Revised 22 Aug 2010
This Glossary was originally compiled by ACSLU to define terms used in its documents. It is also useful in understandng terminology in the discussion of the separatist problem in Sri Lanka. At present there is a some confusion relating to the terminology used to describe this problem, with much of it left undefined. This leads to some confusion and it is hoped that this Glossary will help to reduce this confusion. This Glossary is particularly useful in the exposition of the theory developed by ACSLU to explain the origin and resolution of this problem. Most political commentators have no such theory and consequently their analysis is defective, and of course they have no real solution to this problem.
All defined terms will be in boldface, either as the headword or when it occurs in other definitions. These should be cross-checked even if attention is not drawn specifically to them. Normal glossary conventions are adopted.
The abbreviation q.v. = quod vide = 'which see'. This Glossary is in process of compilation.
The Australian Centre for Sri Lankan Unity which acts as an information source on the separatist problem of Sri Lanka. For excerpts from its 'mission statement' go to ACSLU Manifesto
on the Internet. This gives the objectives of the Centre, and its mode of operation.
- Anagarika Dharmapala
- The great Buddhist revivalist and Missionary (1864-1933). He was a product of the Western interest in Buddhism in the late 19th century led by Theosophists. He was instrumental in recovering Buddhist sites in India from the control of Hindus. He was disappointed with the growing Boduhela movement in Sri Lanka and vowed that his remains not remain in the land of his birth, so they have been interred in Sarnath in India.
- Anti-Mahavamsa Movement
- The opposition to the version of Sri Lankan history as given in the great national
chronicle The Mahāvaṃsa. This opposition comes from two sources. The first is from Tamils, Christians and others who came to the country after the introduction of Buddhism and resent the place given to Buddhism in this Chronicle. The other is from the neo-Sinhalas who resent the non-racist way in which the history is dealt with in this Chronicle, and in particular with the use of the name Lanka to designate the country. The neo-Sinhalas claim that the Mahavamsa was written by 'foreigners'.
- All Party Committee
- see APC
- All Party Representative Committee
- see APRC
- Apartheid Principle
- The principle of dividing a country into different territories each of which is occupied by a separate ethnic or religious group. Each such region could have a Parliament or Assembly which would set up the laws and rules for the region. It could also be called the Racial Principle , and is the opposite of the Multicultural Principle (q.v.)
- Accronym for All Party Committee. A Committee of Parliament set up by the President to devise a method of solving the Ethnic problem. It appointed a sub-committee called the APRC to attend to this task.
- Accronym for All Party Representative Committee. This was a sub-committee of the APC chaired by Minister Tissa Vitharana. Its purpose is the same as that entrusted to the APC by the President. In late 2006 the APRC isues two reports called the Majority Report and the Minority Report recomending schemes of devolution, but these were taken as discussion papers and were not regarded as a formal report of the APRC. Finally in Jan 2008 it presented a formal report to the President. The principal recommendation was to implement the Thirteenth Amendment (q.v.).
- Asian Tribune
- An electronic newspaper published free on the internet which primarily carries news about Sri Lanka. It also includes news items about other countries. It carries articles and analyses of political developments in Sri Lanka from a selected stable of writers. While the readers can give their comments access has been barred to those who ave been very critical of the journal's view point. It financing is not known.
During the 2010 Presidential election it strongly supported incumbent President
Rajapaksa. In April 2010 its founder was tried for defamation in a Swedish
court. URL: www.asiantribune.com.
- Black July
- This refers to the riots that took place in Colombo and other parts of Sri Lanka in July 1983 in which the victims were mainly Tamils. The riots started when the bodies of Sri Lankan soldiers who died in the first major attack by the
LTTE were brought to Colombo for cremation. There are differences of opinion whether the riots were spontaneous actions of an enraged populace or were orchestrated by interested parties. The handling of the riot by the Government also left much to be desired. That it was not a simple clash between Sinhalese and Tamils is shown by the great number of Sinhalese who braved the mobs to defend Tamils who were threatened. If not for their action the casualties would have been greater. The ITSL (q.v.) made great propaganda out of this unfortunate event.
- black-whites, kalusuddas
- A term used to designate Sri Lankans who strongly adopt European (especially British) cultural practices relating to dress, diet, language, sports, etc. Some foreign derivatives, e.g. cricket, seem to be excluded. Western pop music has also become popular and has to some extent been "indigenized". Many Helas wear Western attire (trousers, skirts) but are not called kalusuddhas.
The term is essentially a racist term, especially when these kalusuddas are referred to as "coconuts".
- Those Helas (q.v) who consider themselves to be Buddhists by religion. See also Boduhela Religion .
- Boduhela Religion
- The version of Buddhism practiced by the Boduhelas . This is a corrupted version of Theravada Buddhism (introduced to Sri Lanka from India in the third century BCE) emphasizing rite and ritual, the worship of massive statues, the adoption of many the practices of the Hindu religion like the pujas and devales in their temples. It has also burrowed relic worship, imitating Roman Catholics. See also Istriyaani Religion.
- Accronym for the Cease-Fire Agreement concluded between the LTTE and GOSL in February 2002. This agreement was negotiated by the Chandrika Bandaranike–Ranil Wickremesinghe Government. The succeeding government of President Mahinda Rajapakse has given an international pledge to "uphold" this agreement, so it is fully complicit with what its predecessors had done.
Rajapaksa upheld the Agreement for the longest period for any SL leader.
He was forced to abarogate the agreement in January 2009 in the face of the
impending defeat of the LTTE.
- classical Sinhalese, classical Sinhalas
- These were the Sinhalese who migrated to Lanka in the sixth century BCE bringing with them many aspects of the Indo-aryan civilization of India. They built a great civilization, especially during the Anuradhapura period. The capital was later shifted to Polonnaruwa and from there it gradually moved to the South-West until by the fifteen century CE it was located at Kotte near the present Colombo. Classical Sinhala declined gradually especially after the European invasion when it was gradually transformed into neo-sinhala which finally became the ruling ideology in the Great Hela Revolution.
- An agreement between a state and a religious group. In Sri Lanka this term is applied to the informal agreement between the newly elected President of Sri Lanka in 2005 and the Bishops of the Roman Catholic Church at a meeting held in the President's residence.. This is widely believed to be a secret agreeemnt and the contents of this agreement has never been formally published or given legislative backing.
- cyber patriots
- A general term for people who belong to the patriot lobby
(q.v.). Their activity is mainly on the internet and are inconsequential.
- Devananda, Douglas
- See EPRLF. Douglas is not Devananda's original first name. it was adopted after his Karate instructor.
He was a close ally of the ruling coalition led by Rajapaksa
- A constitutional arrangement where political power is "devolved" to clearly defined parts of a given state. This is separate from normal local government arrangements which do not involve a quasi-permanent devolution of political power and local government functions (e.g. garbage disposal) are given to the local authority. Under true devolution an Assembly, Council or Parliament is set up which has legislative and executive power over the region concerned. The actual division of power is defined by the constitution. Federalism is a form of devolution and separation may be the ultimate devolution. Where the devolution is to a racial or religious group we have ethnic devolution
(q.v.). See also Federal Solution.
- The doctrine that puts money first. Derived from Skt/Pali dhana , 'wealth', 'money' + pala 'protector', 'guardian'.
- A person who is imbued by dhanapalism, a mercenary.
- discrimination myth
- This is the myth that Tamils had been discriminated in Sri Lanka since the country became independent. For a refutation of this myth
see the ACSLU article Myth of Discrimination on the internet.
However since the defeat of the LTTE the Tamils have been under severe pressure
from the ruling regime in SL. See also legitimate rights.
- Don Juan Dharmapala
- The last King of Kotte who was baptized as a Roman Catholic and was a puppet of the Portuguese spending his last years in their Fort in Colombo. He bequeathed his kingdom to the King of Portugal. He died a drunkard and spurned by his Portuguese masters. He is unofficially regarded as the patron saint of the low-country Catholic Jesuhelas. See Konappu Bandara .
- The name given to the territory claimed as a "Tamil Homeland" by the LTTE and other terrorist groups. The area claimed comprises over one-third of the area of Sri Lanka and has a coast-line over two-thirds that of Sri Lanka. Under the CFA a certain territory has been conceded to the LTTE as a de facto Eelaam, an arrangement that has now lasted for over five years,
and is endorsed by all GOSL administrations since 2002.
- see EPRLF .
- Acronym for Eelaam Peoples Revolutionary Liberation Front. A terrorist organization fromed by Douglas Devananda in the late 1970s to fight for a Tamil homeland in Sri Lanka. It competed with a number of other terrorist groups with the same aim of whom the LTTE ("Tamil Tigers") is the best known. Devananda gave up revolutionary tactics in the 1990s when he renamed his group the Eelaam Peoples Democratic Party (EPDP). It is now a regular political party and Devanada was appointed Social Services and Welfare Minister in the Mahinda Rajapksa administration in 2002. His ambition is to become the Chief Minister of the North and East in a future Indian-style "federal" state.
- ethnic devolution
- This is form of devolution where political power is transferred to a given racial, ethnic or religious group. It is similar to the system of apartheid except that under South African apartheid the "Bantustans" were made subservient to the central authority, but the units under ethnic devolution may have co-equal powers with the centre. Most proposals for devolution in Sri Lanka are for ethnic devolution or more specifically for racial devolution. However it is possible that religious devolution
e.g. to a Sharia region or to a Kithunu Puravaraya may be demanded if the racial devolution to Tamils succeeds legally.
- ethnic problem
- This term is used to denote the incorrect view that the separatist problem in Sri Lanka is primarily an ethnic problem between Tamils and Sinhalese. There is no general conflict between Tamils and Sinhalese but only between those Tamils who seek to establish a Tamil "homeland" in Sri Lanka as a separate state, and those who oppose this view. Recently the separatist Tamils have been joined by some Sinhalese known as Helakoti (q.v). They also have support from some sections of the Jesuhelas (q.v), especially the Christian clergy.
- Federal Solution
- This claims that replacing the Unitary Constitution of Sri Lanka with a Federal Constitution will "solve" the separatist problem. For a refutation of this claim see the ACSLU article The Federal Solution on the Internet.
- Federal Party, Tamil Arasu Kachchi
- A party founded by S.J.V.Chelvanayagam to demand that the Unitary Constitution of Sri Lanka be replaced by a Federal one. The Tamil name of his party, given above, does not actually speak of Federalism but of a "Tamil state".
- "Foremost Place"
- This is a clause in the Constitution of Sri Lanka, as revised in 1972 ad 1976, which gives to Buddhism the "foremost place". However the Constitution does not specify any specaial advantages to Buddhism which are denied to other religions. Buddhism is not the State religion. There is no category called "foremost place" given to other religions in any jurisdication. It is essentially a deception perpetrated on the Buddhists for political reasons.
- fundamentalism, extremism
- In religious discourse denotes the literal acceptance of claims made in religious Books which are said to be inspired by God or some divine authority. Examples are the Bible in Christianity and the Koran in Islam. Buddhism does not have a devine inspired Book. The Tripitaka (Pali Tipitaka) contains discourses purported to have been made by the Buddha but statement there should be accepted only if they pass the test set out in the Kaalaama and other suttas. There cannot be any place for fundamentalsm in Buddhism. For a discussion of this question see the article The Significance of the Kalama Sutta on the internet
- GOSL, GoSL
- Acronym Government of Sri Lanka
- An acronym for Great Hela Revolution (q.v.)
- Global Tamil Forum. GTF
- This was an organization set up by
Tamils, mostly expatriates, after the defeat of the LTTE in Sri Lanka. It gave
up the military objectives of the LTTE and opted to fight for Tamil rights by
non-violent means. It conducted a series of "referenda" amongst expatriate
Tamils and was set up in early 2010.
- Great Hela Revolution, Hela Cultural Revolution
- This is the political revolution that took place after the 1956 general election. It was motivated by the Hela Ideology and its principal platform was the declaration of Sinhala Only as the official language. It was led by the SLFP (Sri Lanka Freedom Party) under its leader Solomon Bandaranaike. It introduced education compulsorily in the language of the main ethnic groups of the country.
- Hela(s), Sinhela(s)
- These are Sinhalese who are imbued by the Hela Ideology (q.v). The term is said to be derived from the dialect called Elu, a patois which coexisted with the more refined forms of the Sinhalese language.
- Hela Ideology, Hela Mentality
- This is the ideology, or mentality, of the neo-sinhalas (q.v.)
- Heladiva, Helabhima
- See Sinhaleh .
- Hela Patriots
- This is almost identical with the Patriot Lobby (q.v.) but considered as representing a distinct ideological position. Their position is that the Helas (q.v.) are the "original" inhabitants of the island now known as Sri Lanka which according to their Homeland Theory should belong to them. Non-helas are allowed to live but occupying a secondary position in relation to the use of their cultural attributes like language, religion etc.
- Homeland Theory
- The theory which claims that every ethnic or racial group is entitled to a separate piece of territory or country called their "Homeland". In their homeland they have special rights not conceded to other ethnic or racial groups that may live in that country. See the ACSLU blog on the Homeland Theory ID 7.8.
- Accronym for International Community (q.v).
- Indian Tamils
- See upcountry Tamils.
- This is an armed uprising in a unitary coountry against the Government of that Country (or in a particular State in a Federation against the Government of fhat State). The insurgency may be for a variety of objectives but one of the most difficult is an insurgency which seeks to create a separate state in a piece of territory defined by the insurgents. A good example is the LTTE insurgency in Sri Lanka where a group of Tamils have rise gainst the Government of the Contry and demanded the creation of a homeland on a part of the country which it has chosen for itself. Many such separatist insurgencies in several parts of the world have been put down, but the LTTE has managed to keep the insurgency going for over 27 years. See also Secession .
- International Community
- This is a term used to denote the rich Western countries who consider themselves to be the arbiters of international rules and collectively possess the largest military force in the world. It is led by the US and includes the major European powers as well as Japan. They are the main donors of "aid" and as such have a handle on all countries that depend on this aid, as well as other countries who are economically dependent on them.
- Istriyaani, Istriyāni
- This refers to a male person belonging to particular religion who is married to a female who is a follower of a different religion, and who is strongly influenced by the religion of his wife and gives priority to that religion over his own nominal religion. The term could also refer to the religion of the male concerned. This is specially used in the case where the male is a Boduhela and his wife is a Jesuhela woman. This term is separate from the Sinhalese word 'Kristiyaani' (which means Christian). Derived from Skt. stri 'woman' + yaana '(religious) vehicle'. For the gender complement of this term see Purisayaani.
- Acronym for International Tamil Separatist Lobby. This is an informal organization formed by the Expatriate Tamils in many Western countries. Its activity dates from the 1970s but it received an enormous boost from the riots of Black July (q.v.). Even though its power has lately been reduced it still remains a major force and has not been matched by the activity of non-Tamil expatriate groups.
After the defeat of the LTTE the diaspora Tamils formed the Global Tamil Forum.
- This is a sub-culture of the (sin)helas. They comprise those (Sin)helas go have adopted Jesus Christ as their personal saviour. The majority of them are Roman Catholics but there are smaller Protestant sects as well. At independence the Christians (both Jesuhela and Tamil Christian) accounted for about 7 percent of the population. Today their number is not known, and it is claimed that many Boduhelas have been converted to Christianity. Even though the Jesuhelas are a minority of all Helas ACSLU has advanced the proposition that "the Jesuhela tail wags the Hela dog". This refers to the leading role that the small number of Jesuhelas amongst the Helas. Many Hela leaders are Jesuhela or belong to the Istriyaani "religion".
- A colloquial term for the manipulation of statistical data by computer and other means so as to make them conform to a pre-determined pattern.
- See black-whites.
- Konappu Bandara, Wimala Dharma Suriya II
- Though born to an aristocratic Kandyan family he joined the Portuguese, became a Catholic and served the Portuguese in their various military campaigns against the Sinhalese. His "defection" from the Portuguese when he seized the Kandyan throne without any right of succession to it, with another Catholic Dona Catherina as his queen, was largely a deception. He remained supportive of Portuguese occupation of the low country and laid the foundations for Christianity in the upcountry just as Don Juan Dharmapala (q.v.) did for the low country. These two were the only Catholics to wear the crown of Lanka. Modern boduhelas consider him as
one of their their heroes. His ashes had been taken to Portugal and is still preserved there so that even in death he serves the Portuguese.
- This is the original name of the country now known as Sri Lanka. The latter name was adopted when the country became a republic but the 'Sri' part has no historical legitimacy. (Sin)helas have launched a campaign to call the country Sinhaleh or Heladiva (q.v).
- legitimate rights (of Tamils)
- This is a demand that has been articulated by the ITSL and now taken up by many Western powers. These "legitimate rights" are nowhere defined in precise terms, and they are not rights that are generally conceded to minorities in Western countries. Unfortunately GOSL administrations have failed to challenge this demand when articulated by Western powers, as e.g. recently by the American ambassador to Sri Lanka. See also Discimination Myth .
- Kithunu Puravaraya
- The name used by Jesuhelas to designate the area in Sri Lanka where they form a sizable proportion of the population. The people here are usually fisher-folk
of the karawa caste, and were converted to Christianity by the Portuguese. They remain stoutly Christian owning allegiance to the Pope in Rome
above everything else.
- LTTE, Tigers
- Acronym for the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelaam, a racist and terrorist group which seeks to establish a separate State called Eelaam. Its founder and current leader is Velupillai Prabhakaran. It was established in 1977 and started serious military operations in 1980. It employed the technique of terrorism and pioneered the use of suicide bombers. It captured various parts of Northern and Eastern Sri Lanka with the maximum extent being secured in 2002 when the SL regime conculded a Cease Fire Agreement with them. The military struggle against the LTTE was resumed in earnest in
2005 when Sarath Fonseka was made the Army Commonder. Fonseka succeeded in bringing the war againt the LTTE to a successful conclusion in 2009 when the leader Prabhakaran and his sernior cadres were killed in the Nandikudal Lagoon on the Eastern coast of Sri Lanka.
- Mahinda Chintanaya
- Sometimes simply referred to as the 'Chintanaya' it is the election manifesto of Mahinda Rajapakse who contested the 2005 Presidential election as the nominee of the SLFP. Normally election manifestoes are not referred as anybody's 'chintanaya' but as the list of pledges of a particular party. The departure from this rule by naming it after a particular person is seen by some as the attempt to start a new political dynasty.
- Military Solution
- This refers to the policy of eliminating terrorism by military means. In itself it is not a solution to a supposed ethnic problem but would create the circumstances under which such a problem could be solved. The ACSLU solution to the separatist problem is a two-pronged one: an immediate military solution to wipe terrorism and then create unitary state based on the multicultural principle.
- This denotes a sub-culture of the Sinhalese (nava-sinhalyo in Sinhala) who arose as a result of the Portuguese encounter in the early sixteenth century. The Portuguese were extreme racists and religionists and some Sinhalese burrowed these racist and religionist views and applied it to their own race and religion. In the process they created the Sinhelas and the Boduhelas . The rise of the neo-Sinhala ideology and mentality meant the gradual eclipse of classical sinhala values. The political triumph of neo-Sinhala however took several centuries of gestation and had to await the Great Hela Revolution of 1956.
- Multicultural Principle
- The priniciple of state organization where different ethnic and religious groups live under a common set laws without racial or religious segregation. It is the opposite of the Apartheid Principle
- Original Sin of Jesuhela
- 'Original Sin' in Christianity signifies the disobedience of Eve to obey God's command not to eat of the 'forbidden fruit". This Sin is supposed to be visited on all humans. The Jesuhelas (q.v.) of Sri Lanka have, in addition to this Original Sin their own "Original Sin". All Jesuhelas can trace their descent from a Sinhalese person who rejected the values of the Classical Sinhalas (q.v.) and adopted the preaching of White Missonaries who accompanies the invading colonial powers. It is this rejection which constitutes the Original Sin of Jesuhela and it is also supposed to be visited on all Jesuhelas when they are inducted to the religion of their parents.
- Pañca Mahā Balawegaya
- A Sinhala term denoting the 'Five Great Forces'. It is used to denote the alleged alliance of the Buddhist Sangha, the Sinhala intellectuals (especially teachers), the farmers, the Ayrvedic physicians and the workers, who are alleged to have been the forces behind the Great Hela Revolution . The includsion of workers is questionable as most workers were organized by Marxist trade unions.
- Papa Paradigm
- This describes a method of autocratic governance by a dictator, a Party, a junta, a family or any other group who may or may not use the outward forms of democracy. It is named after the ruler of Haiti "Papa Doc" Duvalier who set up such a regime in Haiti in the 1950s. This kind of regime relies heavily of corruption, nepotism and megalomania. The administration, judiciary, police, military, etc. are all politicised and made to serve the interests of the regime. There is no (or limited) freedom of expression or press. In addition the regime uses private gangs to enforce its whims by extra-judicial assault, arson and killing of opponents. In Haiti such gangs were known as the "tonton macoutes". Such systems of government were subsequently formed in many countries in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Each regime has its own particuliarities. While they enjoy absolute power for a certain period of time they finally fall victim to their own inner contradictions. Where ethnic conflict exists the regime adopts a chauvinistic attitude to the conflict. A similar system was gradually set up in Sri Lanka after 2005 characterized by most of the features identified above, and in addition by extreme chauvinism, dhanapālism and electoral fraud.
- Paper Struggles
- A term coined by Shyamon Jayasinghe to donote the activity of Sri Lankan expatriates who lobby for the Sri Lankan cause concentrating mainly on writing to politicians and the Press in the countries they are domiciled.
- patriot lobby
- An informal grouping of (Sin)helas who consider themselves Sri Lankan 'patriots'. Many of them adhere to the Homeland Theory (q.v.) regarding Sri Lanka as the homeland of the Helas, hence their extreme chauvinism. Since Mahinda Rajapakse became President of Sri Lanka they are strong adherents of the Mahinda Chintanaya, even though the Rajapakse government pays scant regard to them. They have howeve become strong devotees of the President. In this connection it is worth recalling the statement of Samuel Johnson (1709-84) that "Patriotism is the last refuge of a scoundrel".
- A name given to groups who oppose the 'military solution' to the separatist problem in Sri Lanka. Their preferred method is giving devolution to Tamils, many of them advocating Federalism.
- political dynasty
- A political arrangement where the succession to the political leadership of a country is reserved to a particular family. This procedure is common in South Asia. In Sri Lanka the first political dynasty was created by the Bandaranike family, but it is now considered defunct. Under the political dynasty system most leading positions are given to the kin of the leader.
- Portuguese Encounter
- A term used to denote the impact of the Portuguese on Sri Lanka. Sri Lanka has seen invasions from India, but these Indians, mainly Tamil, were Hindus and not too different to the Buddhist Sinhalses. But the Portuguese were first European Christian power to obtain a foothold in Sri Lanka (in the early 16th century). In technical development too they were very different to the Sinhalese. Hence they had a profound effect on the Sinhalese with was completely disproportionate to their numerical presence in the Island.
- Post Tsunami Operation Management Structure. This was a proposal presented to Parliament after the Tsunami of 2005 by the then Prime Minister Mahinda Rajapaka to distribute the aid given by foreign donors for relief work. According to this money for rehabilitation in the LTTE controlled area was to be given to the TRO an LTTE front set up to receive foreign donations for Tsunami relief.
- Purisayani, Purisayāni
- This refers to a female person belonging to particular religion who is married to a male who is a follower of a different religion, and who is strongly influenced by the religion of her husband and gives priority to that religion over her own nominal religion. The term could also refer to the religion of the female concerned. This is specially used in the case where the female is a Boduhela and her husband is a Jesuhela man. Derived from Skt. purisa 'man' + yaana '(religious) vehicle'. For the gender complement of this term see Istriyaani.
- Racial Principle
- See Apartheid Principle .
- This occurs when a State in a Federation seeks to leave the Federation and set itself as an independent state. A good example is the Yugoslav Federation which broke into a number of states like Croatia, Serbia, etc. See also Insurgency .
- Separatist Problem of Sri Lanka
- This is the term given by ACSLU for the demand of certain political groups that a separate region should be carved out of the territory of Sri Lanka for the Tamil people of the country. It has sometimes been referred to as a Tamil Homeland in Sri Lanka and the term Eelaam has been used to denote this area. The degree of seperation from the Central Government has been differently aticulated by the various groups. Some (like the LTTE) ask for total independence, others (like the TULF) ask for Federalism. Some non-Tamil groups ask for an undefined "devolution of power", or "power sharing" (a term used bt the by the Mahinda Rapakse regime). This problem has also been referred to (incorrectly) as an ethnic problem.
- The Islamic system of jurisprudence. There is still no Sharia state in Sri Lanka, but aspects of the sharia have been incorporated into the law (e.g. polygamy is allowed for Muslims) and practice (e.g the State distributes free Hijab cloth to Muslim girls). Recently Government land has been given to Saudi Arabia to build an Islamic city in the Ampara province with a Mosque and segregated schools.
- sinhala , sinhalese
- These terms designate the people who migrated to Sri Lanka from the Vanga region of N.E. India about the sixth century BCE. They built the classical Sinhala civilization of the country consisting of major irrigation works, massive religious and non-religious structures, and literary and historical compositions. From the sixteenth century they gradually abandoned certain critical classical Sinhala values and adopted values copied from the Portuguese invaders and are called neo-Sinhalas. Now the term is used as a generic term to designate Sinhalese whether they subscribe to the neo-Sinhala or the classical ideology. Note that the terms 'Sinhala' and 'Sinhela' are separate terms and should not be used as synonyms for each other.
- sinhaleh , sinhalé
- This is the designation used for Sri Lanka by many (Sin)helas. It is the name that was used to designate the Kandyan Kingdom (along with kande uda-rata)during the time when the maritime provinces were occupied by European powers. The first major document to use the term was the Kandyan Convention of 1815. The British used this term to designate the new territory that was annexed to the maritime provinces which they already ruled. After 1815 the Maritime Provinces + Sinhaleh was called 'Ceylon' which name used until the old name of Lanka was revived in the form of 'Sri Lanka' when the country became a republic. No government has endorsed the use of Sinhaleh or Heladiva.
- Another term for Hela . Note that it is not the same as Sinhala from which it differs only in the penultimate vowel. Sinhala comes from Skt Sinha 'lion' + le 'slaying', 'putting down' (i.e. the "killer of the lion') an allusion to the legend of the Sinhabahu. The etymology of 'Sinhela' is not known.
- The Sri Lanka Freedom Party. A political party formed by Solomon Bandaranaike. It has been in power (usually with other allied smaller parties) intermittently since 1956. Ledership of the SLFP has been with the Bandarnaike family (his wife Sirimavo and his daughter Chandrika) until 2006 when Mahinda Rajapakse became the leader of the party.
- Accronym for Sri Lanka Monitoring Mission. This was set up under the CFA. It legalized foreign intervention in the internal affairs of Sri Lanka. It has been supported by both the Presidencies of Chandrika Bandaranaike and Rajapakse.
- Accronym for Society for Peace, Unity and Human Rights. This is perhaps the best known group of Sinhela expatriates in Australia. They maintain a register of LTTE terrorist crimes in their web page. They are a peacenik group as they place a high priority of achieving peace (as shown in the name they have chosen). The concern for 'Human Rights' is more nebulous as they have not defined a list of human rights they promote. WAPS conferences have been sponsored by SPUR to take its message to the world, but they have been a failure.
- Tar-brush Brigade
- A term used to denote a group of (Sin)helas who want to change Tamilized place names in the North and East into their presumed or original Sinhalese names. They seek to restore Sinhala Only into the original role assigned to it by Great Hela Revolution. They have compiled the Nam Gam Potha containing the proposed changes but no Government, not even that of President Rajapaksa, is prepared to put the changes into law.
- Thirteenth Amendment
- This is the change to the Constitution introduced by J. R. Jayawardene in 1987 as part of his pact with the Indian Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi. It established Proviinchial Councils in each of the provinces of Sri Lanka. Each Council had a Governor, a Board of Ministers under a Chief Minister, and a High Court. The Governor is appointed by the President and is obliged to carry out the Instructions of the President. If he fails to do so the Council could be taken over by the GOSL. The Miniisters can act only through the Governor who can disallow any decision made by them. Parliament can amalgamate two or more adjacent Councils and under this provision the Northern and Eastern Provinces were merged. The Council can legislate only on a range of matters defined in the Provincial Council List. This list excluded the armed forces and foreign affairs but included local policing powers. In an emergency a Council can be suspended and the adminstration taken over by GOSL. In the event this Amendment to the Constitution, though passed by Parliament, was not fully implemented.
- See LTTE
- A term used to designate Sinhelas who facilitate the dismemberment of the country along racial lines. They usually include groups like the Helakoti, peaceniks , etc. But whether it should extend to GOSLs that have given or uphold the CFA and the de facto Eelaam is problematical.
- tri-lingual policy
- This is the language policy adopted after Sri Lanka gained independence in 1948. It gave nominal parity of status to English, Sinhala and Tamil. In effect most of the work was done in English. The Great Hela Revolution replaced this with the Sinhala Only policy. This policy was never universally adopted and gradually the old tri-lingual policy came into force. Now there is little demand for Sinhala Only, except perhaps amongst the Tar brush Brigade .
- Accronym for Tamil Makkal Viduthalai Pulikal, the breakaway terrorist group from the LTTE who are now operating in the Eastern province, said to be in alliance with GOSL forces there. Its leader is Vinayamoorthy Muralitharan who goes under the pseudonym of "Col. Karuna". He has killed many Sri Lankan soldiers during the period of his service with the LTTE.In 2007 there was a split in the TVMP and Muralitharan was exiled to the UK under a false passport issued by GOSL . He has been apprehended in the UK for passport offences.
- Accronym for Tamil Relief Organization. This was a body set up by the LTTE to distribute foreign aid given to victims in the Eelaam region. It was given quasi-legal recognition by GOSL in the notorious PTOMS arrangement. There is a widespread belief that much of the funds given to the TRO are used for military and terrorist activity by the LTTE.
- Accronym for Tamil United Liberation Front. Successor to the Federal Party (q.v). It took a more extremestand calling for the "liberation" of Tamils. The liberation was from the oppression by the Sinhalese. The LTTE (q.v) in pursuit of its claim to be the "sole representative" of Tamils began assasintig TULF leaders. The current leader Anandasangaree continues with his opposition to the LTTE but hs so fact evaded retaliation by the LTTE>
- unethical conversion, Unethical Conversion Bill
- Unethical conversion is the pratice of converting people to any religion through force, bribery, or the offer of material inducements. The inducement need not only be offers of money or material goods, but could also involve offer of employment, education, etc. An Unethical Conversion Bill is a law which prohibits the practice of unethical conversions. Such laws have been enacted in a number of countries like India, Israel, Greece, etc. A similar Bill had been introduced in the Sri Lankan legislature but it has never been voted on or passed.
- The United National Party. This was first political party to hold power after Independence when Don Stephen Senanayaka become leader (popularly known as DS). DS too founded a dynasty but it was short lived with only his son Dudley holding the Prime Ministership. The UNP (often in alliance with smaller parties) has held power alternating with the SLFP for the whole of the period since independence
- upcountry Tamils, Indian Tamils
- These are the Tamils imported into Sri Lanka by the British to work on the tea planatations. Almost all of them have now been given citizensip. Their political leaders have been included in almost every GOSL. In some parts of the upcountry even Sinhala traders have been driven out. Recently there have been contact between upcountry Tamil leaders and the LTTE.
- The area in Sri Lanka where the de facto Eelaam has been conceded by the Chandrika Bandaranike and Mahinda Rajapkse presidencies. Its capital was orignally at Mullaitivu, but it has now been shifted to Killinochchi.
- World Association for Peace in Sri Lanka. This was a short-lived organization created by SPUR. The original aim was to hold Conferences in the West to show that the LTTE are terrorists. The first of these Conferences was held in Norway and the next was held in Colombo. The movement seems to have died after that. It is generally considered a failure because even though WAPS wanted the world to accept the Tigers as terrorists the GOSL did not seem to regard them as such as they have not been banned in Sri Lanka and the Government there has conceded a piece of territory to the LTTE as the de facto Eelaam .