Saṃyutta Nikāya– Book of Kindred Sayings

5. Mahāvagga – 5. The great Chapter

50. Sotapatthisaṃyutta - 50. Kindred Sayings on Stream winning

1. Veḷudvāravagga – 1. The Veludvara Chapter

[997] 1. Cakkavatti (Cakkavattirājasutta) The Buddha said: "Even though a Cakkavatthi king rules over four continents and after death goes to a carnal heaven he is not released from birth in hell or as an animal or a hungry ghost. But an Ariyan disciples may beg for scarps and dress in rags but he has four things going for him. He has complete faith in the Buddha (as stated in the itipi so... gāthā), the Dhamma (as stated in the svākkhāto ... gāthā), and the Sangha (as stated in the suppaṭipanno... gāthā), and is possessed of the Ariyan virtues. He is released from rebirth in hell, as an animal or as a hungry ghost.

[998] 2. Brahma-faring. (Brahmacariyogadhasutta) The householder The Buddha said: "An Aryan disciple who is a stream winner is steeped in loyalty to the Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha and is not doomed to hell and assured of enliughtenment.

[999] 3. Dāghāvu. (Dīghāvuupāsakasutta) Once in Rajagaha the lay disciple the householder Dāghāvu was seriously ill and wanted the Buddha to come and see him. The Buddha complied and after enquiring about his illness the Buddha said: "You must train yourself to be loyal to the Buddha, the Dhamma and the Sangha, and train yourself in the Ariyan virtues." Dāghāvu said he had done all this. Then the Buddha said that Dāghāvu should cultivate he six conditions of knowledge (impermanence, suffering, no-self, abandoning, dispassion and cessation). Dāghāvu said he had done these too. Then the Buddha left. Soon after ths Dāghāvu died. The monks asked the Buddha what the destiny of Dāghāvu was. The Buddha said that he had earned the state of non-return.

[1000] 4. Sāriputta 1. (Paṭhamasāriputtasutta) "Once venerable Sāriputta and Ananda were staying at Sāvatthi when the latter asked the former: "Because of what things are stream winners assured on not going to hell and of enlightenment? " He recived the answer: "Loyalty to the Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha, and cultivation of Ariyan virtues."

[1001] 5. Sāriputta 2. (Dutiyasāriputtasutta) Once the Buddha asked Venerable Sāriputta: "What is a limb of stream-winning ?" Sāriputta said The Buddha said: "It is association with the good, hearing the Dhamma, applying the mind and conforming to it," The Buddha approved of this answer and said: "The stream is the Ariyan eightfold path."

[1002] 6. Carpenter. (thapatisutta) Once in Sāvattthi the monks were making a new robe for the Buddha as after three months he was to resume his alms round. So the carpenters Isidattaa and Purāna stationed a man to look out for the Buddha. When he saw the Buddha coming he alerted the carpenters who came and followed the Buddha until he turned off the road and sat down under a tree. The carpenters sat beside him and said that they were unhappy when the Buddha left Sāvatthi on tour elsewhere but were pleased that he was was now back.. The Buddha said that the wanderer's life is better than living in the same place. But an Arian disciple who is a stream winner and engaged in charity like the two carpenters is well gotten.

[1003] 7. Brahmins of the Bamboo Gate. (Veḷudvārasutta) Once the Buddha while touring Kosala came to the Brahmin village of Bamboo Gate. Hearing good reports of the Buddha the Brahmins and householders of the village came to see him and asked him: "We are householders devoted to family and wealth, we deck ourselves in finery, and handle gold and silver. Yet we desire after death to go the heavenly world. How could this be done ?" The Buddha said: "The Ariyan disciple who loves life will not deprive others of it. For the same reason he does not take what is not given, engage in wrong sensual conduct, engage in false, harsh or frivolous talk. He has loyalty to the Buddha, the Dhamma, and the Sangha. Thereby he becomes a stream winner, assured of not going to hell and becoming enlightened." This pleased the people of the Bamboo Gate who said that they would become lay followers of the Buddha.

[1004] 8. The Brick house 1. (Paṭhamagiñjakāvasthasutta) Once while staying in the brick house at Nyātika venerable Ananda asked the Buddha: "The monk Sāḷha, the nun Nandi, and the lay followers Sudatta and Silha have all died. What is their destiny?" The Buddha said: "The monk by destroying the āsavas has reached his goal, the num who had destroyed three fetters will come back only once, and the lay followers have become stream-winners assured of not going to hell and ultimate enlightenment."

[1005] 9. The brick house 2. (Dutiyagiñjakāvasthasutta) At the same time as in the previous sutta Ananda asked the Buddha: "The monk Asoka and the nun Asoki have died. What is their destiny?". The Buddha said: "The monk has reached his goal while the nun will come back only once before she too reaches the goal."

[1006] 10. The Brick House 3. (Tatiyahagiñjakāvasthasutta) At the same time as in the previous sutta Ananda named a number of lay followers who had died and asked what their destiny was. The Buddha said: "Of the lay disciples who had died at Nyātika more than 50 had reached their goal, more than 90 are once returners, and 506 have become stream-enterers assured of not going to hell and ultimate enlightenment."

2. Rājakārāmavagga – 5. Chapter on the royal Park

[1007] 1. Thousand nuns. (Sahassabhikkhunisaṅghasutta) A thousand nuns came to see the Buddha and stood on a side. The Buddha said: "A stream-winner is blessed with four things: unwavering loyalty to the Buddha, Dhamma and the Sangha; and the virtues of an Ariyan disciple. She is assured of never going to hell and ultimately realizing enlightenment."

[1008] 2. Brahmin. (Brāhmaṇasutta) The Buddha said: "Brahmins instruct their followers thus: 'Go facing east if you fall into a hole, pit, or pool and die then you will go to heaven'. This is a way of fools. In the Ariyan discipline the path to prosperity is one of revulsion, dispassion, cessation, calm and wisdom. It conduces to Nibbāna."

[1009] 3. Ananda. (Anandasutta) Once venerable Sāriputta said to Ananda: "Abandoning what and gaining what does the Buddha say makes one a stream-winner?" Ananda replied: "The Buddha preaches abandoning four things and winning four things. To be abandoned are: Disloyalty to the Buddha; Dhamma and the Sangha; and immorality. To be won are their opposites."

[1010] 4. Fear of hell. (Duggatibhayasutta) The Buddha said: "An Ariyan disciple who has won four things has gone beyond the fear of hell. These are loyalty to the Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha; and the Ariyan virtues."

[1011] 5. Fear of downfall in hell. (Duggativinipātasutta) Same as above with 'Downfall in hell' replacing 'hell'.

[1012] 6. Intimate friends 1. (Paṭhamamittāmaccasutta) The Buddha said: "Your intimate friends should be those who have cultivated the four limbs of stream-winning."

[1013] 7. Intimate friends 2. (Dutiyaāmittāmaccasutta) Same as the previous sutta with the Buddha adding "While the four great elements may change an intimate friend will not change."

[1014] 8. Visiting devas 1. (Paṭhamadevacārikasutta) Venerable Mahāmoggllāna using his psychic power went to the Heaven of the Thirty-Three and addressed the devas thus: "It is good thing to be born in this Heaven but after the term ends to be again reborn in heaven one must have loyalty to the Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha, and be blessed with the Ariyan virtues.

[1015] 9. Visiting devas 2. (Dutiyadevacārikasutta) Same as the previous sutta.

[1016] 10. Visiting devas 3. (Tatiyadevacārikasutta) Here the Buddha goes magically to the Heaven of the Thirty Three and delivers the same message that Mahāmoggallāna had given in the two previous suttas.

3. Saraṇānivagga – 3. Chapter on Sāranāni

[1017] 1. Mahānāma 1.(Paṭhamamahānāmasutta) Once when the Buddha was at Kapilavattu among the Sākyans Mahānāma said to the Buddha: "When I enter this big city of Kapilavatthu with all its bustle I am distracted from my thoughts on the Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha. If I were to die at that moment what would be my destiny?" You will die blameless because for a long time you have been devoted to the Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha. Just as a jar with oil or butter is thown into the water while the jar sinks the oil or butter will come to the surface."

[1018] 2. Mahānāma 2. (Dutiyamahānāmasutta) The Buddha gives further assurance to Mahānāma that in the situation postulated in the previous sutta no blame will come to him.

[1019] 3. Godha. (Godhasakkasutta) In Kapilavatthu Mahānāma went to see Godha who said that there were only 3 requirements to be a stream-winner. But Mahānāma said there were four. They went to see the Buddha and Mahānāma said: "If there is a dispute between the Buddha and the monks or anyone else I will side with the Buddha." Then the Buddha asked Godha whether he agrees with what Mahānāma had said. He said that he did.

[1020] 4. Saraṇāni 1. (Saraṇānisutta) Once the Buddha proclaimed that Saraṇāni the Sakyan who had died was a stream-winner. Then Mahānāma went to the Buddha and said that people said that Saraṇāni had taken to drink for a long time. The Buddha said: "Saraṇāni at his death had been loyal to the Buddha, Dhamma and the Sangha. Even if such a one has not gained release of mind or had not destroyed the intoxications he could still be a stream-winner not bound of hell or birth as an animal.

[1021] 5. Saraṇāni 2. (DutiyasSraṇānisutta) As in the previous sutta people said that Saraṇāni who had died had failed in his training. Mahānāma conveyed this to the Buddha. The Buddha said: "Saraṇāni had been loyal to the Buddha, Dhamma and the Order until his death. Such a person if he is swift in wisdom and destroyed the intoxicants would win release. If not by destroying the five lower fetters he wins release midway or by reduction of his time, or else with little trouble, or else with some trouble, or he is one who goes up stream and is reborn in heaven. In any case such a one will not go to hell or return as an animal or hungry ghost."

[1022] 6. Anātapiṇḍika 1. (Paṭhamaanātapiṇḍikasutta) Once Anātapiṇḍika was ill and sent a messenger to venerable Sāriputta to come to see him. Sāriputta together with venerable Ananda came and after enquiring after his condition said: "Householder you have no disloyalty to the Buddha, Dhamma and the Order. You do not have immorality. You should think of those virtues which are in you and in a moment your pains would be allayed. You do not have wrong view or other wrong things in the Ariyan eightfold path. You should think of these also and your pains would be allayed." Doing so the pains of Anātapiṇḍika went away. Then Anātapiṇḍika served the two monks with a meal and listened to a short discourse in verse by Sāriputta. After that the monks went away. Later Ananda went to the Buddha and related what had happened. The Buddha praised Sāriputta for what he had told Anāthapiṇḍika.

[1023] 7. Anātapiṇḍika 2. (Dutiyaanātapiṇḍikasutta) Here Anātapiṇḍika falls ill again and summons venerable Ananda to come. Ananda comes and on inquiry finds that terror and trembling had beset Anātapiṇḍika. Ananda said: "It is only the uneducated people who have no loyalty to the Buddha, Dhamma and the Order who feel that way. If you have loyalty to these three think about it and the terror and trembling will go away. Anātapiṇḍika said: "I have loyalty to the Buddha, Dhamma and the Order and I have not broken any of he obligations binding on a householder as laid out by the Buddha. Thus I have no fear," Ananda said that is well that you have the fruits of a stream-winner."

[1024] 8. Guilty dread 1. (Paṭhamabhayaverūpasantsutta) Once the Buddha said to the householder Anātapiṇḍika: "When the Ariyan disciple cuts off the fivefold dread he becomes a stream-winner. The fivefold dread is the addiction to killing, stealing, wrongful lust, telling lies and taking intoxicating drink. He is aware of the causal arising: Ignorance leads to Activities, that to consciousness. that to name-and-form, that to sense, that to contact, that to feeling, that to craving, that to grasping, that to becoming, that to birth, that to suffering, old age and death. Then he can proclaim himself to be stream-winner."

[1025] 9. Guilty dread 2. (Dutiyabhayaverūpasantsutta) A number of monks came to the Buddha and he preached to them what he had said in the previous sutta.

[1026] 10. Nandaka (Nandakaliccavisutta) Once while at Vesali the Buddha said to Nandaka the Liccavi minister: "With these four things an Ariyan disciple becomes a stream-winner: loyalty to the Buddha, Dhamma and the Order, and practicing the Ariyan virtues." At this time a man came to remind Nandaka that it was time for his bath. Nandaka said: "Enough of this outward washing; the inner washing is more important."

4. Puññābhisandavagga – 3. Chapter on overflow of merit

[1027] 1. Overflowing 1. (Paṭhamapuññābhisandasutta) The Buddha said: "There are four floods of merit. The first three are loyalty to the Buddha, Dhamma and the Sangha. The fourth is the cultivation of Ariyan virtues. They bring happiness."

[1028] 2. Overflowing 2. (Dutiyapiu#241;ñābhisandasutta) Same as above with 'happiness' replaced by 'living without stinginess of mind and being happy with self-surrender and charity'.

[1029] 3. Overflowing 3. (Tatiyapuññābhisandasutta) The Buddha said: "He who cultivates the four overflows of merit is a sage with insight into the rise and fall of things."

[1030] 4. The way to the Devas 1. (Paṭhamadeapadasutta) The Buddha tells the monks that there are four deva ways, these being the four conditions for stream-winning.

[1031] 5. The way to the Devas 2. (Dutiyadevapadasutta) Same as the previous sutta.

[1032] 6. Deva talk. (Devasutta) The Buddha said: "The devas are prepared to talk those who satisfy the four conditions of stream-winning."

[1033] 7. Mahānāma. (Mahānāmasutta) Here Mahānāma the Sākyan asked the Buddha: "How far is one a disciple, how is he virtuous, how is he a believer and how is he blessed with insight ?" The Buddha said: "He is a disciple when he goes for refuge in the Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha. He is virtuous when he follows the five precepts. He is a believer when his mind is free of stinginess and is generous. He is insightful when he understands the rise and fall of things."

[1034] 8. Rain. (Vassasutta) The Buddha said: "When the rain water falls on a mountain top it flows through lakes. streams, rivers and so on all the way to the ocean. Likewise when the Ariyan disciple has loyalty to the Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha he goes all the way to the destruction of the āsavas.

[1035] 9. Kāligodha. (Kāligodhasutta) Once in Kapilavattu the Buddha visited the house of the lady Kāligodha and preached to her as follows: "The Ariyan woman disciple is a Stream-winner if she has unwavering loyalty to the Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha. She dwells at home with a mind free from stinginess, is open-handed, delights in self-surrender, and is charitable. That is a gain for you, you have become a stream-winner." 

[1036] 10. Nandiya.(Nandiyasakkasutta) Nandiya the Sākyan asked the Buddha: "If an Ariyan disciple is without the four requirements for stream-winning can be be considered someone in remiss?" The Buddha said: "Such a person is totally outside, living with the ignorant many-folk. Even if he has loyalty to the Buddha , Dhamma and the Sangha and does not make further effort to live in seclusion and meditation he is in remiss. However if he also has the Ariyan virtues and lives in seclusion and meditation he is one who lives in earnest.

5. Sagāhakapu#241;ñābhisandavagga – 5. Flood with verses

[1037] 1. Incalculable 1. (Paṭhmaabhisandasutta) The Buddha said: "The merit that accrues to a disciple who is blessed with the four factors that lead to stream-winning is incalculable just as the amount of water in the ocean is incalculable."

[1038] 2. Incalculable 2. (Dutiyaabhisandasutta) The Buddha said: "The Ariyan disciple has unwavering faith in the Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha. He dwells at home with a mind without stinginess, open-handed, self-surrendered, and charitable. The merit he gets is greater than the quantity of the waters in the Ganges, Yamuna, Aciravati, Sarabhu and Mahi. "

[1039] 3. Incalculable 3. (Tatiyaabhisandasutta) The Buddha said: "The Ariyan disciple has unwavering faith in the Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha. He has insight into the rise and fall of things. His merit is incalculable."

[1040] 4. The very rich 1. (Paṭhamamahaddhanasutta) The Buddha said: "The Ariyan disciple with the four qualities of the stream-winner is very rich."

[1041] 5. The very rich 2. (Dutiyamahaddhanasutta) Same as the previous sutta.

[1042] 6. Pure. (Suddhakasutta) The Buddha said: "The Aryan disciple with the four accomplishments is assured of not going to hell and to ultimate enlightenment."

[1043] 7. Nandiya (Nandiyasutta) The Buddha said to Nandiya the Sākyan: "With the four accomplishments the Ariyan disciple is assured of not going to hell and ultimately getting enlightened."

[1044] 8. Bhaddiya. (Bhaddiyasutta) The same statement as in the previous sutta is made to Bhaddiya the Sākyan.

[1045] 9. Mahānāma. (Mahānāmasutta) The same statement as in the previous sutta is made to Mahānāma the Sākyan.

[1046] 10. Limbs. (Aṃgasutta) The Buddha describes the requirements for stream-winning as the limbs of stream-winning.

6. Sappaññavagga – 5. Chapter on discretion

[1047] 1. With verses. (Sagāthakasutta) The Buddha said: "The Buddha said: "The Ariyan disciple is blessed with unwavering loyalty to the Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha, and the virtues dear to the Ariyans."

[1048] 2. Rains. (Vassaṃvutthasutta) A monk have spent the rains in Sāvatthi came to Kapilavatthu. The people there asked him: "Are the Buddha, Sāriputta and Mogallāna well ?" The monk answered that they were well and that the Buddha told him the various rewards to various degrees of accomplishment in Dhamma practice. "

[1049] 3. Dhammadinna. (Dhammadinnasutta) While at Isipatana near Benares the lay disciple Dhammadinna with 500 of his followers came to the Buddha and asked for a teaching (ovada). The Buddha wanted to give a deep philosophical discourse but Dhammadinna said that as lay people it was not easy for them to understand such a discourse. Then the Buddha asked them to develop the four limbs of stream-winning. But Dhammadinna said that they had already developed the four requirements for stream-winning. The Buddha then said that it was good that they had already done so.

[1050] 4. The sick. (Gilānasutta) The Buddha said: "Towards the end of the rains retreat when the Buddha was at Kapilavattu the Sākyan Mahānāma came to the Buddha and asked how a lay disciple should admonish another lay disciple who was seriously ill. The sick disciple should be asked to take comfort in his devotion to the Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha. He should take comfort from his practice of virtues. If the sick person has longing for his parents, family or children he should be asked to meditate on the inevitability of death and abandon those longings. He should also abandon any longing for sense pleasures because the pleasures of heaven would be far greater. If he has done all that there is no difference between the sick lay disciple and the monk who has destroyed the intoxications (āsava)."

[1051] 5. Four fruits. (Sotāpattiphalasutta) The Buddha said: "Cultivating the four conditions for stream-entry results in the realization of the four fruits. These are: following after the good, hearing the Dhamma, paying attention to it, and living in accordance with the precepts."

[1052-1056] 6-10. More fruits. (Sakadāgāmi, Anāgāmi, Arahatta, Paññāpaṭilābha, Paññāvuddhi, Paññāvepulla-suttas) The Buddha said: "The fruits of stream-entry could also include (i) once-returning, (ii) non-returning, (iii) Arahantship, (iv) acquiring insight, (v) growth of insight, and (vi) increase of insight."

7. Mahāpaññāvagga – 5. Chapter on great insight.

[1057- 1070] These 13 suttas merely name 13 kinds of insight as: great (Mahā), many Puthu), wide Vipula), deep (Gambhīra), unbounded (Appamatta), abundant (Bhūri), many-fold (Bahullā), swift (Sīgha), buoyant (Lahu), happy (Hāsa), instant (Javana), pointed (Tikkha), and fastidious (Nibbedhika) insight. No further information is given of these kinds of insight.

51. Saccasaṃyutta - 51. Kindred Sayings on the Truths

1. Samādhivagga – 1. Chapter on Concentration

[1071] 1. Concentration. (Samādhisutta) The Buddha said: "A monk who is concentrated knows things as they really are. He knows suffering as suffering, and also its cause, its overcoming and the path to its overcoming as they really are."

[1072] 2. Solitude. (Pṛisallānasutta) Same as the previous sutta with 'solitude' replacing 'concentration'.

[1073] 3. Kinsman 1. (Paṭhamakulaputtasutta) The Buddha said: "All kinsmen past or future who leave the household life do so to understand fully the four truths: suffering its cause, its end, and the path to its end."

[1074] 4. Kinsman 2. (Dutiyakulaputtasutta) The same as the previous sutta with an added exhortation to monks to do the same.

[1075] 5. Recluses and brahmins 1. (Paṭhamasamanabrāhmaṇasutta) The Buddha said: "Recluses and Brahmins past or present who have gained the highest wisdom have done so by penetrating the four Ariyan truths."

[1076] 6. Recluses nd Brahmins 2. (Dutiyasamanabrāhmaṇasutta) The Buddha said: "Recluses and brahmins past or present who have claimed to have gained the highest wisdom have claimed to have done so by penetrating the four Ariyan truths."

[1077] Thoughts. 7. (Vitakkasutta) The Buddha said: "Monks shout not think of unprofitable thoughts of lust, hatred or delusion. They should think of the four Ariyan truths."

[1078] 8. Reasoning. (Cintasutta) The Buddha said: "Monks should not reason whether the world is eternal or finite or not. Nor whether life and body are the same or not, or whether the athāgata exists after death or not. These are unprofitable. Think of the four Ariyan truths."

[1079] 9. Disputacious talk. (Viggāhikakathāsutta) The Buddha said: "Monks should not engage in wordy disputes about the Dhamma as they do not profit or lead to Nibbāna. An effort must be made to realize the four Ariyan truths."

[1080] 10. Low talk. (Tiraccanakathāsutta) The Buddha said: "Do not indulge in low talk (actually 'animal talk') on things like kings, armies, battles, food, clothes, women and similar gossip. Talk of the four Ariyan truths which lead to wisdom and conduce to Nibbāna.

2. Dhammacakkapavattanavagga – 2. Setting down of the wheel of the Law

[1081] 1. Unrolling the wheel of the Dhamma. (Dhammacakkappavattamasutta) [This is the first discourse of the Buddha to the five ascetics. It is given in the Vinaya Piṭaka. Only a very brief summary is given here.]
       The Buddha said: "There are two extremes: Devotion to sense pleasures and devotion to self-mortification. The Tathāgata avoids both and proclaims the middle way which leads to enlightenment (nibbāna). This is the Ariyan eightfold path: Right view, right aim, right speech, right action, right living, right effort, right mindfulness, and right concentration. There are four Ariyan truths. The first is the truth of suffering (from birth to death). The second is the cause of suffering which is the craving and grasping for sense pleasure. The third is the truth of cessation of suffering, which is possible even in this life. The fourth is the path to the cessation, which is the Ariyan eightfold path mentioned earlier. When I realized these truths, which had not been known before, vision, wisdom and light arose in me. I knew that I had secured release of mind (cetovimutti) and there was no more birth for me."
       At this the company of five ascetics were extremely pleased and in one of them Kondañña the 'Dhamma eye' arose. Then the earth devas raised the cry : "At Benares, at Isipatana, in the Deer-Park the Buddha has established the kingdom of the Dhamma, which cannot overturned by any Recluse or Brahmin or Deva or Māra or Brahmā, or by anyone in the world." This cry then reverberated through the various heavens. A bright light shone forth, a mighty thunder was heard and the world-system shook. The Buddha then uttered the solemn utterance: "Kondñña has indeed understood."

[1082] 2. Tathāgata. (Tathāgata sutta) Same as the previous sutta with the Buddha identifying himself as the Tathāgata.

[1083] 3. Group. (Khandasutta) Here each of the four Ariyan truths are referred to as a drseparate group.

[1084] 4. Internal bodily sense. (Ajjhattikāyasutta) The Buddha said: "The Ariyan strruth of suffering should be seen as the six bodiuly sensses: eye, ear, nose, tounge, body and mind. The othr truths are related to these internal senses."

[1085] 5. Bearing in mind 1. (Pṭhamadhāraṇasutta) When the Buddha said: "Monks, bear in mind the four Ariyan truths", a certain monk said: "I do bear them in mind." When the Buddha asked him how he bore them in mind he enumerated the four truths correctly. The Buddha praised him. .

[1086] 6. Bearing in mind 2. (Dutiyadhāraṇasutta) Another monk when asked how he bore in mind the four Ariyan truths said: "If a recluse says that suffering is not the first truth he cannot give another one. And so for the other truths." The Buddha praised him.

[1087] 7. Ignorance. (Avijjāsutta) A certain monk came to the Buddha and asked: "What is ignorance?" The Buddha said that it was not knowing the four Ariyan truths.

[1088] 8. Knowledge. (Vijjāsutta) A certain monk came to the Buddha and asked: "What is knowledge?" The Buddha said that it was knowledge of the four Ariyan truths.

[1089] 9. Numberless. (Saṅkāsanasutta) The Buddha said: "There are numberless shades and variations of stating the four Ariyan truths."

[1090] 10. True. (Tathasutta) The Buddha said: "The four Ariyan truths are true not false."

2. Kotigāmavagga – 2. At Koṭigāma1. Chapter on

[1091] 1. Koṭtigāma 1. (Paṭhasma.koṭtigāmasutta) Once at Koṭigāma the Buddha said: "It is by not understanding the four Ariyan truths that we have wandered on this long road (saṃsāra).

[1092] 2. Koṭigāma 2. (Dutiyakoṭtigāmasutta) The Buddha said: "Recluses and brahmins wh do not understand the four Arian truths as they are are not regarded as recluses and brahmins. Those who have understood it have realized true recluseship and true brahminhood.

[1093] 3. Fully enlightened. (Sammāsambuddhasutta) The Buddha said: "It is because the Tathāgata has fully understood the four Ariyan truths that he is regarded as a fully enlightened Arhant.

[1094] 4. Arahants. (Arahantasutta) The Buddha said: "Why Arahants in the past, future or present fully understand things as they really are do so is because they understand the four Ariyan truths.

[1095] 5. Destruction of the āsavas. (Āsavakkhayasutta) The Buddha said: "I declare the āsvs to be fully destroyed in those who fully understand the four Ariyan truths.

[1096] 6. Friend. (Mittasutta) The Buddha said: "Establish in the understanding of the four Ariyan truths your friends, kinsmen and blood-relations."

[1097] 7. True. (Tathasutta) The Buddha said: "The four Ariyan truths are true not false."

[1098] 8. World. (Loka sutta) The Buddha said: "Of all the being in the world the Tathāgata is an Ariyan. Therefore the truths proclaimed by him are called the ariyan truths. "

[1099] 9. To be understood. (Parineññeyyasutta) The Buddha said: "Of, the four Ariyan truths, the first is to be fully understood, the second is to be abandoned, the third is to. be realized, and the fourth is to be cultivated."

[1100] 10. Gavampati. (Gavampatisutta) Once in Sahajana a number of monks were discussing things after their mid-day meal when the question arose: "Those who see suffering also see its cause, its ceasing, and the path leading to its ceasing." Then the venerable Gahampti said "I have heard this from the Exalted One (Buddha) himself that anyone who sees any of the four truths also sees the other three."

4. Sīsapāvagga – 4. The Siṃsapa forest

[1101] 1. Sīsapa forest. (Sīsapasutta) Once the Buddha was in the Sīsapa forest in Kosambi when he took a handful of Sīsapa leaves in his hand and said: "Just as there are far more leaves in this forest than there is in my hand so much more in number are those things I have found out, but not revealed; very few are the things I have revealed. This is becuse what I have not revealed are not of profit; they are not needed for the holy life; they do not lead to tevulsion, to dispassion, to cessation, to tranquillity, to perfect wisdom, to Nibbana."

[1102] 2. The Kadirapatta tree. (Kadirapattasutta) The Buddha said: "Without penetrating and undersanding fully the four Ariyan truths one cannot make an end of suffering. It would be like making a basket of Kadirapatta leaves or similar leaves to hold water."

[1103] 3. The stick. (Daṇḍsutta) The Buddha said: "Just as a stick thrown up will fall down landing in many ways so a person who dies and is reborn will come back in many possible ways. This will depend on how they have seen the four Ariyan truths."

[1104] 4. Turban. (Celasutta) The Buddha said: "If one's turban or head is on fire one has to pay urgent attention, effort, and so on. So too must a persson who has not penetrated the fourt Ariyan truths."

[1105] 5. A hundred years. (Sattisatasutta) The Buddha said: "A man who desires to live a hundred years may be willing to endure a daily torture. But to get full comrehension of the four Ariyan truths one need not go through sorrow and woe; it could be done with joy and gladness."

[1106] 6. Living beings. (Pāṇasutta) The Buddha said: "Suppose a man wants to burn up all the creatures in the ocean using up the timber in this Jambudvipa (India) in a mighty fire he will not find enough timber to burn all the fish in the ocean and some small fish may be spared. Similarly even from such a disaster a few will escap;e who can see. These are those who understand the four Ariyan truths as they really are."

[1107] 7. The sun 1. (Paṭhmasūriyasutta) The Buddha said: "Just as the dawn is the harbringer of the sunrise, even so right view is the forerrunner of the four Ariyan truths.

[1108] 8. The sun 2. (Dutiyasūriyasutta) The Buddha said: "Just as without the sun and the moon there will be darkness in the world so without a Tathāgata there is no one to proclaim the four Ariyan truths.

[1109] 9. Chief pillar. (Indkhilasutta) The Buddha said: "A recluse or brahmin who does not know about (ther cause of) suffering may look to some other but this like a ball of cotton blown about by the wind. But one who knows is like the chief pillar made if iron that can withstand gales from all dire4ctions."

[1110] 10. Dogmatists. (Vādatthikasutta) The Buddha said: "A monk who understands suffering as it really is cannot be upset by a dogmatist from whatever direction he comes as he stands firmly on the truth. He is like a stone pillar set deep in the earth which will not be upturned by wind or rain."

5. Papātavagga – 1. Chapter on the Precipice

[1111] 1. World speculation. (Lokacintasutta) Once at the Veluvana in Rājagaha Buddha said: "Acertain man wanted to speculate about the world and went to the lotus pond to do so. He thought he saw a whole army emerge from a lotus stalk and thought that he must have gone mad. When he returned and related his story to others they too thought that he was mad. But the mistook the story that when the Asuras were defeated in their battle with the Devas they managed to get back to their city through a lotus stalk. So do not speculate whether the world is eternal or whether it is infinite; or whether life and body are the same, or whether the Tathāgata exists after death. These are unprofitable questions, not conducive to the holy life; nor do they lead to revulsion, dispssion, cessation, tranquility, wisdom or to Nibbāna.

[1112] 2. (sutta) While staying at the Gijjhakuta in Rajagaha the Buddha and the monks went to near a steep precipice. Then a monk asked: "Is there a precipice greater and more fearsome than this?". The Buddha answered: "There is. When recluses and brahmins do not understand suffering they fall into the precipice of rebirth, old age and death. Only when they understand the four Ariyan truths will they be able to avoid that precipice."

[1113] 3. Great Distress. (Mahāpriḷāhasutta) The Buddha said: "There is a hell called Great Distress where everything one sees is repulsive so also every sound, smell, taste, and whatever touched is repulsive." Then a monk aslkd: "Is there anything more distressful and fearsome than that?" The Buddha said: "Yes. Not understanding the four Ariyan truths is more distresssful and fearsome than that."

[1114] 4. Peaked house . Kūṭāgārasutta) The Buddha said: "To say that without understanding the Ariyan truths one can make an end of suffering is like trying to construct the second story of a house without first completing the first story. So make an effort to realize the Ariyan truths."

[1115] 5. The keyhole. (Vaālautta) Once when venerable Sāriputta was on his begging round in Vesali he saw some Liccavi youths practicing archery by shooting arrows through a keyhole. He related this incident to the Buddha who said: "It is harder than that to split a single strand of hair but those who penetrate the meaning of the Ariyan truths is doing something that is even harder than that."

[1116] 6. Utter darkness. (Andhakārasutta) The Buddha said: "Interstellar space is utterly dark." Then a monk asked: "Is there anything darker and more feasome than that ?" The Buddha replied: "There is. A recluse or brahmin who does not understaned the four Ariyan truths and engages in activities that led to rebirth falls into a greater darkness."

[1117] 7. The yoke-hole 1. (Paṭhamamachigaḷayugasutta) The Buddha said: "If a yoke with a single hole were thrown into the ocean and a turtle comes to the surface once every hundred years I declare it will be sooner for the turtle to put its head through that hole than for a fool who has not practiced the holy life, nor done any good deeds, and consequently gone to hell to be born again as a human. This is because he has not seen the four Ariyan truths."

[1118] 8. The yoke-hole 2. (Dutiyamachigaḷayugasutta) In the example of the turtle putting its head through the yoke hole given in the previous sutta the Buddha in this sutta says that this will happen sooner than for a Tathāgata to arise and declare the Dhamma. But now that a human birth has been won, and a Tathagata has arisen, and the Dhamma proclaimed the monks should make an effort to realize the four Ariyan truths.

[1119] 9. Mount Sineru 1. (Paṭhamasinerupabbatarājasutta) The Buddha said: "Just as a handful of gravel is infinitely small when compared to the mighty mountain Sumeru so for the Ariyan disciple with vision far greater is the suffering he has destroyed when compared to the suffering that still remains."

[1120] 10. Mount Sineru 2. (Dutiyasinerupabbatarājasutta) The Buddha said: "If Mount Sineru disappears leaving behind only a handful of gravel the part that has disappeared is far greater than that which remains. Similarly for the a man with vision far greater is the suffering that has disappeared compared to tht which remains."

6. Abhisasmayavagga – 1. Chapter on comprehension

[1121] 1. Tip of the nail. (Nakhasikhasutta) The Buddha taking some dust on his fingernail said: "Just as the mighty earth is greater than the dust on my finger nail so for the Ariyan disciple with vision the suffering he has destroyed is far greater than that which still remains."

[1122] 2. The tank. (Pokkharaṇisutta) As in the previous sutta the comparison is between the water on the tip of a blade of grass with the water in a large tank full to the brim.

[1123] 3. Rivers 1. (Paṭhamasaṃbhejjasutta) As in the previous sutta the comparison is between the water on the tip of a blade of grass with the water in a large tank full to the brim.

[1124] 4. Rivers 2. (Dutiyahamasaṃbhejjasutta) As in the previous sutta the comparison is between three drops of water with the water at the confluence of the great rivers in Northern India.

[1125] 5. Great earth 1. (Paṭhamamahāpathavīsutta) As in the previous sutta the comparison is between seven balls of clay with the mighty earth.

[1126] 6. Great earth 2. (Dutiyamahāpathavīsutta) The Buddha said: "If the earth were to waste away leaving behind a few drops of clay the suffering which the Ariyan disciple with vision has destroyed is like the part wasted away and the suffering that still remains is like the drops of clay."

[1127] 7. The ocean 1. (Paṭhamamahāamuddasutta) The Buddha said: "If the ocean were to waste away leaving behind a few drops of water the suffering which the Ariyan disciple with vision has destroyed is like the part wasted away and the suffering that still remains is like the drops of water."

[1128] 8. The ocean 2. (Dutiyamahāamuddasutta) The Buddha said: "If the ocean were to waste away leaving behind a few drops of water the suffering which the Ariyan disciple with vision has destroyed is like the part wasted away and the suffering that still remains is like the drops of water."

[1129] 9. Mountain Simile 1. (Paṭhamapabbatūpamasutta) The Buddha said: "If the Himalaya mountain to a few grains of gravel of the size of mustard seeds the suffering which the Ariyan disciple with vision has destroyed is like the Himalaya and the suffering that still remains is like the grains of gravel."

[1130] 10. Mountain Simile 2. (Dutiyapabbatūpamasutta) The Buddha said: "If the Himalaya mountain were to waste away leaving behind a few grains of gravel of the size of mustard seeds suffering which the Ariyan disciple with vision has destroyed is like the part wasted away and the suffering that still remains is like the grins of gravel."

7. Paṭhamaāmakdhaññapeyyālavagga – 7. First cyclic repetition.

[The 10 sutas in this chapter continue the comparison of small things with large things with the the refrain that the suffering which the Ariyan disciple with vision endures is like the small thing and the suffering that he has destroyed is like the large thing. For each sutta only the small thing and the large thing is given.]

[1131] The dust on the figer nail and the world.
[1132] Beings born in unfavourable places and beings in favourable places.
[1133] Those blessed with Ariyan insight and and those no so blessed.
[1134] Those who abstain from liuor and those who indulge in it.
[1135] Those born on land and those born in water.
[1136] Those who reverence their mothers and those who do not.
[1137] Those who reverence their fathers and those that do not.
[1138] Those that reverence recluses and those that do not.
[1139] Those that reverence brahmins and those that do not.
[1140] Those that respect elders and those tht do not.

8. Dutiyaāmakdhaññapeyyālavagga – 8. Second cyclic repetition

[The 10 sutas in this compares the few who abstain form certain unethical practices with the the many that do not abstain. The Ariyan disciple with vision is compared to the few who abstain and the non-Ariyab us compared to the many who do not abstain. For each sutta the unethical practice invovled is identified.]

[1141] Abstain from taking the life of creatures.
[1142] Abstain from taking what is not given.
[1143] Abstain from wrong practice in sensual lust.
[1144] Abstain from falsehood.
[1145] Abstain from slander.
[1146] Abstain from Harsh speech.
[1147] Abstain from gossip.
[1148] Abstain from spoiling crops and vegetation.
[1149] Abstain from eating at unreasonable times.
[1150] Abstain from flowers, scents and adornments.

9. Tatiyaāmakdhaññapeyyālavagga – 9. Third cyclic repetition

[The 10 suttas in this chapter are similar those of the suttas of the previous chapter relating to doing or receiving more practices considered unethical.]

[1151] Abstain from singing and dancing.
[1152] Abstain from luxurious beds.
[1153] Abstain from gold and silver .
[1154] Abstain from uncooked grain .
[1155] Abstain from uncooked flesh.
[1156] Abstain from women and girls.
[1157] Abstain from slaves.
[1158] Abstain from goats and sheep.
[1159] Abstain from fowls and swine.
[1160] Abstain from elephants.

10. Catutthatiyaāmakdhaññapeyyālavagga – 10. Fourth cyclic repetition

[The 11 suttas in this chapter are similar those of the suttas of the previous chapter relating to doing or receiving more practices considered unethical.]

[1161] Abstain from fields.
[1162] Abstain from buying and selling.
[1163] Abstain from sending messges .
[1164] Abstain from cheating with false sales.
[1165] Abstain from perverting justice.
[1166] Abstain from flogging.
[1167] Abstain from binding.
[1168] Abstain from plundering.
[1169] Abstain from violence.
[1170] Abstain from highway robbery.
[1171] Abstain from violence.

10. Pancagatipeyyālavagga – 10. Fifth cyclic repetition

The 29 suttas in this chapter [1172-1201] are similar those of the suttas of the previous chapter relating to doing or receiving more practices considered unethical. It also deals with birth in various planes of existence.]