). (Samudayasutta). At Sāvatthi the Buddha said that untaught do not understand as they truly are the arising and going out, the misery and the escape from the body, but the well-taught Ariyan disciple understands them. The same applies to feeling, perception activities and consciousness.

[75] 75. Arising (2). (Dutiyasamudayasutta). At Sāvatthi the Buddha said that well taught understand as they truly are the arising and going out, the misery and the escape from the body.. The same applies to feeling, perception activities and consciousness.

[76] 76. Arahants (1) (Arahantasutta). At Sāvatthi the Buddha said: "Body is impermanent, is suffering, is not the Self, is not mine, is not I, is not the Self of me. Similarly feeling, perception, the activities, consciousness should be regarded with insight. . The well-taught Ariyan disciple feels disgust at body, at feeling, perception, the activities and consciousness. He is repelled, released, is set free. He knows: 'Destroyed is rebirth; lived is the righteous life; done is the task; there is no birth hereafter'. They are Arahants the best in all the world". Then the Buddha expressed these qualities of Arahants in verse.

[77] 77. Arahants (2) (Dutīya-arahantsutta). [Same s the previous sutta without the concluding verse.]

[78] 78. The Lion (sutta). At Sāvatthi the Buddha said as follows: When the lion utters thrice his Lion's Roar all animals quake with fear, even the royal elephants break their bonds and run to and fro in fear. Similarly when a Tathagata arise in the world and teaches the Dhamma even the devas become fearful and quake with fear because they realise that they are impermanent and unstable.

[79] 79. The Prey. (Khajjanīyasutta). At Sāvatthi the Buddha said as follows: Whenever recluses and brahmins who can recall their past lives do so they remember their bodies, feelings, perceptions, activities and consciousness (in their past lives) . The body is affected by heat, cold etc.; feelings are pleasant, painful or neutral; and so on for perceptions, activities and consciousness.
       The Ariyan disciple knows that he is the prey of his body now. So was he in the past, so will he be in the future. Thus reflecting he is freed from the body. He also knows that he is a prey to feelings, now, in the past and in the future. So reflecting he is freed from feelings. So also is he freed from perceptions, activities and conscience. He regards the body and the other factors as impermanent now and in the past and in the future. They should be regarded by right insight as 'this is not mine, I am not this, and this is not my Self'.
       The Ariyan disciple diminishes (apacināti) the body, does not aggrandise it (ācināti); abandons (pajahati) the body, does not grasp, who scatters (visineti) the body does not cling to, who quenches (vidhūpeti) the body and does not enflame it. Similarly for feeling and the other factors. Having done this his mind set free. The devas, brahmas, and their consorts, do reverence saying: 'We worship you, the thorough-bred of men, the highest among men, and we cannot grasp what you ponder on'.

[80] 80. The mendicant (Piṇḍolasutta). Once the Buddha was staying with the Sakyans, near Kapilavatthu. After his alms round and meal he entered the Great Forest. There the following thought occurred to him: "The order is now well established and there are many new bhikkhus who have recently come to this doctrine and discipline. If they do not see me they may falter away. What if I were to give them a boon (anuggaha, help)?". The Brahma Sahampati divining this thought of the Buddha came to him and urged him to give a boon to the bhikkhus. Then he departed. .
       The Buddha then summoned the bhikkhus and gave them this discourse: "The vocation of a mendicant bhikkhu is the meanest of vocations often subject to abuse by the public who call them wanderers with a bowl collecting scraps of food. But clansmen who do this do it not because they lack a livelihood, not out of fear of kings or robbers, not to get out of a debt. They think: 'Here am I, fallen upon birth, decay, death, and all kinds of sorrow. Is there a way out?'. They seek that way. There is nothing to cling to, not to body or feelings or perceptions or activities or consciousness. All these are impermanent. That which is impermanent is sorrowful. They are unstable and should not be regarded: 'This is mine, I am n not this, this is not my Self'. Parileyya. He who sees this knows that for life in these conditions there is no hereafter".

[81] 81. Parileyya (Pālileyyasutta). Once the Buddha was at Kosambi in the Ghosita monastery. One day after his alms round and meal he wandered off alone to Parileyya and there resided at the foot of a Sal tree. The monks approached the venerable Ananda and said that they wished to hear a discourse from the Buddha. Ananda led the monks to Parileyya, to the Sal tree where the Buddha was. There the Buddha gave a pious discourse to the monks which gladdened them greatly. Then the thought arose in the mind of a certain monk: 'With knowledge and insight how can one without delay destroy the intoxicants (āsavā)?'. The Buddha divined what the monk was thinking and addressed the monks thus:
       "Despite my teaching a monk here has doubts on how one can destroy the intoxicants without delay. I have taught you the four stations of mindfulness, the right efforts, the four magic powers, the five controlling powers, the five strengths, the seven limbs of wisdom, and the Ariyan Eight-fold path. The untaught manyfolk through contact with ignorance is led to craving. This leads to birth and activity. But these are impermanent. Knowing this one can destroy the āsavas without delay.

[82] 82. Full Moon. (Puṇṇamasasutta). Once on a full moon night at the Pubbārāma in Sāvatthi the Buddha was staying with a gathering of monks. Then after seeking permission a certain monk initiated a discussion with the Buddha. In this discussion the following were confirmed by the Buddha: There are five grasping groups (pañcupādānakkhandhā ) these being the grasping body-group, the grasping feeling-group, the grasping perception-group, the grasping activities group and the grasping consciousness-group. They are rooted in desires. Grasping is not identical with these groups nor are they separate from these groups. Where there is lust and desie there is grasping. There could be different kinds of lust and grasping.
       The four material constituents are the cause and condition for the body group; contact is the cause and condition for the feeling, perception and activities groups; body and mind that for the consciousness group. There is no individual group view. For each of these groups the ease and pleasure is the satisfaction, the impermanence and unsteady-ness is the misery, the restraint on desire and lust is the way of escape.
       Thje Budha concluded by saying that some foolish people could try to go beyond the Master by posing the question 'What self can those acts affect which are not self-wrought (anattakatāni kammāni kathamattāna phusissantī)'? He said that the answer to such questions lay in the various teachings he had given.

4. Theravagga – Section on Elder Monks

[83] 83. Ananda. (Ănandasutta). Once at Savatthi the venerable Ananda addressed the monks thus: "The venerable Puṇṇ, Mantani's son, was very helpful when we were novices. He instructed me thus; 'With a cause comes conceit, not without one. The coneit 'I am' comes from the body, as also from feeling, perception, activities and consciousness. The body and the other factors are impermanent. For one who sees this, man or woman, there is no hereafter". Thuis did Puṇṇa teach me the Dhamma. "

[84] 84. Tissa (Tissasutta). Once at Sāvatthi the venerable Tissa, nephew of the Buddha's father, told the monks: "Sloth and torpor possess me, I do not see the Dhamma clearly, I waver in the teachings". This was reported to the Buddha who summoned Tissa and preached to him as follows: "In a body that is not rid of lust, desire, love, thirst, fever, and craving, there arise states of change, instability, sorrow and grief. It is the same with feeling, perception, activities, and consciousness. When a body (and the other four factors) are rid of these that is the end of sorrow". He then gave the following parable [in which the meaning of the terms used are given in brackets]:
       There were two men one unskilled (the layman) and the other skilled in wayfaring (the Arahant). The former asks the latter for the way and is told to follow the road until it is divided into two (the state of wavering), the left path (wrong way) and the right path (the Eightfold path). Take the right path and you will come to a thick forest (ignorance) and further you will come to a marshy area (feeling-desires), then to a steep precipice (vexation and despair). Going past that you will come to a pleasant level ground (the state of nibbāna). The Buddha concluded: "Be of good cheer". Tissa was pleased.

[85] 85. Yamaka. (Yamakasutta). Once venerable Sāriputta was saying in Sāvatthi at the Jetavana. Then there arose in the mind of the monk Yamaka the wrong view: 'Thus do I understand the doctrine of the Buddha that a monk who "has destroyed the āsavas is broken up and perishes, when the body breaks up: he becomes not after death (yathā khīṇāsavo bhikkhu kāyassa bhedā ucchijjati vinassati, na hoti paraṃ maraṇā)". This reached the ears of Sāriputta who visited Yamaka. Sāriputta made Yamaka admit that body and the other factors are impermanent, He then made Yamaka admit that the Tathagata was not the body and the other four factors. Then Sāriputta said that since in this very life the Tathagata cannot be considered as existing in reality how could he assert his heretical view? This led Yamaka to admit to his heresy. He then asserted his new view as: "Body and the four factors are impermanent, so they are suffering. It is the factors that are destroyed (not the person)." Sāriputta then gave the following parable:
       In the parable there is a very rich householder, and a man desiring to harm him came and offered his services to the householder who employed the man. He worked hard and earned the trust of his master but catching him unguarded he slew him. Sāriputta said that the man was a murderer when he first approached the householder and throughout his employment, but the householder was not aware of it. Similarly an untaught Ariyan disciple thinks of the body as the Self. He takes hold of the body and the other four grasping groups and as a result suffers for a long time. But the well taught Ariyan disciple thinks the opposite. He does not get hold of the body and the other factors and does not consider them as the self. He lives a blissful and long life. Yamaka rejoiced at the words of Sāriputta.

[86] 86. Anurādha. (Anurādhasutta). When the Buddha was living at Vesali the venerable Anurādha was living in a forest hut close by. Some wanderers came to Anurādha and said: "A Tathagata can be described in one of these four ways: He comes to be after death, or does not come to be after death, or both comes to be and not come to be after death, or neither comes to be nor comes not to be after death." But Anurādha said that a Tathagata cannot be described in any of these four ways, Thereupon the wanderers ridiculed Anuradha calling him a novice or a fool.
       Anurādha then went to the Buddha to get the matter clarified. The Buddha made Anurādha admit that the body was impermanent and for one who sees and knows this there is no hereafter. He then made Anurādha admit that the Tathagata's body was not theTathagata. So he could not be regarded as existing in this very life. Therefore the four descriptions of the Tathagata given by he wanderers were all wrong. This vindicated what Anurādha had originally told the wanderers.

[87] 87. Vakkali (Vakkalisutta). Once the Buddha was living in the Veluvana in Rajahaga and the venerable Vakkakli was lying gravely ill in a Potter's Shed close by. Vakkali then summoned some monks and told them to go to the Buddha and inform him of his grave illness and pray that he come to see him. The Buddha consented and came to the Potter's shed to see Vakkali. The Buddha inquired how Vakkali was bearing up and was told that he was in grave pain. Then the Buddha asked if Vakkali had any remorse. Vakkali said that he had none relating to morals but that he had a great desire to see the Buddha. The Buddha then said that there was nothing to see in his vile body, and that he who sees the Dhamma sees the Buddha and vice versa. Then the Buddha gave a sermon on the impermanence of the body and the other factors of feeling, perception, activities and consciousness. He then left for the Gujjhakuta hill.
       Then the thought of suicide crossed the mind of Vakkali and thinking that this should not be done in a house he summoned his attendants and asked that he be taken to the Black Rock on the slopes of Mount Isigala. This was done. Meanwhile two devas approached the Buddha and informed him of Vakkali's decision to end his life and hoped that he may reach final release (nibbāna) before that. The Buddha then summoned some monks and sent them to inform Vakkali of the visit of the devas and telling him that his death would not be an evil. Vakkali then sent the monks back to the Buddha to inform him that he (Vakkali) understood that the body (and the other factors) were impermanent and were evil and that he had no desire for them.
       Shortly after the monks had left to deliver his message Vakkali killed himself with a knife. When the Buddha received Vakkali's last message he, with the monks, went to the Black Rock. Then from afar he saw Vakkali lying dead on his bed. He then drew the attention of the monks to a dark smoky cloud which was moving to and fro in the sky. The monks then observed the phenomenon. Then the Buddha said that it was Mara looking for the consciousness of Vakkali. But Mara will not find it because Vakkali had reached nibbana (parinibbuto.

[88] 88. Assaji (Assajisutta). Once when the Buddha was at Rajagaha the venerable Assaji was lying gravely ill at the Kassapa Grove. Assaji sent a messenger to the Buddha asking him to come and see him. The Buddha came and inquired how he was bearing up. Assaji said that he was in great pain. Then the Buddha asked if he had any remorse. Assaji said that he was troubled with his breathing and could not win equanimity of mind (samādhiṃ nappaṭilabhāmi). Yet he did not fall away.
       The Buddha said that many recluses and brahmins too experienced this. The Buddha then verified from Assaji that he understood that body and the other factors were impermanent and for anyone who sees and knows this there is no hereafter. He said any feeling, pleasant or unpleasant or neutral should not be clung to and that they should not be attached to them. If one feels that his bodily powers have reached their end, and the body breaks up and life has run its course, all that he has felt, all that had been a lure for him will grow cold.