[89] 89. Khemaka. (Khemakasutta). Once a group of monks was staying at the Ghosita grove in Kosambī. Venerable Khemaka who was gravely ill was staying at the Bhadharika grove. Then a conversation occurred between the monks and Khema mediated by venerable Dāsaka who took the messages between the parties. This conversation was as follows:
THE MONKSHow are you bearing up, are your pains abating ?
KHEMAKAI am not bearing up, not enduring. My pains are not abating.
THE MONKSDo you consider the five grasping groups, namely those of the body, feeling, perception, activities and consciousness as the Self ?
KHEMAKAIn these grasping groups I neither see the Self or anything belonging to the Self.
THE MONKS If so Khemaka you should be an Arhant in whom the āsavas have been extinguished.
KHEMAKAI am not an Arahant in whom the āsasvas have been extinguished. I do not discern 'I am' in the five grasping groups.
THE MONKSWhat do you mean by 'I am' ? Do you speak of it as relating to each of the five factors or as separate from it ?
When Dāsaka had delivered the last of these messages to Khemaka the latter decided to go directly to the monks. which he did. Then he answered the question posed by the monks in person thus: "Even though I do not speak of 'I am' in reference to the five grasping groups like someone who had got rid of the five lower fetters I find that there is still a trace of the notion of 'I am'. This can only be got rid of by a deeper study of the five holding groups". He gave the analogy of a soiled cloth which on washing may have the soil removed but it could still have a little of the smell, which can be removed only with further treatment. The monks were pleased at this explanation.

[90] 90. Channa. (Channasutta). Once the venerable Channa was living with other monks at the Deer Park in Isigala near Benares. Seeking to know the Dhamma he asked the other monks who told that the body and the other factors were impermanent and not the Self. Channa understood this but did not know how this will lead to the calming of activities, to the destruction of craving and the bases for re-birth, for passionlessness and Nibbana,. The other monks could not enlighten him further and he thought of venerable Ananda. But Ananda was at the time at the Ghosita park in Kosambi. So taking his belongings with him he left for Kosambi and eventually arrived there.
       He then explained the nature of his problem to Ananda. Then Ananda related how the Buddha had explained a similar problem to the bhikkhu Kaccāna. This is the substance of what the Buddha had said: "There are two views on the world, that it exists and that it does not. Those with right view are not concerned with whether the world exists or not. He who does not grasp after systems and dogmas does not say 'This is my soul'. With right view one realises that it is suffering that arises and suffering that ceases. The middle way of the Tathagata says that ignorance conditions activities, which conditions consciousness, and so on. Thus arises suffering, The ceasing of ignorance leads to the ceasing of activities and so on ending with the ceasing of suffering". Hearing this Channa said that he was firmly established in the Dhamma.

[91] 91. Rāhula (1) (Dutiyarāhulasutta). Once in Sāvatthi the venerable Rāhula aproached the Buddha and asked: "How should one know see that in his body and in external objects he has no more idea of 'I' and 'mine' and has no more leanings to pride ?"
       The Buddha answered: "Whatsoever material object one regards thus: 'this is not mine; I am not this; this is not my Self', that is seeing thing by right insight as they really are. The same applies to feeling, perception, activities, and consciousness. Then there are no more leanings to pride.'

[92] 92. Rāhula (2) (Rāhulasutta). [In this sutta venerable Rāhula asks the Buddha a very similar question to that asked in the previous sutta. He received the identical answer from the Buddha.]

5. Puppavagga – Section on Flowers

[93] 93. The River (Nadīsutta). At Sāvatthi the Buddha said: "Just as a man swept by a river may clutch at vegetation on the banks but they break away, in the same way the ordinary folk regard body as self but it breaks away. So also feeling, perception, activities and consciousness. All these are impermanent. For one who so regards there is no hereafter".

[94] 94. The Flower. (Pupphasutta). At Sāvatthi the Buddha said: "Like any teacher of the Dhamma I quarrel with no one, others quarrel with me. What the wise do not uphold neither do I. Thus I say the body is not stable and permanent, so also are feeling, perception, activities and consciousness. The Tathagata has fully understood the world condition (lokadhammo). He has come to full growth in the world but has gone beyond it. He is like the lotus which grows in the water but rises above it and is not spotted by the water.

[95] 95. Bubble of foam. (Pheṇapiṇḍūpamasutta). Once the Buddha was staying at Ayujjhāya on the Ganges and addressed the monks thus: "Just as an observant man who examines a piece of foam carried by the river Ganges and finds it to be without substance or essence so is the body in all its manifestations. It is without essence like a bubble created by rain splashing on the water, or a mirage seen by a man during the hot season, or a person seeking hard wood in the trunk of a banana tree, or an illusion created by a juggler. Just like the body so are feeling, perception, activities and consciousness, they are all without substance". The Buddha then uttered a verse containing the same parables.

[96] 96. Pellet of cow-dung (Gomayapiṇḍasutta). Once at Savatthi a monk came to the Buddha and asked: "Is there any body, feeling, perception, activities or consciousness that is permanent, stable, eternal and unchanging?" The Buddha picked up a small piece of cow-dung and said: "There is no self even as small as this piece of cow-dung. That is why the holy life is prescribed for the ending of suffering". The Buddha then related a past life story (jātaka) in which he had been the ruler of a magnificent country its capital was called Kusavati. It had 80,000 halls, couches, luxurious drapery and so on. He had 84,000 each of elephants, horses, chariots, jewels, women, vessels, cows and so on. But all those things of the world are gone, past and perished. He concluded: "Thus impermanent, mutable, doomed to perish, O monk, are things of the world. There is enough of them to get disgusted, enough to be freed of them".

[97] 97. Tip of the nail. (Nakhasikhāsutta). Here another monk approaches the Buddha and asks a similar question to that asked by the monk in the previous sutta. This time the Buddha took a bit of dust with his finger nail and said that even that is not permanent. That is why the holy life for the end of suffering is set out. The Buddha then makes the monk admit that the body, feeling, perception, activities and consciousness are all not permanent.

[98] 98. The pure one. (Suddhikasutta). Here the monks collectively ask the Buddha the same question as asked by the two monks in the two preceding suttas. The Buddha gives the same answer that there is nothing permanent or stable in the body and the other components down to consciousness.

[99] 99. The Leash.(Gaddulabaddhasutta). At Savatthi the Buddha told the monks: "The origin of the stream of rebirth (saṃsāra) cannot be found. Beings bound by ignorance and craving go on even when the oceans dry up. Ordinary folk are similar to a dog tied to a stake who can only run around the stake. But the well-trained Ariyan disciple does not regard the body as the self and does not find the self in consciousness. He does not run round and round from body to body, from consciousness to consciousness. He is released from birth, old age, and from suffering.

[100] 100. The Leash 2. (Dutiyagddulabaddhasutta). Here, as in the previous sutta, the Buddha gives the analogy of a dog tied to a stake and compares this to the ordinary person who regards of the body as the self and thereby runs the round of saṃsāra. He continued as follows:
       "Monks, beings are tainted when their mind has been tainted by lust, hatred, and illusion. By purity of mind beings are made pure. The mind is even more diverse than the most beautiful picture that you may see. One must regard one's own mind thus: 'For a long time this mind has been tainted by lust, hatred, and illusion'. Just as a painter can paint a picture so the untaught person creates and re-creates its body, its feelings, its perception, its activities, and its consciousness. But for one who knows that the body and the other manifestations are impermanent there is no hereafter".

[101] 101. The axe-handle. (Vasijaṭasutta). At Savatthi the Buddha told the monks: The intoxicants (āsavā) are destroyed by knowing and seeing the arising and the pasing away of the body, feeling, perception, activities and consciousness. A person who simply desires to get rid of the intoxicants will not succeed. He must train himself in the Four Earnest Contemplations, in the Four Best Efforts, in the Four Ways of Will-Power, in the Five Controlling Faculties, in the Five Powers, in the Seven Limbs of Wisdom, and in the Ariyan Eightfold Path.
          To illustrate this the Buddha gave three parables: (1) An egg not sat upon by the ; hen will not produce a chick. (2) An axe will not show marks on the handle unless it has been used by the carpenter. (3) A ship stranded on the shore without being sailed will get spoilt by the weather.

[102] 102. Impermanence (of perception). (Aniccasaññāsutta). At Savatthi the Buddha told the monks: Practicing the impermanence of perception destroys sensual lust, lust for body, lust for rebirth, ignorance, and the conceit 'I am'. He then gave several parables to illustrate this: a ploughman cutting through roots while ploughing; a reed-cutter cutting out reeds; a bunch of mangoes cut from their stalk. Othere examples are given to show the importance of the principle of impermance. These include: a peak-house with its rafters tied together at the peak; the scent of the jasmine flouwr; petty rulers being subject to a universal monarch; the moon's radioanjce compared to stars; and several others.

3 Uttarapaññāsa – The Last Fifty suttas

1. Antavagga – On Divisions

[103] 103. The divisions (antasutta). At Savatthi the Buddha told the monks: "There are four divisions: the own-body (sakkāya), its arising, its ceasing, and the way of its ceasing. The own-body is comprised of the the five groups of grasping: the grasping for body, feeling, perception, activities and consciousness. Its arising is craving, its ceasing is the utter passionless abandonment of craving, and the method is the Noble Eightfold Path".

[104] 104. Suffering. (Dukkhasutta). At Savatthi the Buddha told the monks: "I will teach you suffering. Suffering is the five groups of grasping". [Its arising, ceasing and way of ceasing are explained in the same way as own-body in the previous sutta.]

[105] 105. The own-body. (Sakkāyasutta). [This is the same as Sutta 103 above].

[106] 106. Things to be understood. (Pariññeyyasutta). At Savatthi the Buddha explains what should be understood and who should understand it. The things to be understood are the five aggregates: body, feeling, perception, activities and consciousness. The person who needs the understanding is the named disciple.

[107] 107. Recluses. (Samaṇasutta). Any recluse (or brahmin) who does not understand the five grasping groups and their consequences are not real recluses (or brahmins). But those who do realize the full fruit of being a recluse (or brahmin).

[108] 108. Recluses (2) (Dutiyasamaṇasutta). [Same as previous sutta.]

[109] 109. The stream-winner. (Sotāpannasutta). At Savatthi the Buddha said that the Ariyan disciple who understands the five grasping groups is a stream-winner bound for enlightenment.

[110] 110. The Arahant. (Arahantasutta). A bhikkhu who had rightly seen the five grasping groups. their origin and ending and destroys the āsavas is an Arahant released by perfect insight.

[111] 111. Desire for lust (Chandappahānasutta). At Savatthi the Buddha addressed the monks: "Abandon all desire, lust and craving for the body such that it may not grow again. Do the same for feeling, perception, the activities, and consciousness."

[112] 112. Desire for lust (2) (Dutiyachandappahānasutta). At Savatthi the Buddha addressed the monks: "Abandon all desire, lust, and craving for grasping after systems, addiction to dogma and mental bias there be concerning body. Do the same for feeling, perception, the activities, and consciousness. Then they cannot grow up again in the future".

2. Dhammakathikavagga – On Dhamma Discourse

[113] 113. Ignorance (Avijjāsutta). At Sāvatthi a certain monk came to the Buddha and asked: "What is ignorance. How far is one ignorant?" The Buddha said that ignorance is not knowing body and the other four factors, their arising and their ceasing. That far are they ignorant.

[114] 114. Knowledge (Vijjāsutta). At Sāvatthi a certain monk came to the Buddha and asked: "What is knowledge?" The Buddha said that it was understanding the body and the other four factors.

[115] 115. Dhamma teacher. (Dhammakathikasutta). At Sāvatthi a certain monk came to the Buddha and asked: "How far is one a Dhamma teacher?" The Buddha said that a Dhamma teacher is a monk who teaches bodily revulsion (nibbidāya), its fading away (virāgāya), and its ceasing (nirodāya). If he has abandoned grasping as well he he would have won nibbāṇa; if he is apt to do these things he would be one with the potential to reach nibbāṇa.

[116] 116. Dhamma teacher (2) (Dutiyadhammakathikasutta). [Here the monk asks the same question as in the previous sutta but with the addition 'What is nibbāṇa'. The Buddha's answer is the same.]

[117] 117. Bonds (Bhndanasutta). At Savatthi the Buddha addressed the monks: "An untaught ordinary person regards body as self, or self as possessing body, or body as being in the self, or self as being in body. He is tied by bonds to the body, he has not seen the further shore. The same with regards to feeling, perception, the activities and consciousness. It is the opposite for the well trained Ariyan disciple who has seen the further shore and is released from suffering.".

[118] 118. Questioning. (Paripuccitasutta). In Savatthi the Buddha questioned the monks: "Do you regard body, feeling, ..., consciousness as mine, this I am, this is my self ?" They answered: "Surely not", and the Buddha commended them and added: "Seeing thus on knows that there is no hreafter".

[119] 119. Questioning (2). (Dutiyaparipuccitasuttasutta). [ṣame as above]

[120] 120. The Fetter (Saṃyojaniyasutta). At Savatthi the Buddha addressed the monks: " I will teach you what the fetter is. It is the desire and lust for the body, as also for feeling, perception, activities and consciousness. They make for bondage".

[121] 121. Grasping. (Upādāniyasutta). At Savatthi the Buddha addressed the monks: " I will teach you what makes for grasping and what grasping is. It is body, feeling, perception, activities and conscieousness that make for grasping. Grasping is the lust and desire for these."

[122] 122. The Virtuous. (Sīlavantasutta). Once venerables Sāriputta and Mahā Kotthita were staying at Isipatana near Benares. Then Kotthita asked Sāriputta: "What should a virtuous monk reflect on ?". Sāriputta said that he should reflect on the five grasping groups as impermanent, suffering, sick, smelly, dart-like, painful, ill-health, alien, transitory, empty and soulless (aniccato, dukkhato, rogato, gaṇḍato, sallato, aghato, ābādhato, parato, palokato, suññato, anattato ). This will make one a stream-winner. Pondering deeper on these would make one a once-returner. Still deeper pondering will make one a never returner. Still deeper pondering will make on an arahat. For an arahat there is nothing further to be done.

[123] 123. The Well-taught (Sutavantsutta). [Same as the previous sutta with virtuous reolaced by well-taught.]

[124] 124. Kappa, the monk. (Kappasutta). At Savatthi the monk Kappa asked the Buddha: "How should one know and see that in this body, with its consciousness, and in all external objects, he has no more thought of 'I', 'mine', and no conceit ?" The Buddha replied that whatever bodily form, feeling, perception, activities and consciousness he should regard them without thoughts of of 'I', 'mine', and no conceit.

[125] 125. Kappa (2) (Duitiyakappasutta). [Same as above with Kappa's question extended to include utter release. The Buddha's reply is the same.]

3. Avijjāvagga – On Ignorance

[126] 126. Happening. (Samudayashmmasutta). At Sāvatthi a monk came to the Buddha and asked: "What is ignorance and how far is one ignorant ?". The Buddha replied: "The ordinary untaught people do not know that the nature of body is to happen and then to pass away. So also feeling, perception, activities and consciousness. This is ignorance and to that extent is a person ignorant". Then the monk asked about knowledge (vijjā). The Buddha said that it was to know that the body and and the other factors happen and come to pass.

[127] 127. Happening (2) (Dutiyasamudayashmmasutta). [In this sutta the very same questions asked by the monk in the previous sutta are asked by venerable Mahā Kotthika of ven. Sāriputta and the same replies given].

[128] 128. Happening (3) (Tatiyassamudayashmmasutta). [Same as sutta 126 but this time asked by ven. Mahā Kotthika of ven. Sāriputta.]

[129] 129. Satisfaction. (Assādasutta). [Here the same question about ignorance asked by the monk of the Buddha in Sutta 126 is asked by Mahā Kotthika of Sāriputta and the same answer received.]

[130] 130. Satisfaction (2) (Dutiya-asādasuttasutta). [Here the same question about knowledge asked by the monk of the Buddha in Sutta 126 is asked by Mahā Kotthika of Sāriputta and the same answer received.]

[131] 131. Happening (Samudayasutta). [same as Sutta 126]

[132] 132. Happening (2) (Dutiyasamudayasutta). [Same as sutta 130.]

[133] 133. Kotthika. (Koṭṭhikasutta). [Same as sutta 129]

[134] 134. Khottika (2) (Dutiyakoṭṭhikasutta). [Same as previous sutta.]

[135] 135. Khottika (3) (Tatiyakoṭṭhikasutta). [Same as previous sutta]

4. Kukkuḷavagga – On Glowing Embers

[136] 136. Glowing embers. (Kukkuḷasutta). At Sāvatthi the Buddha addressed the monks: "Body, feeling, perception, activities and consciousness are mass of glowing embers. Seeing this the whe Ariyan disciple feels aversin and disgust with them. For then there is no hereaftr".

[137] 137. The impermanent. (Aniccasutta). At Sāvatthi the Buddha addressed the monks: "You should not desire that which is impermananent. Body, feeling, perception, activities and consiousness areis not permanent.

[138] 138. The impermanent. (2) (Dutiya-aniccasutta). [Same as above with "and lust" added after "desire"]

[139] 139. The impermanent. (3) (Tatiya-aniccasutta). [Same as the previous sutta.]

[140-142] 140-142. Suffering (1-3) (Dukkhasutta). [The same as the three previous sutas with suffering (dukkha) replacing impermanence (anicca).]

[143-145] 143-145. No self. (Anattasutta). [The same as the three previous suttas with no-self (anatta) replacing impermanenece.]

[146] 146. Renunciate and aversion. (Nibbidābahulasutta). At Sāvatthi the Buddha addressed the monks: " clansman (kulaputta) who has gone forth should live averse from body, feeling, perception, activities and consciousness. He should fully understand and be released from them. Then he overcomes birth, old age, death, grief, lamentation, suffering, woe and despair".

[147] 147. Renunciate and impermanence. (Aniccanupasssīsutta). ['Same as previous sutta with the clansman seeing impermanence. ]

[148] 148. Renunciate and suffering. (Dukkhānupassīsutta). ['Same as previous sutta with the clansman seeing suffering. ]

[149 148. Renunciate and No-self. (Anattānupassīsutta). ['Same as sutta 146 with Aversion replaced by No-self. ]

Diṭṭivagga – On View

[150] 150. The internal. (Ajjhattasutta). At Sāvatthi the Buddha addressed the monks: " By clinging to body (and feeling, perception, activitiers and consciousness) one's weal-and-woe arises. But these are all impermanent. Seeing this onhe knows that for life in these conditionhs there is no hereafter".

[151] 151. This am I view. (Etammamasutta). 'Same as previous suta with clinging to factors replaced by the the view clinging to the concept of 'this am I'.

[152] 152. This is my self view. (Soattāsutta). At Sāvatthi the Buddha addressed the monks: "There being what, brethren, by clinging to what, depend ing upon what, does this view arise: " That is the self, that is the world, that hereafters shall I become, permanent, lasting, eternal, by nature unchangeable

[153] If it were not mine view. 153. (Nocamesiyāsutta). At Sāvatthi the Buddha addressed the monks: "There being what, by clinging to what, depending upon what, does this view arise: 'Were I not then, and if it be not mine, I shall not be, and mine it shall not be'. It is body, feeling, perception, activities and consciousness that leads to such a view. If it were not for these such a view would not arise".

[154] 154. Wrong view. (Miccādiṭṭhisutta). At Sāvatthi the Buddha addressed the monks: "Because of what does wrong view arise ? It arises because of the existence of body, feeling, perception, activities and consciousness', and clinging to them".

[155] 155. The own-body view. (Sakkāyadiṭṭhisutta). [Same as previous sutta with 'wrong view' replaced by 'own-body view'. ]

[156] 156. The Self view. (Attanudiṭṭhisutta). [Same as previous sutta with 'own-body view' replaced by 'Self view'. ]

[157] 157. Dependence view. (Abhinivesasutta). [Same as previous sutta with Self view' replace by 'Dependence on fetters view'.]

[158] 158. Ananda. (Anandasutta). Once at Sāvatthi Ananda approached the Buddha and asked that a doctrine be taught to him. The Buddha preached the doctrine that the five aggregates (body to consciousness) were impermanent, and therefore they were suffering, changeable, and that they cannot be regarded as mine and was not the self".